Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Irrigation Management Related Abstracts

4 Challenges of Implementing Participatory Irrigation Management for Food Security in Semi Arid Areas of Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Joseph Kagosi

Abstract:

The study aims at assessing challenges observed during the implementation of participatory irrigation management (PIM) approach for food security in semi-arid areas of Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaire, PRA tools, key informants discussion, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), participant observation, and literature review. Data collected from the questionnaire was analysed using SPSS while PRA data was analysed with the help of local communities during PRA exercise. Data from other methods were analysed using content analysis. The study revealed that PIM approach has a contribution in improved food security at household level due to the involvement of communities in water management activities and decision making which enhanced the availability of water for irrigation and increased crop production. However, there were challenges observed during the implementation of the approach including; minimum participation of beneficiaries in decision-making during planning and designing stages, meaning inadequate devolution of power among scheme owners. Inadequate and lack of transparency on income expenditure in Water Utilization Associations’ (WUAs), water conflict among WUAs members, conflict between farmers and livestock keepers and conflict between WUAs leaders and village government regarding training opportunities and status; WUAs rules and regulation are not legally recognized by the National court and few farmers involved in planting trees around water sources. However, it was realized that some of the mentioned challenges were rectified by farmers themselves facilitated by government officials. The study recommends that the identified challenges need to be rectified for farmers to realize impotence of PIM approach as it was realized by other Asian countries.

Keywords: Challenges, Food Security, Irrigation Management, participatory approach, semi arid areas

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3 Potentials and Challenges of Implementing Participatory Irrigation Management, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Joseph Kagosi

Abstract:

The study aims at assessing challenges observed during implementation of participatory irrigation management (PIM) approach for food security in semi-arid areas of Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaire, PRA tools, key informants discussion, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), participant observation and literature review. Data collected from questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS while PRA data was analyzed with the help of local communities during PRA exercise. Data from other methods were analyzed using content analysis. The study revealed that PIM approach has contribution in improved food security at household level due to involvement of communities in water management activities and decision making which enhanced availability of water for irrigation and increased crop production. However there were challenges observed during implementation of the approach including; minimum participation of beneficiaries in decision making during planning and designing stages, meaning inadequate devolution of power among scheme owners; Inadequate and lack of transparency on income expenditure in Water Utilization Associations’ (WUAs), water conflict among WUAs members, conflict between farmers and livestock keepers and conflict between WUAs leaders and village government regarding training opportunities and status; WUAs rules and regulation are not legally recognized by the National court and few farmers involved in planting trees around water sources. However it was realized that some of the mentioned challenges were rectified by farmers themselves facilitated by government officials. The study recommends that, the identified challenges need to be rectified for farmers to realize impotence of PIM approach as it was realized by other Asian countries.

Keywords: Irrigation Management, Tanzania, potentials of implementing participatory approach, challenges of participatory approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2 An Investigation of Current Potato Nitrogen Fertility Programs' Contribution to Ground Water Contamination

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Nitrogen fertility is an important component for optimum potato yield and quality. Best management practices are necessary in regards to N applications to achieve these goals without applying excess N with may contribute to ground water contamination. Eight potato fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley were sampled for nitrogen inputs and uptake, tuber and vine dry matter and residual soil nitrate-N. The fields had substantial soil nitrate-N prior to the potato crop. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied prior to planting and in irrigation water as needed based on in-season petiole sampling in accordance with published recommendations. Average total nitrogen uptake was 237 kg ha-1 on 63.5 Mg ha-1 tuber yield and nitrogen use efficiency was very good at 81 percent. Sixty-nine percent of the plant nitrogen was removed in tubers. Soil nitrate-N increased 14 percent from pre-plant to post-harvest averaged across all fields and was generally situated in the upper soil profile. Irrigation timing and amount applied did not move water into the lower profile except for a single location where nitrate also moved into the lower soil profile. Pre-plant soil analysis is important information to be used. Rotation crops having deeper rooting growth would be able to utilize nitrogen that remained in the soil profile.

Keywords: Irrigation Management, potato, nitrogen fertilization, leaching potential

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1 Sustainability Framework for Water Management in New Zealand's Canterbury Region

Authors: Bryan Jenkins

Abstract:

Introduction: The expansion of irrigation in the Canterbury region has led to the sustainability limits being reached for water availability and the cumulative effects of land use intensification. The institutional framework under New Zealand’s Resource Management Act was found to be an inadequate basis for managing water at sustainability limits. An alternative paradigm for water management was developed based on collaborative governance and nested adaptive systems. This led to the formulation and implementation of the Canterbury Water Management Strategy. Methods: The nested adaptive system approach was adopted. Sustainability issues were identified at multiple spatial and time scales and defined potential failure pathways for the water resource system. These included biophysical and socio-economic issues such as water availability, cumulative effects on water quality due to land use intensification, projected changes in climate, public health, institutional arrangements, economic outcomes and externalities, and, social effects of changing technology. This led to the derivation of sustainability strategies to address these failure pathways. The collaborative governance approach involved stakeholder participation and community engagement to decide on a regional strategy; regional and zone committees of community and rūnanga (Māori groups) members to develop implementation programmes for the strategy; and, farmer collectives for operational management. Findings: The strategy identified improvements in the efficiency of use of water already allocated was more effective in improving water availability than a reliance on increased storage alone. New forms of storage with less adverse impacts were introduced, such as managed aquifer recharge and off-river storage. Reductions of nutrients from land use intensification by improving management practices has been a priority. Solutions packages for addressing the degradation of vulnerable lakes and rivers have been prepared. Biodiversity enhancement projects have been initiated. Greater involvement of Māori has led to the incorporation of kaitiakitanga (resource stewardship) into implementation programmes. Emerging issues are the need for improved integration of surface water and groundwater interactions, increased use of modelling of water and financial outcomes to guide decision making, and, equity in allocation among existing users as well as between existing and future users. Conclusions: However, sustainability analysis indicates that the proposed levels of management interventions are not sufficient to achieve community targets for water management. There is a need for more proactive recovery and rehabilitation measures. Managing to environmental limits is not sufficient, rather managing adaptive cycles is needed. Better measurement and management of water use efficiency is required. Proposed implementation packages are not sufficient to deliver desired water quality outcomes. Greater attention to targets important to environmental and recreational interests is needed to maintain trust in the collaborative process. Implementation programmes don’t adequately address climate change adaptations and greenhouse gas mitigation. Affordability is a constraint on adaptive capacity of farmers and communities. More funding mechanisms are required to implement proactive measures. The legislative and institutional framework needs to be changed to incorporate water framework legislation, regional sustainability strategies and water infrastructure coordination.

Keywords: sustainable water management, Irrigation Management, collaborative governance, nested adaptive systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 48