Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Irreversibility Related Abstracts

3 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: waste-to-energy, Irreversibility, municipal solid waste, absolute entropy

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2 Thermo-Exergy Optimization of Gas Turbine Cycle with Two Different Regenerator Designs

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Saria Abed, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A thermo-exergy optimization of a gas turbine cycle with two different regenerator designs is established. A comparison was made between the performance of the two regenerators and their roles in improving the cycle efficiencies. The effect of operational parameters (the pressure ratio of the compressor, the ambient temperature, excess of air, geometric parameters of the regenerators, etc.) on thermal efficiencies, the exergy efficiencies, and irreversibilities were studied using thermal balances and quantitative exegetic equilibrium for each component and for the whole system. The results are given graphically by using the EES software, and an appropriate discussion and conclusion was made.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Optimization, Gas Turbine, Thermal Efficiency, Irreversibility, regenerator, exergy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel

Authors: Behzad Panahirad, UğUr Atikol

Abstract:

The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.

Keywords: biomass, Irreversibility, CO2 emission, exergy assessment, multi-objective plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 42