Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

irradiation Related Abstracts

21 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowders

Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.

Keywords: Nanopowders, zinc oxide, irradiation, radiation stability

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20 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

Keywords: Interaction, fluctuations, irradiation, primary defects

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19 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

Abstract:

TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: Nanofibers, Photoluminescence, TiO2, irradiation

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18 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Vapour

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Evolution, plasma, steam, irradiation, cluster formation, liquid droplets

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17 Relationship between Structure of Some Nitroaromatic Pollutants and Their Degradation Kinetic Parameters in UV-VIS/TIO2 System

Authors: I. Nitoi, P. Oancea, M. Raileanu, M. Crisan, L. Constantin, I. Cristea

Abstract:

Hazardous organic compounds like nitroaromatics are frequently found in chemical and petroleum industries discharged effluents. Due to their bio-refractory character and high chemical stability cannot be efficiently removed by classical biological or physical-chemical treatment processes. In the past decades, semiconductor photocatalysis has been frequently applied for the advanced degradation of toxic pollutants. Among various semiconductors titania was a widely studied photocatalyst, due to its chemical inertness, low cost, photostability and nontoxicity. In order to improve optical absorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 many attempts have been made, one feasible approach consists of doping oxide semiconductor with metal. The degradation of dinitrobenzene (DNB) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) from aqueous solution under UVA-VIS irradiation using heavy metal (0.5% Fe, 1%Co, 1%Ni ) doped titania was investigated. The photodegradation experiments were carried out using a Heraeus laboratory scale UV-VIS reactor equipped with a medium-pressure mercury lamp which emits in the range: 320-500 nm. Solutions with (0.34-3.14) x 10-4 M pollutant content were photo-oxidized in the following working conditions: pH = 5-9; photocatalyst dose = 200 mg/L; irradiation time = 30 – 240 minutes. Prior to irradiation, the photocatalyst powder was added to the samples, and solutions were bubbled with air (50 L/hour), in the dark, for 30 min. Dopant type, pH, structure and initial pollutant concentration influence on the degradation efficiency were evaluated in order to set up the optimal working conditions which assure substrate advanced degradation. The kinetics of nitroaromatics degradation and organic nitrogen mineralization was assessed and pseudo-first order rate constants were calculated. Fe doped photocatalyst with lowest metal content (0.5 wt.%) showed a considerable better behaviour in respect to pollutant degradation than Co and Ni (1wt.%) doped titania catalysts. For the same working conditions, degradation efficiency was higher for DNT than DNB in accordance with their calculated adsobance constants (Kad), taking into account that degradation process occurs on catalyst surface following a Langmuir-Hinshalwood model. The presence of methyl group in the structure of DNT allows its degradation by oxidative and reductive pathways, while DNB is converted only by reductive route, which also explain the highest DNT degradation efficiency. For highest pollutant concentration tested (3 x 10-4 M), optimum working conditions (0.5 wt.% Fe doped –TiO2 loading of 200 mg/L, pH=7 and 240 min. irradiation time) assures advanced nitroaromatics degradation (ηDNB=89%, ηDNT=94%) and organic nitrogen mineralization (ηDNB=44%, ηDNT=47%).

Keywords: photocatalysis, irradiation, hazardous organic compounds, nitroaromatics

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16 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: Microstructures, Hardness, irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy

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15 Market Acceptance of Irradiated Food in the City of Piracicaba, Brazil

Authors: Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Fabrício José Piacente, Sônia Maria De Stefano Piedade, Valter Arthur

Abstract:

The increasing concern in relation to safety and hygiene of food consumption makes it so that food conservation is studied. Food radiation is a technique used for conservation, but many consumers associate this technique with dangers such as environmental contamination and development of diseases. This research had the objective of evaluating the acceptance of radiated products by the consumer market in the city of Piracicaba/SP-Brasil. The methodology adopted was the application of a questionnaire in the city’s supermarkets. After the application, the data was tabulated and analyzed. It was observed that the majority of interviewees would not eat irradiated food. The unfamiliarity and questions about the safety of irradiated food were the main causes of your rejection.

Keywords: Storage, questionnaire, irradiation, market acceptance

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14 Improving the Genetic Diversity of Soybean Seeds and Tolerance to Drought Irradiated with Gamma Rays

Authors: Aminah Muchdar

Abstract:

To increase the genetic diversity of soybean in order to adapt to agroecology in Indonesia conducted ways including introduction, cross, mutation and genetic transformation. The purpose of this research is to obtain early maturity soybean mutant lines, large seed tolerant to drought with high yield potential. This study consisted of two stages: the first is sensitivity of gamma rays carried out in the Laboratory BATAN. The genetic variety used is Anjasmoro. The method seeds irradiated with gamma rays at a rate of activity with the old ci 1046.16976 irradiation 0-71 minutes. Irradiation doses of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000gy. The results indicated all seeds irradiated with doses of 0 - 1000gy, just a dose of 200 and 300gy are able to show the percentage of germination, plant height, number of leaves, number of normal sprouts and green leaves of the best and can be continued for a second trial in order to assemble and to get mutants which is expected. The result of second stage of soybean M2 Population irradiated with diversity Gamma Irradiation performed that in the form of soybean planting, the seed planted is the first derivative of the M2 irradiated seeds. The result after the age of 30ADP has already showing growth and development of plants that vary when compared to its parent, both in terms of plant height, number of leaves, leaf shape and leaf forage level. In the generative phase, a plant that has been irradiated 200 and 300 gy seen some plants flower form packs, but not formed pods, there is also a form packs of flowers, but few pods produce soybean morphological characters such as plant height, number of branches, pods, days to flowering, harvesting, seed weight and seed number.

Keywords: Gamma Ray, soybean, irradiation, genetic mutation

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13 The Study of Natural Synthetic Linalool Isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Using Photochemical Reactions

Authors: Elgendy M. Eman, Sameeh Y. Manal

Abstract:

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is so important plant for its medicinal properties from ancient time and used as a spicy herb all over the world. This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and various crude extracts (n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol) of Zingiber officinale as well. GC–MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 68 compounds,; 1,8-cineole (8.9%) and linalool (15.1%) were the main components in the essential oil .The crude extracts were analyzed with TLC plates and revealed several spots under UV light; however the hexane extract exhibited the highest number of spots compared to the other extracts. Hexane extract was selected for GC-MS profile, and the results revealed the presence of several volatile compounds and linalool was the major component with high percentage (11.4 %). Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound (linalool) using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques compared to authenticated linalool then subjected to purification using preparative and column chromatography. Linalool has been epoxidized using m-chloroperbenzoicacid (mcpba) at room temperature in the presence of florescent lamps to give two cyclic oxygenated products (furan epoxide & pyran epoxide) as a stereospecific product.it is concluded that, oxidation process is enhanced by irradiation to form epoxide derivative, which acts as the precursor of important products.

Keywords: irradiation, ginger, linalool, epoxide

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12 Water Irrigation in the Chlef Region Using Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Authors: T. Tahri, H. Zahloul, K. E. Meddah, H. Lazergue

Abstract:

This paper presents a theoretical study that leads to the design of a photovoltaic pumping system to irrigate six hectares of oranges in the valley of Chlef using the software "PVSYST". It was shown that the site of Chlef presents a favorable climate to this type of energy with an irradiation of over 5 kWh/m2/day, and significant resources underground water. Another very important coincidence still promotes the use of this type of energy for pumping water in Chlef is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, peaked in hot and dry where it is precisely when one has access to the maximum of solar energy.

Keywords: Design, Solar energy, irradiation, water pumping, Valley of Chlef

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11 Thermal Instability in Solid under Irradiation

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

Construction materials for nuclear facilities are operated under extreme thermal and radiation conditions. First of all, they are nuclear fuel, fuel assemblies, and reactor vessel. It places high demands on the control of their state, stability of their state, and their operating conditions. An irradiated material is a typical example of an open non-equilibrium system with nonlinear feedbacks between its elements. Fluxes of energy, matter and entropy maintain states which are far away from thermal equilibrium. The links that arise under irradiation are inherently nonlinear. They form the mechanisms of feed-backs that can lead to instability. Due to this instability the temperature of the sample, heat transfer, and the defect density can exceed the steady-state value in several times. This can lead to change of typical operation and an accident. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the thermal instability to avoid the emergency situation. The point is that non-thermal energy can be accumulated in materials because irradiation produces defects (first of all these are vacancies and interstitial atoms), which are metastable. The stored energy is about energy of defect formation. Thus, an annealing of the defects is accompanied by releasing of non-thermal stored energy into thermal one. Temperature of the material grows. Increase of temperature results in acceleration of defect annealing. Density of the defects drops and temperature grows more and more quickly. The positive feed-back is formed and self-reinforcing annealing of radiation defects develops. To describe these phenomena a theoretical approach to thermal instability is developed via formalism of complex systems. We consider system of nonlinear differential equations for different components of microstructure and temperature. The qualitative analysis of this non-linear dynamical system is carried out. Conditions for development of instability have been obtained. Points of bifurcation have been found. Convenient way to represent obtained results is a set of phase portraits. It has been shown that different regimes of material state under irradiation can develop. Thus degradation of irradiated material can be limited by means of choice appropriate kind of evolution of materials under irradiation.

Keywords: Material, irradiation, non-equilibrium state, nonlinear feed-back, thermal instability

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10 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Authors: Akın Kuyulu, Hanife Genç

Abstract:

In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.

Keywords: Tuta Absoluta, irradiation, tomato, tomato leafminer

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9 Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, self-oscillations

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8 Theoretical Research for Influence of Irradiation on Transient Creep of Metals

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Tetiana Didenko

Abstract:

Via formalism of the Complex systems and in the framework of the climb - glide model a theoretical approach to describe the influence of irradiation on transient creep of metals. We consider metal under such stress and conditions of irradiation at which creep is determined by dislocation motion that consists in climb and glide. It is shown that there are qualitatively different regimes of a creep as a result of irradiation. Simulation and analysis of this phenomenon are performed. The time dependence of creep rate of metal under an irradiation is theoretically obtained. The conditions of zero minimums of the creep-rate existence as well as the times of their appearance are determined. The changing of the position of creep-rate dips in the conditions of the temperature exposure change is investigated. The obtained results are compared with the experimentally observed dependence of the creep rate on time.

Keywords: Point Defects, Creep, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, climb and glide of dislocations

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7 Theoretical Approach to Kinetics of Transient Plasticity of Metals under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Tetiana Didenko

Abstract:

Within the framework of the obstacle radiation hardening and the dislocation climb-glide model a theoretical approach is developed to describe peculiarities of transient plasticity of metal under irradiation. It is considered nonlinear dynamics of accumulation of point defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms). We consider metal under such stress and conditions of irradiation at which creep is determined by dislocation motion: dislocations climb obstacles and glide between obstacles. It is shown that the rivalry between vacancy and interstitial fluxes to dislocation leads to fractures of plasticity time dependence. Simulation and analysis of this phenomenon are performed. Qualitatively different regimes of transient plasticity under irradiation are found. The fracture time is obtained. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental ones.

Keywords: Point Defects, irradiation, non-linear feed-back, climb and glide of dislocations, fractures of transient plasticity

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6 Prediction of Energy Storage Areas for Static Photovoltaic System Using Irradiation and Regression Modelling

Authors: Kisan Sarda, Bhavika Shingote

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate regression modelling for prediction of Energy storage of solar photovoltaic (PV) system using Semi parametric regression techniques because there are some parameters which are known while there are some unknown parameters like humidity, dust etc. Here irradiation of solar energy is different for different places on the basis of Latitudes, so by finding out areas which give more storage we can implement PV systems at those places and our need of energy will be fulfilled. This regression modelling is done for daily, monthly and seasonal prediction of solar energy storage. In this, we have used R modules for designing the algorithm. This algorithm will give the best comparative results than other regression models for the solar PV cell energy storage.

Keywords: irradiation, semi parametric regression, photovoltaic (PV) system, regression modelling

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5 Thermoluminescence Study of Cu Doped Lithium Tetra Borate Samples Synthesized by Water/Solution Assisted Method

Authors: Swarnapriya Thiyagarajan, Modesto Antonio Sosa Aquino, Miguel Vallejo Hernandez, Senthilkumar Kalaiselvan Dhivyaraj, Jayaramakrishnan Velusamy

Abstract:

In this paper the lithium tetra borate (Li2B4O7) was prepared by used water/solution assisted synthesis method. Once finished the synthesization, Copper (Cu) were used to doping material with Li2B4O7 in order to enhance its thermo luminescent properties. The heating temperature parameters were 750°C for 2 hr and 150°C for 2hr. The samples produced by water assisted method were doped at different doping percentage (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.12%, 0.5%, 0.1%, and 1%) of Cu.The characteristics and identification of Li2B4O7 (undoped and doped) were determined in four tests. They are X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Ultra violet visible spectroscopy (UV Vis). As it is evidence from the XRD and SEM results the obtained Li2B4O7 and Li2B4O7 doping with Cu was confirmed and also confirmed the chemical compositition and their morphologies. The obtained lithium tetraborate XRD pattern result was verified with the reference data of lithium tetraborate with tetragonal structure from JCPDS. The glow curves of Li2B4O7 and Li2B4O7 : Cu were obtained by thermo luminescence (TLD) reader (Harshaw 3500). The pellets were irradiated with different kind of dose (58mGy, 100mGy, 500mGy, and 945mGy) by using an X-ray source. Finally this energy response was also compared with TLD100. The order of kinetics (b), frequency factor (S) and activation energy (E) or the trapping parameters were calculated using peak shape method. Especially Li2B4O7: Cu (0.1%) presents good glow curve in all kind of doses. The experimental results showed that this Li2B4O7: Cu could have good potential applications in radiation dosimetry. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of synthesis on the TL properties of doped lithium tetra borate Li2B4O7.

Keywords: Dosimetry, Thermoluminescence, irradiation, lithium tetraborate

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4 Peculiarities of Absorption near the Edge of the Fundamental Band of Irradiated InAs-InP Solid Solutions

Authors: Nodar Kekelidze, David Kekelidze, Elza Khutsishvili, Bela Kvirkvelia

Abstract:

The semiconductor devices are irreplaceable elements for investigations in Space (artificial Earth satellite, interplanetary space craft, probes, rockets) and for investigation of elementary particles on accelerators, for atomic power stations, nuclear reactors, robots operating on heavily radiation contaminated territories (Chernobyl, Fukushima). Unfortunately, the most important parameters of semiconductors dramatically worsen under irradiation. So creation of radiation-resistant semiconductor materials for opto and microelectronic devices is actual problem, as well as investigation of complicated processes developed in irradiated solid states. Homogeneous single crystals of InP-InAs solid solutions were grown with zone melting method. There has been studied the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy near fundamental absorption edge. This dependence changes dramatically with irradiation. The experiments were performed on InP, InAs and InP-InAs solid solutions before and after irradiation with electrons and fast neutrons. The investigations of optical properties were carried out on infrared spectrophotometer in temperature range of 10K-300K and 1mkm-50mkm spectral area. Radiation fluencies of fast neutrons was equal to 2·1018neutron/cm2 and electrons with 3MeV, 50MeV up to fluxes of 6·1017electron/cm2. Under irradiation, there has been revealed the exponential type of the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy with energy deficiency. The indicated phenomenon takes place at high and low temperatures as well at impurity different concentration and practically in all cases of irradiation by various energy electrons and fast neutrons. We have developed the common mechanism of this phenomenon for unirradiated materials and implemented the quantitative calculations of distinctive parameter; this is in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. For the irradiated crystals picture get complicated. In the work, the corresponding analysis is carried out. It has been shown, that in the case of InP, irradiated with electrons (Ф=1·1017el/cm2), the curve of optical absorption is shifted to lower energies. This is caused by appearance of the tails of density of states in forbidden band due to local fluctuations of ionized impurity (defect) concentration. Situation is more complicated in the case of InAs and for solid solutions with composition near to InAs when besides noticeable phenomenon there takes place Burstein effect caused by increase of electrons concentration as a result of irradiation. We have shown, that in certain conditions it is possible the prevalence of Burstein effect. This causes the opposite effect: the shift of the optical absorption edge to higher energies. So in given solid solutions there take place two different opposite directed processes. By selection of solid solutions composition and doping impurity we obtained such InP-InAs, solid solution in which under radiation mutual compensation of optical absorption curves displacement occurs. Obtained result let create on the base of InP-InAs, solid solution radiation-resistant optical materials. Conclusion: It was established the nature of optical absorption near fundamental edge in semiconductor materials and it was created radiation-resistant optical material.

Keywords: Solid Solutions, irradiation, InAs-InP, electrons concentration

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3 Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x

Authors: N. Kekelidze, B. Kvirkvelia, E. Khutsishvili, T. Qamushadze, D. Kekelidze, R. Kobaidze, Z. Chubinishvili, N. Qobulashvili, G. Kekelidze

Abstract:

On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.

Keywords: Solid Solutions, InP, irradiation, InAs

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2 Compensation of Bulk Charge Carriers in Bismuth Based Topological Insulators via Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

Authors: Jyoti Yadav, Rini Singh, Anoop M.D, Nisha Yadav, N. Srinivasa Rao, Fouran Singh, Takayuki Ichikawa, Ankur Jain, Kamlendra Awasthi, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline films exhibit defects and strain induced by its grain boundaries. Defects and strain affect the physical as well as topological insulating properties of the Bi2Te3 thin films by changing their electronic structure. In the present studies, the effect of Ni7+ ion irradiation on the physical and electrical properties of Bi2Te3 thin films was studied. The films were irradiated at five different fluences (5x1011, 1x1012, 3x1012, 5x1012, 1x1013 ions/cm2). Thin films synthesized using the e-beam technique possess a rhombohedral crystal structure with the R-3m space group. The average crystallite size, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening, was found to be 18.5 ± 5 (nm). It was also observed that irradiation increases the induced strain. Raman Spectra of the films demonstrate the splitting of A_1u^1 modes originating from the vibrations along the c-axis. This is by the variation in the lattice parameter ‘c,’ as observed through XRD. The atomic force microscopy study indicates the decrease in surface roughness up to the fluence of 3x1012 ions/cm2 and further increasing the fluence increases the roughness. The decrease in roughness may be due to the growth of smaller nano-crystallites on the surface of thin films due to irradiation-induced annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the composition to be in close agreement to the nominal values i.e. Bi2Te3. The resistivity v/s temperature measurements revealed an increase in resistivity up to the fluence 3x1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease on further increasing the fluence. The variation in electrical resistivity is corroborated with the change in the carrier concentration as studied through low-temperature Hall measurements. A crossover from the n-type to p-type carriers was achieved in the irradiated films. Interestingly, tuning of the Fermi level by compensating the bulk carriers using ion-irradiation could be achieved.

Keywords: Tuning, irradiation, annealing, Fermi level

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1 Enhancement of Biodegradability of Polylactides by γ-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Foram Dave, Josemon Jacob, Asokan Kandasami, Marion McAfee, David Tormey

Abstract:

Polylactide, PLA (also called Polylactic acid) is an aliphatic polyester that exhibits a slow rate of biodegradation due to the non-polar nature. In this study, it is demonstrated that the gamma rays enhance the biodegradability of PLA. The pristine PLA samples were irradiated by gamma rays with various doses: i.e., 25, 50, 75, and 100kGy. These irradiated samples were analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and contact angle measurements to understand the functionalization of this polymer. While the FTIR analysis shows the emergence of a new band at 3400-3600 cm-1 corresponding to -OH groups in alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids, the TGA results exhibit a change from a single step to a two-step degradation pathways upon γ-rays irradiation which is attributable to the formation of polar -OH groups. Results from the DSC indicate a decrease in T

Keywords: irradiation, poly(lactic acid), Gamma-rays, hydroxyl functionalization

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