Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

IoT Related Abstracts

47 Internet of Things: Route Search Optimization Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Theory of Computer Science

Authors: Tushar Bhardwaj


Internet of Things (IoT) possesses a dynamic network where the network nodes (mobile devices) are added and removed constantly and randomly, hence the traffic distribution in the network is quite variable and irregular. The basic but very important part in any network is route searching. We have many conventional route searching algorithms like link-state, and distance vector algorithms but they are restricted to the static point to point network topology. In this paper we propose a model that uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for route searching. It is dynamic in nature and has positive feedback mechanism that conforms to the route searching. We have also embedded the concept of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata [NDFA] minimization to reduce the network to increase the performance. Results show that Ant Colony Algorithm gives the shortest path from the source to destination node and NDFA minimization reduces the broadcasting storm effectively.

Keywords: Routing, IoT, ant colony algorithm, NDFA

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46 Learning a Bayesian Network for Situation-Aware Smart Home Service: A Case Study with a Robot Vacuum Cleaner

Authors: Eu Tteum Ha, Seyoung Kim, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu


The smart home environment backed up by IoT (internet of things) technologies enables intelligent services based on the awareness of the situation a user is currently in. One of the convenient sensors for recognizing the situations within a home is the smart meter that can monitor the status of each electrical appliance in real time. This paper aims at learning a Bayesian network that models the causal relationship between the user situations and the status of the electrical appliances. Using such a network, we can infer the current situation based on the observed status of the appliances. However, learning the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of the network requires many training examples that cannot be obtained unless the user situations are closely monitored by any means. This paper proposes a method for learning the CPT entries of the network relying only on the user feedbacks generated occasionally. In our case study with a robot vacuum cleaner, the feedback comes in whenever the user gives an order to the robot adversely from its preprogrammed setting. Given a network with randomly initialized CPT entries, our proposed method uses this feedback information to adjust relevant CPT entries in the direction of increasing the probability of recognizing the desired situations. Simulation experiments show that our method can rapidly improve the recognition performance of the Bayesian network using a relatively small number of feedbacks.

Keywords: Learning, IoT, Smart Home, Bayesian network, situation -awareness

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45 An Intelligent Transportation System for Safety and Integrated Management of Railway Crossings

Authors: M. Magrini, D. Moroni, G. Palazzese, G. Pieri, D. Azzarelli, A. Spada, L. Fanucci, O. Salvetti


Railway crossings are complex entities whose optimal management cannot be addressed unless with the help of an intelligent transportation system integrating information both on train and vehicular flows. In this paper, we propose an integrated system named SIMPLE (Railway Safety and Infrastructure for Mobility applied at level crossings) that, while providing unparalleled safety in railway level crossings, collects data on rail and road traffic and provides value-added services to citizens and commuters. Such services include for example alerts, via variable message signs to drivers and suggestions for alternative routes, towards a more sustainable, eco-friendly and efficient urban mobility. To achieve these goals, SIMPLE is organized as a System of Systems (SoS), with a modular architecture whose components range from specially-designed radar sensors for obstacle detection to smart ETSI M2M-compliant camera networks for urban traffic monitoring. Computational unit for performing forecast according to adaptive models of train and vehicular traffic are also included. The proposed system has been tested and validated during an extensive trial held in the mid-sized Italian town of Montecatini, a paradigmatic case where the rail network is inextricably linked with the fabric of the city. Results of the tests are reported and discussed.

Keywords: railway, IoT, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), railroad crossing, smart camera networks, radar obstacle detection, real-time traffic optimization, ETSI M2M, transport safety

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44 Development of Intelligent Smart Multi Tracking Agent System to Support of Logistics Safety

Authors: Umarov Jamshid, Ju-Su Kim, Hak-Jun Lee, Man-Kyo Han, Ryum-Duck Oh


Recently, it becomes convenient to identify the location information of cargos by using GPS and wireless communication technologies. The development of IoT technologies and tracking system allows us to confirm site situation on an ad hoc basis in all the industries and social environments. Moreover, it allows us to apply IT technologies to a manageable extent. However, there have been many limitations for using the system due to the difficulty of identifying location information in real time and also due to the simple features. To globalize the logistics related tracking system, it is required to conduct a study to resolve the aforementioned problem. On that account, this paper designed and developed the IoT and RTLS based intelligent multi tracking agent system for more secure, accurate and reliable transportation in relation to logistics.

Keywords: Logistics, GPS, IoT, tracking agent system, RTLS

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43 Design of Incident Information System in IoT Virtualization Platform

Authors: Amon Olimov, Umarov Jamshid, Dae-Ho Kim, Chol-U Lee, Ryum-Duck Oh


This paper proposes IoT virtualization platform based incident information system. IoT information based environment is the platform that was developed for the purpose of collecting a variety of data by managing regionally scattered IoT devices easily and conveniently in addition to analyzing data collected from roads. Moreover, this paper configured the platform for the purpose of providing incident information based on sensed data. It also provides the same input/output interface as UNIX and Linux by means of matching IoT devices with the directory of file system and also the files. In addition, it has a variety of approaches as to the devices. Thus, it can be applied to not only incident information but also other platforms. This paper proposes the incident information system that identifies and provides various data in real time as to urgent matters on roads based on the existing USN/M2M and IoT visualization platform.

Keywords: IoT, incident information system, virtualization platform, USN, M2M

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42 Eco-Drive Predictive Analytics

Authors: Sharif Muddsair, Eisels Martin, Giesbrecht Eugenie


With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people also increases gradually. The various modes of the transport in different extent which expat impacts, which depends on mainly technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency. Vehicle monitoring and fleet tracking are among services used for improving efficiency and effectiveness of utility vehicle. There are many telematics systems which may contribute to eco-driving. Generally, they can be grouped according to their role in driving cycle. • Before driving - eco-route selection, • While driving – Advanced driver assistance, • After driving – remote analysis. Our point of interest is regulated in third point [after driving – remote analysis]. TS [Telematics-system] make it possible to record driving patterns in real time and analysis the data later on, So that driver- classification-specific hints [fast driver, slow driver, aggressive driver…)] are given to imitate eco-friendly driving style. Together with growing number of vehicle and development of information technology, telematics become an ‘active’ research subject in IT and the car industry. Telematics has gone a long way from providing navigation solution/assisting the driver to become an integral part of the vehicle. Today’s telematics ensure safety, comfort and become convenience of the driver.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Machine Learning, IoT, connected vehicle, telematics services

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41 An Improved Cooperative Communication Scheme for IoT System

Authors: Eui-Hak Lee, Jae-Hyun Ro, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In internet of things (IoT) system, the communication scheme with reliability and low power is required to connect a terminal. Cooperative communication can achieve reliability and lower power than multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. Cooperative communication increases the reliability with low power, but decreases a throughput. It has a weak point that the communication throughput is decreased. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to increase the communication throughput. The novel scheme is a transmission structure that increases transmission rate. And a decoding scheme according to the novel transmission structure is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme increases the throughput without bit error rate (BER) performance degradation.

Keywords: IoT, Cooperative Communication, STBC, transmission rate

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40 Building a Blockchain-based Internet of Things

Authors: Rob van den Dam


Today’s Internet of Things (IoT) comprises more than a billion intelligent devices, connected via wired/wireless communications. The expected proliferation of hundreds of billions more places us at the threshold of a transformation sweeping across the communications industry. Yet, we found that the IoT architecture and solutions that currently work for billions of devices won’t necessarily scale to tomorrow’s hundreds of billions of devices because of high cost, lack of privacy, not future-proof, lack of functional value and broken business models. As the IoT scales exponentially, decentralized networks have the potential to reduce infrastructure and maintenance costs to manufacturers. Decentralization also promises increased robustness by removing single points of failure that could exist in traditional centralized networks. By shifting the power in the network from the center to the edges, devices gain greater autonomy and can become points of transactions and economic value creation for owners and users. To validate the underlying technology vision, IBM jointly developed with Samsung Electronics the autonomous decentralized peer-to- peer proof-of-concept (PoC). The primary objective of this PoC was to establish a foundation on which to demonstrate several capabilities that are fundamental to building a decentralized IoT. Though many commercial systems in the future will exist as hybrid centralized-decentralized models, the PoC demonstrated a fully distributed proof. The PoC (a) validated the future vision for decentralized systems to extensively augment today’s centralized solutions, (b) demonstrated foundational IoT tasks without the use of centralized control, (c) proved that empowered devices can engage autonomously in marketplace transactions. The PoC opens the door for the communications and electronics industry to further explore the challenges and opportunities of potential hybrid models that can address the complexity and variety of requirements posed by the internet that continues to scale. Contents: (a) The new approach for an IoT that will be secure and scalable, (b) The three foundational technologies that are key for the future IoT, (c) The related business models and user experiences, (d) How such an IoT will create an 'Economy of Things', (e) The role of users, devices, and industries in the IoT future, (f) The winners in the IoT economy.

Keywords: Wireless, Internet, IoT, wired

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39 Interoperable Platform for Internet of Things at Home Applications

Authors: Fabiano Amorim Vaz, Camila Gonzaga de Araujo


With the growing number of personal devices such as smartphones, tablets, smart watches, among others, in addition to recent devices designed for IoT, it is observed that residential environment has potential to generate important information about our daily lives. Therefore, this work is focused on showing and evaluating a system that integrates all these technologies considering the context of a smart house. To achieve this, we define an architecture capable of supporting the amount of data generated and consumed at a residence and, mainly, the variety of this data presents. We organize it in a particular cloud containing information about robots, recreational vehicles, weather, in addition to data from the house, such as lighting, energy, security, among others. The proposed architecture can be extrapolated to various scenarios and applications. Through the core of this work, we can define new functionality for residences integrating them with more resources.

Keywords: Robotics, Cloud Computing, IoT, smart house

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38 Performance Comparison of Situation-Aware Models for Activating Robot Vacuum Cleaner in a Smart Home

Authors: Seongcheol Kwon, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu


We assume an IoT-based smart-home environment where the on-off status of each of the electrical appliances including the room lights can be recognized in a real time by monitoring and analyzing the smart meter data. At any moment in such an environment, we can recognize what the household or the user is doing by referring to the status data of the appliances. In this paper, we focus on a smart-home service that is to activate a robot vacuum cleaner at right time by recognizing the user situation, which requires a situation-aware model that can distinguish the situations that allow vacuum cleaning (Yes) from those that do not (No). We learn as our candidate models a few classifiers such as naïve Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression that can map the appliance-status data into Yes and No situations. Our training and test data are obtained from simulations of user behaviors, in which a sequence of user situations such as cooking, eating, dish washing, and so on is generated with the status of the relevant appliances changed in accordance with the situation changes. During the simulation, both the situation transition and the resulting appliance status are determined stochastically. To compare the performances of the aforementioned classifiers we obtain their learning curves for different types of users through simulations. The result of our empirical study reveals that naïve Bayes achieves a slightly better classification accuracy than the other compared classifiers.

Keywords: Machine Learning, IoT, Smart Home, classifier, situation-awareness

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37 The Batteryless Wi-Fi Backscatter System and Method for Improving the Transmission Range

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Seung-Jun Yu, Seongjoo Lee, Hyoung-Kyu Song


The Internet of things (IoT) system has attracted attention. IoT is a technology to connect all the objects to the internet as well as computer. IoT makes it possible for providing more data interoperability methods for an application purpose. Among the IoT technology, the research of devices so that they can communicate without power supply has been actively conducted. Batteryless system permits us to communicate without power supply devices. In this paper, batteryless backscatter system is used as a tag. And mobile devices which are embedded wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) chipset are used as a reader. The backscatter tag can be obtained Internet connectivity from the reader. Conventional Wi-Fi backscatter system has limitation in the transmission range. In this paper, the proposed algorithm can be obtained improved reliability as well as overcoming the limitation about transmission range.

Keywords: RFID, IoT, Wi-Fi, backscatter, Ambient RF, Batteryless communication, Energy-harvesting, Tag

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36 Signaling Using Phase Shifting in Wi-Fi Backscatter System

Authors: Chang-Bin Ha, Young-Min Ko, Seongjoo Lee, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, the signaling scheme using phase shifting is proposed for the improved performance of the Wi-Fi backscatter system. Because the communication in the Wi-Fi backscatter system is based on on-off modulation and impedance modulation by unit of packet, the data rate is very low compared to the conventional wireless systems. Also, because the Wi-Fi backscatter system is based on the RF-powered device, the achievement of high reliability is difficult. In order to increase the low data rate, the proposed scheme transmits information of multiple bits during one packet period. Also, in order to increase the reliability, the proposed scheme shifts the phase of signal in according to the transmitting information. The simulation result shows that the proposed scheme has the improved throughput performance.

Keywords: IoT, phase shifting, RF-powered device, Wi-Fi backscatter system

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35 TMBCoI-SIOT: Trust Management System Based on the Community of Interest for the Social Internet of Things

Authors: Oumaima Ben Abderrahim, Mohamed Houcine Elhedhili, Leila Saidane


In this paper, we propose a trust management system based on clustering architecture for the social internet of things called TMBCO-SIOT. The proposed model integrates numerous factors such as direct and indirect trust; transaction factor; precaution factor; and social modeling of trust. The novelty of our approach can be summed up in two aspects. The first aspect concerns the architecture based on the community of interest (CoT) where each community is headed by an administrator (admin). However, the second aspect is the trust management system that tries to prevent On-Off attacks and mitigates dishonest recommendations using the k-means algorithm and guarantor things. The effectiveness of the proposed system is proved by simulation against malicious nodes.

Keywords: Trust, IoT, Attacks, trust management system, dishonest recommendations, K-means algorithm

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34 A Witty Relief Ailment Based on the Integration of IoT and Cloud

Authors: Sai Shruthi Sridhar, A. Madhumidha, Kreethika Guru, Priyanka Sekar, Ananthi Malayappan


Numerous changes in technology and its recent development are structuring long withstanding effect to our world, one among them is the emergence of “Internet of Things” (IoT). Similar to Technology world, one industry stands out in everyday life–healthcare. Attention to “quality of health care” is an increasingly important issue in a global economy and for every individual. As per WHO (World Health Organization) it is estimated to be less than 50% adhere to the medication provided and only about 20% get their medicine on time. Medication adherence is one of the top problems in healthcare which is fixable by use of technology. In recent past, there were minor provisions for elderly and specially-skilled to get motivated and to adhere medicines prescribed. This paper proposes a novel solution that uses IOT based RFID Medication Reminder Solution to provide personal health care services. This employs real time tracking which offer quick counter measures. The proposed solution builds on the recent digital advances in sensor technologies, smart phones and cloud services. This novel solution is easily adoptable and can benefit millions of people with a direct impact on the nation’s health care expenditure with innovative scenarios and pervasive connectivity.

Keywords: Sensors, Cloud Services, RFID, IoT

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33 Role of Machine Learning in Internet of Things Enabled Smart Cities

Authors: Amit Prakash Singh, Shyamli Singh, Chavi Srivastav


This paper presents the idea of Internet of Thing (IoT) for the infrastructure of smart cities. Internet of Thing has been visualized as a communication prototype that incorporates myriad of digital services. The various component of the smart cities shall be implemented using microprocessor, microcontroller, sensors for network communication and protocols. IoT enabled systems have been devised to support the smart city vision, of which aim is to exploit the currently available precocious communication technologies to support the value-added services for function of the city. Due to volume, variety, and velocity of data, it requires analysis using Big Data concept. This paper presented the various techniques used to analyze big data using machine learning.

Keywords: Embedded Systems, Sustainable Environment, Smart City, IoT

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32 A Long Range Wide Area Network-Based Smart Pest Monitoring System

Authors: Yun-Chung Yu, Yan-Wen Wang, Min-Sheng Liao, Joe-Air Jiang, Yuen-Chung Lee


This paper proposes to use a Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) for a smart pest monitoring system which aims at the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) to improve the communication efficiency of the system. The oriental fruit fly is one of the main pests in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim. Different smart pest monitoring systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture have been developed to solve problems of employing manual measurement. These systems often use Octopus II, a communication module following the 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee specification, as sensor nodes. The Octopus II is commonly used in low-power and short-distance communication. However, the energy consumption increase as the logical topology becomes more complicate to have enough coverage in the large area. By comparison, LoRaWAN follows the Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) specification, which targets the key requirements of the IoT technology, such as secure bi-directional communication, mobility, and localization services. The LoRaWAN network has advantages of long range communication, high stability, and low energy consumption. The 433MHz LoRaWAN model has two superiorities over the 2.4GHz ZigBee model: greater diffraction and less interference. In this paper, The Octopus II module is replaced by a LoRa model to increase the coverage of the monitoring system, improve the communication performance, and prolong the network lifetime. The performance of the LoRa-based system is compared with a ZigBee-based system using three indexes: the packet receiving rate, delay time, and energy consumption, and the experiments are done in different settings (e.g. distances and environmental conditions). In the distance experiment, a pest monitoring system using the two communication specifications is deployed in an area with various obstacles, such as buildings and living creatures, and the performance of employing the two communication specifications is examined. The experiment results show that the packet receiving the rate of the LoRa-based system is 96% , which is much higher than that of the ZigBee system when the distance between any two modules is about 500m. These results indicate the capability of a LoRaWAN-based monitoring system in long range transmission and ensure the stability of the system.

Keywords: IoT, LoRaWan, oriental fruit fly, Octopus II

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31 Addressing Scheme for IOT Network Using IPV6

Authors: H. Zormati, J. Chebil, J. Bel Hadj Taher


The goal of this paper is to present an addressing scheme that allows for assigning a unique IPv6 address to each node in the Internet of Things (IoT) network. This scheme guarantees uniqueness by extracting the clock skew of each communication device and converting it into an IPv6 address. Simulation analysis confirms that the presented scheme provides reductions in terms of energy consumption, communication overhead and response time as compared to four studied addressing schemes Strong DAD, LEADS, SIPA and CLOSA.

Keywords: Network, IoT, nodes, IPv6, addressing

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30 IOT Based Process Model for Heart Monitoring Process

Authors: Dalyah Y. Al-Jamal, Maryam H. Eshtaiwi, Liyakathunisa Syed


Connecting health services with technology has a huge demand as people health situations are becoming worse day by day. In fact, engaging new technologies such as Internet of Things (IOT) into the medical services can enhance the patient care services. Specifically, patients suffering from chronic diseases such as cardiac patients need a special care and monitoring. In reality, some efforts were previously taken to automate and improve the patient monitoring systems. However, the previous efforts have some limitations and lack the real-time feature needed for chronic kind of diseases. In this paper, an improved process model for patient monitoring system specialized for cardiac patients is presented. A survey was distributed and interviews were conducted to gather the needed requirements to improve the cardiac patient monitoring system. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) language was used to model the proposed process. In fact, the proposed system uses the IOT Technology to assist doctors to remotely monitor and follow-up with their heart patients in real-time. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed solution, simulation analysis was performed using Bizagi Modeler tool. Analysis results show performance improvements in the heart monitoring process. For the future, authors suggest enhancing the proposed system to cover all the chronic diseases.

Keywords: IoT, process model, remote patient monitoring system, smart watch

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29 Internet of Things Based Process Model for Smart Parking System

Authors: Amjaad Alsalamah, Liyakathunsia Syed


Transportation is an essential need for many people to go to their work, school, and home. In particular, the main common method inside many cities is to drive the car. Driving a car can be an easy job to reach the destination and load all stuff in a reasonable time. However, deciding to find a parking lot for a car can take a long time using the traditional system that can issue a paper ticket for each customer. The old system cannot guarantee a parking lot for all customers. Also, payment methods are not always available, and many customers struggled to find their car among a numerous number of cars. As a result, this research focuses on providing an online smart parking system in order to save time and budget. This system provides a flexible management system for both parking owner and customers by receiving all request via the online system and it gets an accurate result for all available parking and its location.

Keywords: Cost, Time, IoT, process model, tracking system, smart parking system

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28 Internet of Things Professional Construction Building through the School-Enterprise Cooperation

Authors: Jumin Zhao, Na Li, Dengao Li, Yujuan Yan


As the rapid rise of the networking industry, the shortage of Internet of Things (IoT) talented people greatly stimulates the majority of colleges to speed up the pace of professional networking reform. Caused by the construction of the original specialty, many problems appear such as the vague specialty, the mixed theoretical, the poor practical ability and the different goal. To solve the issues above, we build a ‘theory-practice-theory-improvement’ four-step model of school-enterprise integration of personnel training. Besides, we integrate the advanced teaching philosophy: flip class and Mu class, making IoT teaching more professional and the ability of students more comprehensive.

Keywords: IoT, theory-practice-theory-promotion, major construction, school-enterprise cooperation

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27 Iot-Based Interactive Patient Identification and Safety Management System

Authors: Jonghoon Chun, Insung Kim, Jonghyun Lim, Gun Ro


We believe that it is possible to provide a solution to reduce patient safety accidents by displaying correct medical records and prescription information through interactive patient identification. Our system is based on the use of smart bands worn by patients and these bands communicate with the hybrid gateways which understand both BLE and Wifi communication protocols. Through the convergence of low-power Bluetooth (BLE) and hybrid gateway technology, which is one of short-range wireless communication technologies, we implement ‘Intelligent Patient Identification and Location Tracking System’ to prevent medical malfunction frequently occurring in medical institutions. Based on big data and IOT technology using MongoDB, smart band (BLE, NFC function) and hybrid gateway, we develop a system to enable two-way communication between medical staff and hospitalized patients as well as to store locational information of the patients in minutes. Based on the precise information provided using big data systems, such as location tracking and movement of in-hospital patients wearing smart bands, our findings include the fact that a patient-specific location tracking algorithm can more efficiently operate HIS (Hospital Information System) and other related systems. Through the system, we can always correctly identify patients using identification tags. In addition, the system automatically determines whether the patient is a scheduled for medical service by the system in use at the medical institution, and displays the appropriateness of the medical treatment and the medical information (medical record and prescription information) on the screen and voice. This work was supported in part by the Korea Technology and Information Promotion Agency for SMEs (TIPA) grant funded by the Korean Small and Medium Business Administration (No. S2410390).

Keywords: Safety Management, IoT, BLE, hybrid gateway, patient identification, smart band

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26 Changing Arbitrary Data Transmission Period by Using Bluetooth Module on Gas Sensor Node of Arduino Board

Authors: Hiesik Kim, Yong-Beom Kim, Jaheon Gu


Internet of Things (IoT) applications are widely serviced and spread worldwide. Local wireless data transmission technique must be developed to rate up with some technique. Bluetooth wireless data communication is wireless technique is technique made by Special Inter Group (SIG) using the frequency range 2.4 GHz, and it is exploiting Frequency Hopping to avoid collision with a different device. To implement experiment, equipment for experiment transmitting measured data is made by using Arduino as open source hardware, gas sensor, and Bluetooth module and algorithm controlling transmission rate is demonstrated. Experiment controlling transmission rate also is progressed by developing Android application receiving measured data, and controlling this rate is available at the experiment result. It is important that in the future, improvement for communication algorithm be needed because a few error occurs when data is transferred or received.

Keywords: Transmission, IoT, bluetooth, Gas Sensor, Arduino

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25 Off-Body Sub-GHz Wireless Channel Characterization for Dairy Cows in Barns

Authors: Said Benaissa, David Plets, Emmeric Tanghe, Jens Trogh, Luc Martens, Leen Vandaele, Annelies Van Nuffel, Frank A. M. Tuyttens, Bart Sonck, Wout Joseph


The herd monitoring and managing - in particular the detection of ‘attention animals’ that require care, treatment or assistance is crucial for effective reproduction status, health, and overall well-being of dairy cows. In large sized farms, traditional methods based on direct observation or analysis of video recordings become labour-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, automatic monitoring systems using sensors have become increasingly important to continuously and accurately track the health status of dairy cows. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and internet-of-things (IoT) can be effectively used in health tracking of dairy cows to facilitate herd management and enhance the cow welfare. Since on-cow measuring devices are energy-constrained, a proper characterization of the off-body wireless channel between the on-cow sensor nodes and the back-end base station is required for a power-optimized deployment of these networks in barns. The aim of this study was to characterize the off-body wireless channel in indoor (barns) environment at 868 MHz using LoRa nodes. LoRa is an emerging wireless technology mainly targeted at WSNs and IoT networks. Both large scale fading (i.e., path loss) and temporal fading were investigated. The obtained path loss values as a function of the transmitter-receiver separation were well fitted by a lognormal path loss model. The path loss showed an additional increase of 4 dB when the wireless node was actually worn by the cow. The temporal fading due to movement of other cows was well described by Rician distributions with a K-factor of 8.5 dB. Based on this characterization, network planning and energy consumption optimization of the on-body wireless nodes could be performed, which enables the deployment of reliable dairy cow monitoring systems.

Keywords: Health monitoring, propagation, IoT, channel, Channel Modelling, dairy cows, LORA, cow monitoring, off-body propagation, PLF

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24 NUX: A Lightweight Block Cipher for Security at Wireless Sensor Node Level

Authors: Gaurav Bansod, Swapnil Sutar, Abhijit Patil, Jagdish Patil


This paper proposes an ultra-lightweight cipher NUX. NUX is a generalized Feistel network. It supports 128/80 bit key length and block length of 64 bit. For 128 bit key length, NUX needs only 1022 GEs which is less as compared to all existing cipher design. NUX design results into less footprint area and minimal memory size. This paper presents security analysis of NUX cipher design which shows cipher’s resistance against basic attacks like Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis. Advanced attacks like Biclique attack is also mounted on NUX cipher design. Two different F function in NUX cipher design results in high diffusion mechanism which generates large number of active S-boxes in minimum number of rounds. NUX cipher has total 31 rounds. NUX design will be best-suited design for critical application like smart grid, IoT, wireless sensor network, where memory size, footprint area and the power dissipation are the major constraints.

Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Encryption, IoT, block cipher, lightweight cryptography, Feistel cipher, embedded security

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23 A Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Remote Data Logging

Authors: Bodhayan Nandi, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury


This paper presents the development of a portable blood glucose monitoring device based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. The system supports Internet connectivity through WiFi and uploads the time series data of glucose concentration of patients to a server. In addition, the server is given sufficient intelligence to predict the future pathophysiological state of a patient given the current and past pathophysiological data. This will enable to prognosticate the approaching critical condition of the patient much before the critical condition actually occurs.The server hosts web applications to allow authorized users to monitor the data remotely.

Keywords: IoT, microcontroller, non invasive, blood glucose concentration, application server, database server

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22 12x12 MIMO Terminal Antennas Covering the Whole LTE and WiFi Spectrum

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan


A broadband resonant terminal antenna has been developed. It can be used in different MIMO arrangements such as 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, or even 12x12 MIMO configurations. The antenna covers the whole LTE and WiFi bands besides the existing 2G/3G bands (700-5800 MHz), without using any matching/tuning circuits. Matching circuits significantly reduce the efficiency of any antenna and reduce the battery life. They also reduce the bandwidth because they are frequency dependent. The antenna can be implemented in smartphone handsets, tablets, laptops, notebooks or any other terminal. It is also suitable for different IoT and vehicle applications. The antenna is manufactured from a flexible material and can be bent or folded and shaped in any form to fit any available space in any terminal. It is self-contained and does not need to use the ground plane, the chassis or any other component of the terminal. Hence, it can be mounted on any terminal at different positions and configurations. Its performance does not get affected by the terminal, regardless of its type, shape or size. Moreover, its performance does not get affected by the human body of the terminal’s users. Because of all these unique features of the antenna, multiples of them can be simultaneously used for MIMO diversity coverage in any terminal device with a high isolation and a low correlation factor between them.

Keywords: IoT, LTE, mimo, wifi, terminal antenna

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21 A Framework Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence Algorithm for the Analysis of the TV-Viewers’ Behaviors

Authors: Hamdi Amroun, Yacine Benziani, Mehdi Ammi


In this paper, we propose an approach of detecting the behavior of the viewers of a TV program in a non-controlled environment. The experiment we propose is based on the use of three types of connected objects (smartphone, smart watch, and a connected remote control). 23 participants were observed while watching their TV programs during three phases: before, during and after watching a TV program. Their behaviors were detected using an approach based on The Dempster Shafer Theory (DST) in two phases. The first phase is to approximate dynamically the mass functions using an approach based on the correlation coefficient. The second phase is to calculate the approximate mass functions. To approximate the mass functions, two approaches have been tested: the first approach was to divide each features data space into cells; each one has a specific probability distribution over the behaviors. The probability distributions were computed statistically (estimated by empirical distribution). The second approach was to predict the TV-viewing behaviors through the use of classifiers algorithms and add uncertainty to the prediction based on the uncertainty of the model. Results showed that mixing the fusion rule with the computation of the initial approximate mass functions using a classifier led to an overall of 96%, 95% and 96% success rate for the first, second and third TV-viewing phase respectively. The results were also compared to those found in the literature. This study aims to anticipate certain actions in order to maintain the attention of TV viewers towards the proposed TV programs with usual connected objects, taking into account the various uncertainties that can be generated.

Keywords: Automatic classification, IoT, TV-viewing behaviors identification, unconstrained environment

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20 Long Short-Term Memory Based Model for Modeling Nicotine Consumption Using an Electronic Cigarette and Internet of Things Devices

Authors: Hamdi Amroun, Yacine Benziani, Mehdi Ammi


In this paper, we want to determine whether the accurate prediction of nicotine concentration can be obtained by using a network of smart objects and an e-cigarette. The approach consists of, first, the recognition of factors influencing smoking cessation such as physical activity recognition and participant’s behaviors (using both smartphone and smartwatch), then the prediction of the configuration of the e-cigarette (in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance of e-cigarette). The study uses a network of commonly connected objects; a smartwatch, a smartphone, and an e-cigarette transported by the participants during an uncontrolled experiment. The data obtained from sensors carried in the three devices were trained by a Long short-term memory algorithm (LSTM). Results show that our LSTM-based model allows predicting the configuration of the e-cigarette in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance with a root mean square error percentage of 12.9%, 9.15%, and 11.84%, respectively. This study can help to better control consumption of nicotine and offer an intelligent configuration of the e-cigarette to users.

Keywords: Automatic classification, IoT, Activity Recognition, unconstrained environment

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19 Knowledge Reactor: A Contextual Computing Work in Progress for Eldercare

Authors: Scott N. Gerard, Aliza Heching, Susann M. Keohane, Samuel S. Adams


The world-wide population of people over 60 years of age is growing rapidly. The explosion is placing increasingly onerous demands on individual families, multiple industries and entire countries. Current, human-intensive approaches to eldercare are not sustainable, but IoT and AI technologies can help. The Knowledge Reactor (KR) is a contextual, data fusion engine built to address this and other similar problems. It fuses and centralizes IoT and System of Record/Engagement data into a reactive knowledge graph. Cognitive applications and services are constructed with its multiagent architecture. The KR can scale-up and scaledown, because it exploits container-based, horizontally scalable services for graph store (JanusGraph) and pub-sub (Kafka) technologies. While the KR can be applied to many domains that require IoT and AI technologies, this paper describes how the KR specifically supports the challenging domain of cognitive eldercare. Rule- and machine learning-based analytics infer activities of daily living from IoT sensor readings. KR scalability, adaptability, flexibility and usability are demonstrated.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, IoT, knowledge graph, ambient sensing, eldercare

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18 Cooperative Agents to Prevent and Mitigate Distributed Denial of Service Attacks of Internet of Things Devices in Transportation Systems

Authors: Borhan Marzougui


Road and Transport Authority (RTA) is moving ahead with the implementation of the leader’s vision in exploring all avenues that may bring better security and safety services to the community. Smart transport means using smart technologies such as IoT (Internet of Things). This technology continues to affirm its important role in the context of Information and Transportation Systems. In fact, IoT is a network of Internet-connected objects able to collect and exchange different data using embedded sensors. With the growth of IoT, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks is also growing exponentially. DDoS attacks are the major and a real threat to various transportation services. Currently, the defense mechanisms are mainly passive in nature, and there is a need to develop a smart technique to handle them. In fact, new IoT devices are being used into a botnet for DDoS attackers to accumulate for attacker purposes. The aim of this paper is to provide a relevant understanding of dangerous types of DDoS attack related to IoT and to provide valuable guidance for the future IoT security method. Our methodology is based on development of the distributed algorithm. This algorithm manipulates dedicated intelligent and cooperative agents to prevent and to mitigate DDOS attacks. The proposed technique ensure a preventive action when a malicious packets start to be distributed through the connected node (Network of IoT devices). In addition, the devices such as camera and radio frequency identification (RFID) are connected within the secured network, and the data generated by it are analyzed in real time by intelligent and cooperative agents. The proposed security system is based on a multi-agent system. The obtained result has shown a significant reduction of a number of infected devices and enhanced the capabilities of different security dispositives.

Keywords: Security, Agents, IoT, Attacks, DDoS, botnet

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