Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Ionic Liquids Related Abstracts

26 Magnetorheological Silicone Composites Filled with Micro- and Nano-Sized Magnetites with the Addition of Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski


Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized Fe3O4 magnetoactive fillers in silicone rubber are reported and studied. To improve the dispersion of applied fillers in polymer matrix, ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate,1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride were added during the process of composites preparation. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy), similarly to ferromagnetic particles content and theirs quantity. Micro and non-sized magnetites were active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties and reinforced the magnetorheological effect of composites. Application of ionic liquids as dispersing agents influenced the dispersion of magnetic fillers in the elastomer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy images used to observe magnetorheological elastomer microstructures proved that the dispersion improvement had a significant effect on the composites properties. Moreover, the particles orientation and their arrangement in the elastomer investigated by vibration sample magnetometer showed the correlation between MRE microstructure and their magnetic properties.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Dispersion, magnetorheological elastomers, iron oxides

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25 Regenerated Cotton/Feather Keratin Composite Materials Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Rasike De Silva, Xungai Wang, Nolene Byrne


We report on the blending of cotton and duck feather towards developing a new textile fibre. The cotton and duck feather were blended together by dissolving both components in an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are designer solvents consisting entirely of ions with a melting point below 100˚C. Ionic liquids can be designed to have numerous and varied properties which include the ability to dissolve bio polymers. The dissolution of bio polymers such as cotton or wool generally requires very harsh acid or alkaline conditions and high temperatures. The ionic liquids which can dissolve bio polymers can be considered environmentally benign since they have negligible vapor pressure and can be recycled and reused. We have selected the cellulose dissolving and recyclable ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) as the dissolving and blending solvent for the cotton and duck feather materials. We have casted films and wet spun fibres at varying cotton and duck feather compositions and characterized the material properties of these. We find that the addition of duck feather enhances the elasticity of regenerated cotton. The strain% at breakage of the regenerated film was increased from 4.2% to 11.63% with a 10% duck feather loading, while the corresponding stress at breakage reduced from 54.89 MPa to 47.16 MPa.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Textile Materials, bio polymers, duck feather

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24 Modified DNA as a Base Material for Nonlinear Optics

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biomolecule which exhibits an electro-optic properties. These features are related with structure of double-stranded helix. Modification of DNA with ionic liquids allows intensify these properties. The aim of our study was synthesis of ionic liquids that are used the formation of DNA-surfactant complexes in order to obtain new materials with potential application for nonlinear optics. Complexes were achieved through the ion exchange reactions of carbazole-based and imidazole-based ionic liquids with H+ ions from salmon DNA. To examination the properties of obtained complexes DNA-ionic liquids there were investigated using circular dichroism (CD), UV-Vis spectra and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Additionally, the resulting DNA-surfactant complexes were characterized in terms of solubility in common organic solvents and water.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Biomolecule, carbazole, imidazole, ion exchange reactions

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23 Avoiding Gas Hydrate Problems in Qatar Oil and Gas Industry: Environmentally Friendly Solvents for Gas Hydrate Inhibition

Authors: Nabila Mohamed, Santiago Aparicio, Bahman Tohidi, Mert Atilhan


Qatar's one of the biggest problem in processing its natural resource, which is natural gas, is the often occurring blockage in the pipelines caused due to uncontrolled gas hydrate formation in the pipelines. Several millions of dollars are being spent at the process site to dehydrate the blockage safely by using chemical inhibitors. We aim to establish national database, which addresses the physical conditions that promotes Qatari natural gas to form gas hydrates in the pipelines. Moreover, we aim to design and test novel hydrate inhibitors that are suitable for Qatari natural gas and its processing facilities. From these perspectives we are aiming to provide more effective and sustainable reservoir utilization and processing of Qatari natural gas. In this work, we present the initial findings of a QNRF funded project, which deals with the natural gas hydrate formation characteristics of Qatari type gas in both experimental (PVTx) and computational (molecular simulations) methods. We present the data from the two fully automated apparatus: a gas hydrate autoclave and a rocking cell. Hydrate equilibrium curves including growth/dissociation conditions for multi-component systems for several gas mixtures that represent Qatari type natural gas with and without the presence of well known kinetic and thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors. Ionic liquids were designed and used for testing their inhibition performance and their DFT and molecular modeling simulation results were also obtained and compared with the experimental results. Results showed significant performance of ionic liquids with up to 0.5 % in volume with up to 2 to 4 0C inhibition at high pressures.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Ionic Liquids, Gas Hydrates, inhibition, thermodynamic inhibitors, kinetic inhibitors

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22 Elastomer Composites Containing Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Maciejewska, F. Walkiewicz


The aim of this work was to study the activity of several novel benzalkonium and alkylammonium and alkylimidazolium ionic liquids with 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate for use as accelerators in the sulphur vulcanisation of butadiene-styrene elastomer (SBR). The application of novel ionic liquids allowed for the elimination of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide from SBR compounds and for the considerable reduction of the amount of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole present in rubber products, which is favourable because, it is an allergenic agent. Synthesised salts could be used alternatively to standard accelerators in the vulcanisation of SBR, without any detrimental effects on the vulcanisation process, the physical properties or the thermal stability of the obtained vulcanisates. Ionic liquids increased the crosslink density of the vulcanisates and improved their thermal stability.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Mechanical Properties, styrene-butadiene rubber, vulcanisation

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21 Corrosion Behvaior of CS1018 in Various CO2 Capture Solvents

Authors: Mert Atilhan, Aida Rafat, Ramazan Kahraman


The aggressive corrosion behavior of conventional amine solvents is one of main barriers against large scale commerizaliation of amine absorption process for carbon capture application. Novel CO2 absorbents that exhibit minimal corrosivity against operation conditions are essential to lower corrosion damage and control and ensure more robustness in the capture plant. This work investigated corrosion behavior of carbon steel CS1018 in various CO2 absrobent solvents. The tested solvents included the classical amines MEA, DEA and MDEA, piperazine activated solvents MEA/PZ, MDEA/PZ and MEA/MDEA/PZ as well as mixtures of MEA and Room Temperature Ionic Liquids RTIL, namely MEA/[C4MIM][BF4] and MEA/[C4MIM][Otf]. Electrochemical polarization technique was used to determine the system corrosiveness in terms of corrosion rate and polarization behavior. The process parameters of interest were CO2 loading and solution temperature. Electrochemical resulted showed corrosivity order of classical amines at 40°C is MDEA> MEA > DEA wherase at 80°C corrosivity ranking changes to MEA > DEA > MDEA. Corrosivity rankings were mainly governed by CO2 absorption capacity at the test temperature. Corrosivity ranking for activated amines at 80°C was MEA/PZ > MDEA/PZ > MEA/MDEA/PZ. Piperazine addition seemed to have a dual advanatge in terms of enhancing CO2 absorption capacity as well as nullifying corrosion. For MEA/RTIL mixtures, the preliminary results showed that the partial repalcement of aqueous phase in MEA solution by the more stable nonvolatile RTIL solvents reduced corrosion rates considerably.

Keywords: Corrosion, Ionic Liquids, CO2 Capture, Amines, piperazine

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20 Back Extraction and Isolation of Alkaloids from Ionic Liquid-Based Extracts

Authors: Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov, Rozalina Keremedchieva


In continuation of a research project on the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as an alternative to the conventional organic solvents used in the recovery of value added chemicals of industrial interest1-3 we developed a procedure for back extraction and isolation in pure form of the biologically active alkaloid glaucine from IL-based aqueous solutions. One of the approaches applied was the formation of two-phase systems (IL-ATPS) by the addition of kosmotropic salts to the plant extract. The ability of the salts (Na2CO3, MgSO4, (NH4)2SO4, NaH2PO4) to induce the formation of two-phase systems and the influence of pH value on the partition coefficients of glaucine was comprehensively studied. As a result, it was found that the target alkaloid is preferably partitioned into the IL-rich phase regardless of the pH value of the medium and thus shows the inapplicability of the approach used for the isolation of the target compound from the ionic liquid. However, the results obtained can be used as a platform for the development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of low concentrations of glaucine in biological samples. We further examined the ability of a series of organic solvents such as diethyl ether, Tert-butylmethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, toluene, chloroform, dichloromethane to recover glaucine form raw IL-based aqueous extracts. Optimal conditions for quantitative extraction of glaucine into chloroform were found from which, after removal of the solvent and subsequent recrystallization from ethanol, the target compound was isolated in a high purity as a hydrobromide salt – The form in which it entrance as an active ingredient in various medicines.

Keywords: Natural Products, Ionic Liquids, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction

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19 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ivan Svinyarov, Konstantza Tonova, Milen G. Bogdanov


Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Extraction, lactic acid, biphasic system

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18 Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Filled Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Separation

Authors: Asim Laeeq Khan, Mazhar Amjad Gilani, Tayub Raza


The use of fossil fuels for energy generation leads to the emission of greenhouse gases particularly CO2 into the atmosphere. To date, several techniques have been proposed for the efficient removal of CO2 from flue gas mixtures. Membrane technology is a promising choice due to its several inherent advantages such as low capital cost, high energy efficiency, and low ecological footprint. One of the goals in the development of membranes is to achieve high permeability and selectivity. Mixed matrix membranes comprising of inorganic fillers embedded in polymer matrix are a class of membranes that have showed improved separation properties. One of the biggest challenges in the commercialization if mixed matrix membranes are the removal of non-selective voids existing at the polymer-filler interface. In this work, mixed matrix membranes were prepared using polysulfone as polymer matrix and ordered mesoporous MCM-41 as filler materials. A new approach to removing the interfacial voids was developed by introducing room temperature ionic (RTIL) at the polymer-filler interface. The results showed that the imidazolium based RTIL not only provided wettability characteristics but also helped in further improving the separation properties. The removal of interfacial voids and good contact between polymer and filler was verified by SEM measurement. The synthesized membranes were tested in a custom built gas permeation set-up for the measurement of gas permeability and ideal gas selectivity. The results showed that the mixed matrix membranes showed significantly higher CO2 permeability in comparison to the pristine membrane. In order to have further insight into the role of fillers, diffusion and solubility measurements were carried out. The results showed that the presence of highly porous fillers resulted in increasing the diffusion coefficient while the solubility showed a slight drop. The RTIL filled membranes showed higher CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivity than unfilled membranes while the permeability dropped slightly. The increase in selectivity was due to the highly selective RTIL used in this work. The study revealed that RTIL filled mixed matrix membranes are an interesting candidate for gas separation membranes.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, membranes, CO2 separation, mixed matrix membranes

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17 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci


We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Carbon Dioxide, corrosion rate, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, tafel fit

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16 The Effect of Ionic Liquid Anion Type on the Properties of TiO2 Particles

Authors: Marta Paszkiewicz, Justyna Łuczak, Martyna Marchelek, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska


In recent years, photocatalytical processes have been intensively investigated for destruction of pollutants, hydrogen evolution, disinfection of water, air and surfaces, for the construction of self-cleaning materials (tiles, glass, fibres, etc.). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular material used in heterogeneous photocatalysis due to its excellent properties, such as high stability, chemical inertness, non-toxicity and low cost. It is well known that morphology and microstructure of TiO2 significantly influence the photocatalytic activity. This characteristics as well as other physical and structural properties of photocatalysts, i.e., specific surface area or density of crystalline defects, could be controlled by preparation route. In this regard, TiO2 particles can be obtained by sol-gel, hydrothermal, sonochemical methods, chemical vapour deposition and alternatively, by ionothermal synthesis using ionic liquids (ILs). In the TiO2 particles synthesis ILs may play a role of a solvent, soft template, reagent, agent promoting reduction of the precursor or particles stabilizer during synthesis of inorganic materials. In this work, the effect of the ILs anion type on morphology and photoactivity of TiO2 is presented. The preparation of TiO2 microparticles with spherical structure was successfully achieved by solvothermal method, using tetra-tert-butyl orthotitatane (TBOT) as the precursor. The reaction process was assisted by an ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [BMIM][Br], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM][BF4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium haxafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6]. Various molar ratios of all ILs to TBOT (IL:TBOT) were chosen. For comparison, reference TiO2 was prepared using the same method without IL addition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brenauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET), NCHS analysis, and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface properties of the samples. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by means of phenol photodegradation in the aqueous phase as a model pollutant, as well as formation of hydroxyl radicals based on detection of fluorescent product of coumarine hydroxylation. The analysis results showed that the TiO2 microspheres had spherical structure with the diameters ranging from 1 to 6 µm. The TEM micrographs gave a bright observation of the samples in which the particles were comprised of inter-aggregated crystals. It could be also observed that the IL-assisted TiO2 microspheres are not hollow, which provides additional information about possible formation mechanism. Application of the ILs results in rise of the photocatalytic activity as well as BET surface area of TiO2 as compared to pure TiO2. The results of the formation of 7-hydroxycoumarin indicated that the increased amount of ·OH produced at the surface of excited TiO2 for samples TiO2_ILs well correlated with more efficient degradation of phenol. NCHS analysis showed that ionic liquids remained on the TiO2 surface confirming structure directing role of that compounds.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, TiO2, IL-assisted synthesis

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15 Metal Extraction into Ionic Liquids and Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Mixtures

Authors: E. E. Tereshatov, M. Yu. Boltoeva, V. Mazan, M. F. Volia, C. M. Folden III


Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of liquid organic salts with melting points below 20 °C that are considered to be environmentally friendly ‘designers’ solvents. Pure hydrophobic ILs are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. The closest analogues of ionic liquids are deep eutectic solvents (DESs), which are a eutectic mixture of at least two compounds with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are acknowledged to be attractive for organic synthesis and metal processing. Thus, these non-volatile and less toxic compounds are of interest for critical metal extraction. The US Department of Energy and the European Commission consider indium as a key metal. Its chemical homologue, thallium, is also an important material for some applications and environmental safety. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate In and Tl extraction from aqueous solutions into pure fluorinated ILs and hydrophobic DESs. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. The extraction efficiency of the TlXz3–z anionic species (where X = Cl– and/or Br–) is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. Unexpectedly high distribution ratios (> 103) of Tl(III) were determined even by applying a pure ionic liquid as receiving phase. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the co-extraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. The first evidence of indium extraction into new quaternary ammonium- and menthol-based hydrophobic DESs from hydrochloric and oxalic acid solutions with distribution ratios up to 103 will be provided. Data obtained allow us to interpret the mechanism of thallium and indium extraction into ILs and DESs media. The understanding of Tl and In chemical behavior in these new media is imperative for the further improvement of separation and purification of these elements.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, thallium, deep eutectic solvents, indium

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14 Syntheses of Anionic Poly(urethanes) with Imidazolium, Phosphonium, and Ammonium as Counter-cations and Their Evaluation for CO2 Separation

Authors: Franciele L. Bernard, Felipe Dalla Vecchia, Barbara B. Polesso, Jose A. Donato, Marcus Seferin, Rosane Ligabue, Jailton F. do Nascimento, Sandra Einloft


The increasing level of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere related to fossil fuels processing and utilization are contributing to global warming phenomena considerably. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies appear as one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions mitigating the effects of climate change. Absorption using amines solutions as solvents have been extensively studied and used in industry for decades. However, solvent degradation and equipment corrosion are two of the main problems in this process. Poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) is considered as a promising material for CCS technology, potentially more environmentally friendly and lesser energy demanding than traditional material. PILs possess a unique combination of ionic liquids (ILs) features, such as affinity for CO2, thermal and chemical stability and adjustable properties, coupled with the intrinsic properties of the polymer. This study investigated new Poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) based on polyurethanes with different ionic liquids cations and its potential for CO2 capture. The PILs were synthesized by the addition of diisocyante to a difunctional polyol, followed by an exchange reaction with the ionic Liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl); tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB). These materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Tensile strength analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The PILs CO2 sorption capacity were gravimetrically assessed in a Magnetic Suspension Balance (MSB). It was found that the ionic liquids cation influences in the compounds properties as well as in the CO2 sorption. The best result for CO2 sorption (123 mgCO2/g at 30 bar) was obtained for the PIL (PUPT-TBA). The higher CO2 sorption in PUPT-TBA is probably linked to the fact that the tetraalkylammonium cation having a higher positive density charge can have a stronger interaction with CO2, while the imidazolium charge is delocalized. The comparative CO2 sorption values of the PUPT-TBA with different ionic liquids showed that this material has greater capacity for capturing CO2 when compared to the ILs even at higher temperature. This behavior highlights the importance of this study, as the poly (urethane) based PILs are cheap and versatile materials.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, CO2, capture, ionic poly(urethane)

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13 Recycling the Lanthanides from Permanent Magnets by Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquid

Authors: Celine Bonnaud, Isabelle Billard, Nicolas Papaiconomou, Eric Chainet


Thanks to their high magnetization and low mass, permanent magnets (NdFeB and SmCo) have quickly became essential for new energies (wind turbines, electrical vehicles…). They contain large quantities of neodymium, samarium and dysprosium, that have been recently classified as critical elements and that therefore need to be recycled. Electrochemical processes including electrodissolution followed by electrodeposition are an elegant and environmentally friendly solution for the recycling of such lanthanides contained in permanent magnets. However, electrochemistry of the lanthanides is a real challenge as their standard potentials are highly negative (around -2.5V vs ENH). Consequently, non-aqueous solvents are required. Ionic liquids (IL) are novel electrolytes exhibiting physico-chemical properties that fulfill many requirements of the sustainable chemistry principles, such as extremely low volatility and non-flammability. Furthermore, their chemical and electrochemical properties (solvation of metallic ions, large electrochemical windows, etc.) render them very attractive media to implement alternative and sustainable processes in view of integrated processes. All experiments that will be presented were carried out using butyl-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Linear sweep, cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrochemical techniques were used. The reliability of electrochemical experiments, performed without glove box, for the classic three electrodes cell used in this study has been assessed. Deposits were obtained by chronoamperometry and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The IL cathodic behavior under different constraints (argon, nitrogen, oxygen atmosphere or water content) and using several electrode materials (Pt, Au, GC) shows that with argon gas flow and gold as a working electrode, the cathodic potential can reach the maximum value of -3V vs Fc+/Fc; thus allowing a possible reduction of lanthanides. On a gold working electrode, the reduction potential of samarium and neodymium was found to be -1.8V vs Fc+/Fc while that of dysprosium was -2.1V vs Fc+/Fc. The individual deposits obtained were found to be porous and presented some significant amounts of C, N, F, S and O atoms. Selective deposition of neodymium in presence of dysprosium was also studied and will be discussed. Next, metallic Sm, Nd and Dy electrodes were used in replacement of Au, which induced changes in the reduction potential values and the deposit structures of lanthanides. The individual corrosion potentials were also measured in order to determine the parameters influencing the electrodissolution of these metals. Finally, a full recycling process was investigated. Electrodissolution of a real permanent magnet sample was monitored kinetically. Then, the sequential electrodeposition of all lanthanides contained in the IL was investigated. Yields, quality of the deposits and consumption of chemicals will be discussed in depth, in view of the industrial feasibility of this process for real permanent magnets recycling.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, electrodeposition, lanthanides, electrodissolution, rcycling

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12 Separation of Copper(II) and Iron(III) by Solvent Extraction and Membrane Processes with Ionic Liquids as Carriers

Authors: Beata Pospiech


Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions is important as well as difficult process in hydrometallurgical technology. This process is necessary for obtaining of clean metals. Solvent extraction and membrane processes are well known as separation methods. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are very often applied and studied as extractants and carriers of metal ions from aqueous solutions due to their good extractability properties for various metals. This work discusses a method to separate copper(II) and iron(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) with the selected ionic liquids as extractants/ion carriers. Cyphos IL 101 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride), Cyphos IL 104 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4 trimethylpentyl)phosphi-nate), trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate [A336][TS] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium thiosalicylate [PR4][TS] were used for the investigations. Effect of different parameters such as hydrochloric acid concentration in aqueous phase on iron(III) and copper(II) extraction has been investigated. Cellulose triacetate membranes with the selected ionic liquids as carriers have been prepared and applied for transport of iron(IIII) and copper(II) from hydrochloric acid solutions.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Iron, Copper, solvent extraction

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11 Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Methoxy and Nitrile-Functionalized Ionic Liquids

Authors: D. A. Bruzon, G. Tapang, I. S. Martinez


Global warming and climate change are significant environmental concerns, which require immediate global action in carbon emission mitigation. The capture, sequestration, and conversion of carbon dioxide to other products such as methane or ethanol are ways to control excessive emissions. Ionic liquids have shown great potential among the materials studied as carbon capture solvents and catalysts in the reduction of CO2. In this study, ionic liquids comprising of a methoxy (-OCH3) and cyano (-CN) functionalized imidazolium cation, [MOBMIM] and [CNBMIM] respectively, paired with tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [FAP] anion were evaluated as effective capture solvents, and organocatalysts in the reduction of CO2. An in-situ electrochemical set-up, which can measure controlled amounts of CO2 both in the gas and in the ionic liquid phase, was used. Initially, reduction potentials of CO2 in the CO2-saturated ionic liquids containing the internal standard cobaltocene were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric transients were obtained at potentials slightly less negative than the reduction potentials of CO2 in each ionic liquid. The time-dependent current response was measured under a controlled atmosphere. Reduction potentials of CO2 in methoxy and cyano-functionalized [FAP] ionic liquids were observed to occur at ca. -1.0 V (vs. Cc+/Cc), which was significantly lower compared to the non-functionalized analog [PMIM][FAP], with an observed reduction potential of CO2 at -1.6 V (vs. Cc+/Cc). This decrease in the potential required for CO2 reduction in the functionalized ionic liquids shows that the functional groups methoxy and cyano effectively decreased the free energy of formation of the radical anion CO2●⁻, suggesting that these electrolytes may be used as organocatalysts in the reduction of the greenhouse gas. However, upon analyzing the solubility of the gas in each ionic liquid, [PMIM][FAP] showed the highest absorption capacity, at 4.81 mM under saturated conditions, compared to [MOBMIM][FAP] at 1.86 mM, and [CNBMIM][FAP] at 0.76 mM. Also, calculated Henry’s constant determined from the concentration-pressure graph of each functionalized ionic liquid shows that the groups -OCH3 and -CN attached terminal to a C4 alkyl chain do not significantly improve CO2 solubility.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Ionic Liquids, Carbon capture, CO2 Reduction

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10 Ionic Liquids as Substrates for Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis

Authors: Julian Mehler, Marcus Fischer, Martin Hartmann, Peter S. Schulz


During the last two decades, the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has gained ever increasing attention. Based on their pore size and shape as well as host-guest interactions, they are of interest for numerous fields related to porous materials, like catalysis and gas separation. Usually, MOF-synthesis takes place in an organic solvent between room temperature and approximately 220 °C, with mixtures of polyfunctional organic linker molecules and metal precursors as substrates. Reaction temperatures above the boiling point of the solvent, i.e. solvothermal reactions, are run in autoclaves or sealed glass vessels under autogenous pressures. A relatively new approach for the synthesis of MOFs is the so-called ionothermal synthesis route. It applies an ionic liquid as a solvent, which can serve as a structure-directing template and/or a charge-compensating agent in the final coordination polymer structure. Furthermore, this method often allows for less harsh reaction conditions than the solvothermal route. Here a variation of the ionothermal approach is reported, where the ionic liquid also serves as an organic linker source. By using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium terephthalates ([EMIM][Hbdc] and [EMIM]₂[bdc]), the one-step synthesis of MIL-53(Al)/Boehemite composites with interesting features is possible. The resulting material is already formed at moderate temperatures (90-130 °C) and is stabilized in the usually unfavored ht-phase. Additionally, in contrast to already published procedures for MIL-53(Al) synthesis, no further activation at high temperatures is mandatory. A full characterization of this novel composite material is provided, including XRD, SS-NMR, El-Al., SEM as well as sorption measurements and its interesting features are compared to MIL-53(Al) samples produced by the classical solvothermal route. Furthermore, the syntheses of the applied ionic liquids and salts is discussed. The influence of the degree of ionicity of the linker source [EMIM]x[H(2-x)bdc] on the crystal structure and the achievable synthesis temperature are investigated and give insight into the role of the IL during synthesis. Aside from the synthesis of MIL-53 from EMIM terephthalates, the use of the phosphonium cation in this approach is discussed as well. Additionally, the employment of ILs in the preparation of other MOFs is presented briefly. This includes the ZIF-4 framework from the respective imidazolate ILs and chiral camphorate based frameworks from their imidazolium precursors.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, MOFs, Material synthesis, ionothermal synthesis, MIL-53

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9 Green Extraction of Patchoulol from Patchouli Leaves Using Ultrasound-Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: G. C. Jadeja, M. A. Desai, D. R. Bhatt, J. K. Parikh


Green extraction techniques are fast paving ways into various industrial sectors due to the stringent governmental regulations leading to the banning of toxic chemicals’ usage and also due to the increasing health/environmental awareness. The present work describes the ionic liquids based sonication method for selectively extracting patchoulol from the leaves of patchouli. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF4) and N,N,N,N’,N’,N’-Hexaethyl-butane-1,4-diammonium dibromide (dicationic ionic liquid - DIL) were selected for extraction. Ultrasound assisted ionic liquid extraction was employed considering concentration of ionic liquid (4–8 %, w/w), ultrasound power (50–150 W for [Bmim]BF4 and 20–80 W for DIL), temperature (30–50 oC) and extraction time (30–50 min) as major parameters influencing the yield of patchoulol. Using the Taguchi method, the parameters were optimized and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find the most influential factor in the selected extraction method. In case of [Bmim]BF4, the optimum conditions were found to be: 4 % (w/w) ionic liquid concentration, 50 W power, 30 oC temperature and extraction time of 30 min. The yield obtained under the optimum conditions was 3.99 mg/g. In case of DIL, the optimum conditions were obtained as 6 % (w/w) ionic liquid concentration, 80 W power, 30 oC temperature and extraction time of 40 min, for which the yield obtained was 4.03 mg/g. Temperature was found to be the most significant factor in both the cases. Extraction time was the insignificant parameter while extracting the product using [Bmim]BF4 and in case of DIL, power was found to be the least significant factor affecting the process. Thus, a green method of recovering patchoulol is proposed.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Ionic Liquids, green extraction, patchoulol

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8 Improving Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Injection and Nanotechnology

Authors: Babak Moradi, Amir Gerayeli


The continuously declining oil reservoirs and reservoirs aging have created a huge demand for utilization of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods recently. Primary and secondary oil recovery methods have various limitations and are not practical for all reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to use chemical methods to improve oil recovery efficiency by reducing oil and water surface tension, increasing sweeping efficiency, and reducing displacer phase viscosity. One of the well-known methods of oil recovery is Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding that shown to have significant impact on enhancing oil recovery. As some of the biggest oil reservoirs including those of Iran’s are fractional reservoirs with substantial amount of trapped oil in their fractures, the use of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding method is increasingly growing, the method in which the impact of several parameters including type and concentration of the Alkaline, Surfactant, and polymer are particularly important. This study investigated the use of Nano particles to improve Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The study methodology included performing several laboratory tests on drill cores extracted from Karanj Oil field Asmary Formation in Khuzestan, Iran. In the experiments performed, Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12mim] [Cl])) were used as surfactant, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as alkaline, and Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium oxide (MgO) were used as Nano particles. The experiment findings suggest that water viscosity increased from 1 centipoise to 5 centipoise when hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer. The surface tension between oil and water was initially measured as 25.808 (mN/m). The optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 500 p, at which the oil and water tension surface was measured to be 2.90 (mN/m) when [C12mim] [Cl] was used, and 3.28 (mN/m) when SDBS was used. The Nano particles concentration ranged from 100 ppm to 1500 ppm in this study. The optimum Nano particle concentration was found to be 1000 ppm for MgO and 500 ppm for SiO2.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, relative permeability, alkaline-surfactant-polymer, reduced surface tension, tertiary enhanced oil recovery, wettability change

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7 DNA and DNA-Complexes Modified with Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Krzysztof Danel


Aqueous suspensions of DNA were illuminated with linearly polarized visible light and ultraviolet for 5, 15, 20 and 40 h. In order to check the nature of modification, DNA interactions were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For each illuminated sample, weight average molecular weight and hydrodynamic radius were measured by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Resulting optical changes for illuminated DNA were investigated using UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescent. Optical properties show potential application in sensors based on modified DNA. Then selected DNA-surfactant complexes were illuminated with electromagnetic radiation for 5h. Molecular structure, optical characteristic were examinated for obtained complexes. Illumination led to changes of complexes physicochemical properties as compared with native DNA. Observed changes were induced by rearrangement of the molecular structure of DNA chains.

Keywords: Biopolymers, Ionic Liquids, Ultraviolet, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, linearly polarized visible light

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6 Ionic Liquid and Chemical Denaturants Effects on the Fluorescence Properties of the Laccase

Authors: Othman Saoudi


In this work, we have interested in the investigation of the chemical denaturants and synthesized ionic liquids effects on the fluorescence properties of the laccase from Trametes versicolor. The fluorescence properties of the laccase result from the presence of Tryptophan, which has an aromatic core responsible for the absorption in ultra violet domain and the emission of the photons of fluorescence. The effect Pyrrolidinuim Formate ([pyrr][F]) and Morpholinium Formate ([morph][F]) ionic liquids on the laccase behavior for various volumetric fractions are studied. We have shown that the fluorescence spectrum relative to the [pyrr][F] presents a single band with a maximum around 340 nm and a secondary peak at 361 nm for a volumetric fraction of 20% v/v. For concentration superiors to 40%, the fluorescence intensity decreases and a displacement of the peaks toward higher wavelengths has occurred. For the [morph][F], the fluorescence spectrum showed a single band around 340 nm. The intensity of the principal peak decreases for concentration superiors to 20% v/v. From the plot representing the variation of the λₘₐₓ versus the volumetric concentration, we have determined the concentration of the half-transitions C1/2. These concentrations are equal to 42.62% and 40.91% v/v in the presence of [pyrr][F] and [morph][F] respectively. For the chemical denaturation, we have shown that the fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing denaturant concentrations where the maximum of the wavelength of emission shifts toward the higher wavelengths. We have also determined from the spectrum relative to the urea and GdmCl, the unfolding energy, ∆GD. The results show that the variation of the unfolding energy as a function of the denaturant concentrations varies according to the linear regression model. We have demonstrated also that the half-transitions C1/2 have occurred for urea and GdmCl denaturants concentrations around 3.06 and 3.17 M respectively.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Fluorescence, laccase, chemical denaturants

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5 Modelling and Simulating CO2 Electro-Reduction to Formic Acid Using Microfluidic Electrolytic Cells: The Influence of Bi-Sn Catalyst and 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Tetra-Fluoroborate Electrolyte on Cell Performance

Authors: Akan C. Offong, E. J. Anthony, Vasilije Manovic


A modified steady-state numerical model is developed for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formic acid. The numerical model achieves a CD (current density) (~60 mA/cm2), FE-faradaic efficiency (~98%) and conversion (~80%) for CO2 electro-reduction to formic acid in a microfluidic cell. The model integrates charge and species transport, mass conservation, and momentum with electrochemistry. Specifically, the influences of Bi-Sn based nanoparticle catalyst (on the cathode surface) at different mole fractions and 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetra-fluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) electrolyte, on CD, FE and CO2 conversion to formic acid is studied. The reaction is carried out at a constant concentration of electrolyte (85% v/v., [EMIM][BF4]). Based on the mass transfer characteristics analysis (concentration contours), mole ratio 0.5:0.5 Bi-Sn catalyst displays the highest CO2 mole consumption in the cathode gas channel. After validating with experimental data (polarisation curves) from literature, extensive simulations reveal performance measure: CD, FE and CO2 conversion. Increasing the negative cathode potential increases the current densities for both formic acid and H2 formations. However, H2 formations are minimal as a result of insufficient hydrogen ions in the ionic liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the limited hydrogen ions have a negative effect on formic acid CD. As CO2 flow rate increases, CD, FE and CO2 conversion increases.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Modelling, Ionic Liquids, Carbon Dioxide, electro-chemical reduction

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4 Ionic Liquids-Polymer Nanoparticle Systems as Breakthrough Tools to Improve the Leprosy Treatment

Authors: A. Julio, R. Caparica, S. Costa Lima, S. Reis, J. G. Costa, P. Fonte, T. Santos De Almeida


The Mycobacterium leprae causes a chronic and infectious disease called leprosy, which the most common symptoms are peripheral neuropathy and deformation of several parts of the body. The pharmacological treatment of leprosy is a combined therapy with three different drugs, rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. However, clofazimine and dapsone have poor solubility in water and also low bioavailability. Thus, it is crucial to develop strategies to overcome such drawbacks. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) may be a strategy to overcome the low solubility since they have been used as solubility promoters. ILs are salts, liquid below 100 ºC or even at room temperature, that may be placed in water, oils or hydroalcoholic solutions. Another approach may be the encapsulation of drugs into polymeric nanoparticles, which improves their bioavailability. In this study, two different classes of ILs were used, the imidazole- and the choline-based ionic liquids, as solubility enhancers of the poorly soluble antileprotic drugs. Thus, after the solubility studies, it was developed IL-PLGA nanoparticles hybrid systems to deliver such drugs. First of all, the solubility studies of clofazimine and dapsone were performed in water and in water: IL mixtures, at ILs concentrations where cell viability is maintained, at room temperature for 72 hours. For both drugs, it was observed an improvement on the drug solubility and [Cho][Phe] showed to be the best solubility enhancer, especially for clofazimine, where it was observed a 10-fold improvement. Later, it was produced nanoparticles, with a polymeric matrix of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 75:25, by a modified solvent-evaporation W/O/W double emulsion technique in the presence of [Cho][Phe]. Thus, the inner phase was an aqueous solution of 0.2 % (v/v) of the above IL with each drug to its maximum solubility determined on the previous study. After the production, the nanosystem hybrid was physicochemically characterized. The produced nanoparticles had a diameter of around 580 nm and 640 nm, for clofazimine and dapsone, respectively. Regarding the polydispersity index, it was in agreement of the recommended value of this parameter for drug delivery systems (around 0.3). The association efficiency (AE) of the developed hybrid nanosystems demonstrated promising AE values for both drugs, given their low solubility (64.0 ± 4.0 % for clofazimine and 58.6 ± 10.0 % for dapsone), that prospects the capacity of these delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability and loading of clofazimine and dapsone. Overall, the study achievement may signify an upgrading of the patient’s quality of life, since it may mean a change in the therapeutic scheme, not requiring doses of drug so high to obtain a therapeutic effect. The authors would like to thank Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal (FCT/MCTES (PIDDAC), UID/DTP/04567/2016-CBIOS/PRUID/BI2/2018).

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, solubility, ionic liquids-PLGA nanoparticles hybrid systems, leprosy treatment

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3 Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths Elements by Use of Ionic Liquids

Authors: C. Lopez, S. Dourdain, G. Arrachart, S. Pellet-Rostaing


Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered a good alternative for organic solvents in extractive processes; however, the higher or lower extraction efficiency in ILs remains difficult to predict because a lack of understanding of the extraction mechanisms in this class of diluents, making their application difficult to generalize. We have studied the extraction behavior of La(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous solution into n-dodecane and two ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-1-butylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EBPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] and 1-ethyl-1-octylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EOPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻], at room temperature using N,N’- dimethyl- N,N’-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA) as extractant. Fe(III) was introduced to the aqueous phase in order to study the selectivity toward La(III) and Eu(III) and the effect of variation of PH was investigated by using of several HNO₃ concentrations. We found that the ionic liquid with shorter alkyl chain [EBPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] showed a higher extraction ability than [EOPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] and that the use of ILs as organic solvent instead n-dodecane, greatly enhanced the extraction percentage of the target metals with a good selectivity. Cation ([EBPip⁺] or [EOPip⁺]) and anion ([NTf₂⁻]) concentration in the aqueous phase, has been determined in order to elucidate the extraction mechanism.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, solvent extraction, extraction mechanism, rare earths elements

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2 Structure-Reactivity Relationship of Some Rhᴵᴵᴵ and Osᴵᴵᴵ Complexes with N-Inert Ligands in Ionic Liquids

Authors: Jovana Bogojeski, Dusan Cocic, Nenad Jankovic, Angelina Petrovic


Kinetically-inert transition metal complexes, such as Rh(III) and Os(III) complexes, attract increasing attention as leading scaffolds for the development of potential pharmacological agents due to their inertness and stability. Therefore, we have designed and fully characterized a few novel rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes with a tridentate nitrogen−donor chelate system. For some complexes, the crystal X-ray structure analysis was performed. Reactivity of the newly synthesized complexes towards small biomolecules, such as L-methionine (L-Met), guanosine-5’-monophosphate (5’-GMP), and glutathione (GSH) has been examined. Also, the reactivity of these complexes towards the DNA/RNA (Ribonucleic acid) duplexes was investigated. Obtained results show that the newly synthesized complexes exhibit good affinity towards the studied ligands. Results also show that the complexes react faster with the RNA duplex than with the DNA and that in the DNA duplex reaction is faster with 15mer GG than with the 22mer GG. The UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy) is absorption spectroscopy, and the EB (Ethidium bromide) displacement studies were used to examine the interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA and BSA (Bovine serum albumin). All studied complex showed good interaction ability with both the DNA and BSA. Furthermore, the DFT (Density-functional theory) calculation and docking studies were performed. The impact of the metal complex on the cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assay (a colorimetric assay for assessing cell metabolic activity) on HCT-116 lines (human colon cancer cell line). In addition, all these tests were repeated in the presence of several water-soluble biologically active ionic liquids. Attained results indicate that the ionic liquids increase the activity of the investigated complexes. All obtained results in this study imply that the introduction of different spectator ligand can be used to improve the reactivity of rhodium(III) and osmium(III) complexes. Finally, these results indicate that the examined complexes show reactivity characteristics needed for potential anti-tumor agents, with possible targets being both the DNA and proteins. Every new contribution in this field is highly warranted due to the current lack of clinically used Metallo-based alternatives to cisplatin.

Keywords: Biomolecules, Ionic Liquids, osmium(III), rhodium(III)

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1 Screening of Ionic Liquids for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Using COSMO-RS

Authors: Zulaika Mohd Khasiran


The capability of ionic liquids in various applications makes them attracted by many researchers. They have potential to be developed as “green” solvents for gas separation, especially H2S gas. In this work, it is attempted to predict the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ILs by COSMO-RS method. Since H2S is a toxic pollutant, it is difficult to work on it in the laboratory, therefore an appropriate model will be necessary in prior work. The COSMO-RS method is implemented to predict the Henry’s law constants and activity coefficient of H2S in 140 ILs with various combinations of cations and anions. It is found by the screening that more H2S can be absorbed in ILs with [Cl] and [Ac] anion. The solubility of H2S in ILs with different alkyl chain at the cations not much affected and with different type of cations are slightly influence H2S capture capacities. Even though the cations do not affect much in solubility of H2S, we still need to consider the effectiveness of cation in different way. The prediction results only show their physical absorption ability, but the absorption of H2S need to be consider chemically to get high capacity of absorption of H2S.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Hydrogen Sulfide, H2S, COSMO-RS

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