Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Inventory Related Abstracts

14 On Disaggregation and Consolidation of Imperfect Quality Shipments in an Extended EPQ Model

Authors: Hung-Chi Chang

Abstract:

For an extended EPQ model with random yield, the existent study revealed that both the disaggregating and consolidating shipment policies for the imperfect quality items are independent of holding cost, and recommended a model with economic benefit by comparing the least total cost for each of the three models investigated. To better capture the real situation, we generalize the existent study to include different holding costs for perfect and imperfect quality items. Through analysis, we show that the above shipment policies are dependent on holding costs. Furthermore, we derive a simple decision rule solely based on the thresholds of problem parameters to select a superior model. The results are illustrated analytically and numerically.

Keywords: Inventory, consolidating shipments, disaggregating shipments, EPQ, imperfect quality

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13 Strategy of Inventory Analysis with Economic Order Quantity and Quick Response: Case on Filter Inventory for Heavy Equipment in Indonesia

Authors: Lim Sanny, Felix Christian

Abstract:

The use of heavy equipment in Indonesia is always increasing. Cost reduction in procurement of spare parts is the aim of the company. The spare parts in this research are focused in the kind of filters. On the early step, the choosing of priority filter will be studied further by using the ABC analysis. To find out future demand of the filter, this research is using demand forecast by utilizing the QM software for windows. And to find out the best method of inventory control for each kind of filter is by comparing the total cost of Economic Order Quantity and Quick response inventory method. For the three kind of filters which are Cartridge, Engine oil – pn : 600-211-123, Element, Transmission – pn : 424-16-11140, and Element, Hydraulic – pn : 07063-01054, the best forecasting method is Linear regression. The best method for inventory control of Cartridge, Engine oil – pn : 600-211-123 and Element, Transmission – pn : 424-16-11140, is Quick Response Inventory, while the best method for Element, Hydraulic – pn : 07063-01054 is Economic Order Quantity.

Keywords: Forecasting, Strategy, Inventory, ABC analysis, economic order quantity, quick response inventory

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12 Allometric Models for Biomass Estimation in Savanna Woodland Area, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Jibrin, Aishetu Abdulkadir

Abstract:

The development of allometric models is crucial to accurate forest biomass/carbon stock assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a set of biomass prediction models that will enable the determination of total tree aboveground biomass for savannah woodland area in Niger State, Nigeria. Based on the data collected through biometric measurements of 1816 trees and destructive sampling of 36 trees, five species specific and one site specific models were developed. The sample size was distributed equally between the five most dominant species in the study site (Vitellaria paradoxa, Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia biglobosa, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Pterocarpus erinaceous). Firstly, the equations were developed for five individual species. Secondly these five species were mixed and were used to develop an allometric equation of mixed species. Overall, there was a strong positive relationship between total tree biomass and the stem diameter. The coefficient of determination (R2 values) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99 P < 0.001 were realised for the models; with considerable low standard error of the estimates (SEE) which confirms that the total tree above ground biomass has a significant relationship with the dbh. The F-test value for the biomass prediction models were also significant at p < 0.001 which indicates that the biomass prediction models are valid. This study recommends that for improved biomass estimates in the study site, the site specific biomass models should preferably be used instead of using generic models.

Keywords: biomass, Inventory, model, allometriy, carbon stock, regression equation, woodland

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11 A Framework for Supply Chain Efficiency Evaluation of Mass Customized Automobiles

Authors: Arshia Khan, Hans-Dietrich Haasis

Abstract:

Different tools of the supply chain should be managed very efficiently in mass customization. In the automobile industry, there are different strategies to manage these tools. We need to investigate which strategies among the different ones are successful and which are not. There is lack in literature regarding such analysis. Keeping this in view, the purpose of this paper is to construct a framework and model which can help to analyze the supply chain of mass customized automobiles quantitatively for future studies. Furthermore, we will also consider that which type of data can be used for the suggested model and where it can be taken from. Such framework can help to bring insight for future analysis.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Distribution, Inventory, mass customization, automobile industry

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10 Effect of Inventory Management on Financial Performance: Evidence from Nigerian Conglomerate Companies

Authors: Adamu Danlami Ahmed

Abstract:

Inventory management is the determinant of effective and efficient work for any manager. This study looked at the relationship between inventory management and financial performance. The population of the study comprises all conglomerate quoted companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange market as at 31st December 2010. The scope of the study covered the period from 2010 to 2014. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regressions are used to analyze the data. It was found that inventory management is significantly related to the profitability of the company. This entails that an efficient management of the inventory cycle will enhance the profitability of the company. Also, lack of proper management of it will hinder the financial performance of organizations. Based on the results, it was recommended that a conglomerate company should try to see that inventories are kept to a minimum, as well as make sure the proper checks are maintained to make sure only needed inventories are in the store. As well as to keep track of the movement of goods, in order to avoid unnecessary delay of finished and work in progress (WIP) goods in the store and warehouse.

Keywords: Inventory, Financial Performance, finished goods, work in progress

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9 Precipitation Intensity: Duration Based Threshold Analysis for Initiation of Landslides in Upper Alaknanda Valley

Authors: Soumiya Bhattacharjee, P. K. Champati Ray, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Mrinmoy Dhara

Abstract:

The entire Himalayan range is globally renowned for rainfall-induced landslides. The prime focus of the study is to determine rainfall based threshold for initiation of landslides that can be used as an important component of an early warning system for alerting stake holders. This research deals with temporal dimension of slope failures due to extreme rainfall events along the National Highway-58 from Karanprayag to Badrinath in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Post processed 3-hourly rainfall intensity data and its corresponding duration from daily rainfall data available from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used as the prime source of rainfall data. Landslide event records from Border Road Organization (BRO) and some ancillary landslide inventory data for 2013 and 2014 have been used to determine Intensity Duration (ID) based rainfall threshold. The derived governing threshold equation, I= 4.738D-0.025, has been considered for prediction of landslides of the study region. This equation was validated with an accuracy of 70% landslides during August and September 2014. The derived equation was considered for further prediction of landslides of the study region. From the obtained results and validation, it can be inferred that this equation can be used for initiation of landslides in the study area to work as a part of an early warning system. Results can significantly improve with ground based rainfall estimates and better database on landslide records. Thus, the study has demonstrated a very low cost method to get first-hand information on possibility of impending landslide in any region, thereby providing alert and better preparedness for landslide disaster mitigation.

Keywords: Inventory, Landslide, Early Warning System, slope, intensity-duration, rainfall threshold, TRMM

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8 Improving Sales through Inventory Reduction: A Retail Chain Case Study

Authors: M. G. Mattos, J. E. Pécora Jr, T. A. Briso

Abstract:

Today's challenging business environment, with unpredictable demand and volatility, requires a supply chain strategy that handles uncertainty and risks in the right way. Even though inventory models have been previously explored, this paper seeks to apply these concepts on a practical situation. This study involves the inventory replenishment problem, applying techniques that are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling. The primary goal is to improve the retailer’s supply chain processes taking store differences when setting the various target stock levels. Through inventory review policy, picking piece implementation and minimum exposure definition, we were able not only to promote the inventory reduction as well as improve sales results. The inventory management theory from literature review was then tested on a single case study regarding a particular department in one of the largest Latam retail chains.

Keywords: Distribution, Risk, Inventory, Uncertainty, retail, sales, safety stock

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7 South Atlantic Architects Validation of the Construction Decision Making Inventory

Authors: Sandeep Langar, Tulio Sulbaran

Abstract:

Architects are an integral part of the construction industry and are continuously incorporating decisions that influence projects during their life cycle. These decisions aim at selecting best alternative from the ones available. Unfortunately, this decision making process is mainly unexplored in the construction industry. No instrument to measure construction decision, based on knowledgebase of decision-makers, has existed. Additionally, limited literature is available on the topic. Recently, an instrument to gain an understanding of the construction decision-making process was developed by Dr. Tulio Sulbaran from the University of Texas, San Antonio. The instrument’s name is 'Construction Decision Making Inventory (CDMI)'. The CDMI is an innovative idea to measure the 'What? When? How? Moreover, Who?' of the construction decision-making process. As an innovative idea, its statistical validity (accuracy of the assessment) is yet to be assessed. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a case study with architects in the south-east of the United States aimed to determine the CDMI validity. The results of the case study are important because they assess the validity of the tool. Furthermore, as the architects evaluated each question within the measurements, this study is also guiding the enhancement of the CDMI.

Keywords: Decision, Inventory, architect, support

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6 Mitigating the Cost of Empty Container Repositioning through the Virtual Container Yard: An Appraisal of Carriers’ Perceptions

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa, Z. Jin

Abstract:

Empty container repositioning is a fundamental problem faced by the shipping industry. The virtual container yard is a novel strategy underpinning the container interchange between carriers that could substantially reduce this ever-increasing shipping cost. This paper evaluates the shipping industry perception of the virtual container yard using chi-square tests. It examines if the carriers perceive that the selected independent variables, namely culture, organization, decision, marketing, attitudes, legal, independent, complexity, and stakeholders of carriers, impact the efficiency and benefits of the virtual container yard. There are two major findings of the research. Firstly, carriers view that complexity, attitudes, and stakeholders may impact the effectiveness of container interchange and may influence the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Secondly, the three factors of legal, organization, and decision influence only the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Accordingly, the implementation of the virtual container yard will be influenced by six key factors, namely complexity, attitudes, stakeholders, legal, organization and decision. Since the virtual container yard could reduce overall shipping costs, it is vital to examine the carriers’ perception of this concept.

Keywords: Management, Inventory, virtual container yard, imbalance

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5 The Virtual Container Yard: Identifying the Persuasive Factors in Container Interchange

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

The virtual container yard is an effective solution to the container inventory imbalance problem which is a global issue. It causes substantial cost to carriers, which inadvertently adds to the prices of consumer goods. The virtual container yard is rooted in the fundamentals of container interchange between carriers. If carriers opt to interchange their excess containers with those who are deficit, a substantial part of the empty reposition cost could be eliminated. Unlike in other types of ships, cargo cannot be directly loaded to a container ship. Slots and containers are supplementary components; thus, without containers, a carrier cannot ship cargo if the containers are not available and vice versa. Few decades ago, carriers recognized slot (the unit of space in a container ship) interchange as a viable solution for the imbalance of shipping space. Carriers interchange slots among them and it also increases the advantage of scale of economies in container shipping. Some of these service agreements between mega carriers have provisions to interchange containers too. However, the interchange mechanism is still not popular among carriers for containers. This is the paradox that prevails in the liner shipping industry. At present, carriers reposition their excess empty containers to areas where they are in demand. This research applied factor analysis statistical method. The paper reveals that five major components may influence the virtual container yard namely organisation, practice and culture, legal and environment, international nature, and marketing. There are 12 variables that may impact the virtual container yard, and these are explained in the paper.

Keywords: Management, Inventory, Shipping, virtual container yard, imbalance

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4 Optimal Emergency Shipment Policy for a Single-Echelon Periodic Review Inventory System

Authors: Saeed Poormoaied, Zumbul Atan

Abstract:

Emergency shipments provide a powerful mechanism to alleviate the risk of imminent stock-outs and can result in substantial benefits in an inventory system. Customer satisfaction and high service level are immediate consequences of utilizing emergency shipments. In this paper, we consider a single-echelon periodic review inventory system consisting of a single local warehouse, being replenished from a central warehouse with ample capacity in an infinite horizon setting. Since the structure of the optimal policy appears to be complicated, we analyze this problem under an order-up-to-S inventory control policy framework, the (S, T) policy, with the emergency shipment consideration. In each period of the periodic review policy, there is a single opportunity at any point of time for the emergency shipment so that in case of stock-outs, an emergency shipment is requested. The goal is to determine the timing and amount of the emergency shipment during a period (emergency shipment policy) as well as the base stock periodic review policy parameters (replenishment policy). We show that how taking advantage of having an emergency shipment during periods improves the performance of the classical (S, T) policy, especially when fixed and unit emergency shipment costs are small. Investigating the structure of the objective function, we develop an exact algorithm for finding the optimal solution. We also provide a heuristic and an approximation algorithm for the periodic review inventory system problem. The experimental analyses indicate that the heuristic algorithm is computationally more efficient than the approximation algorithm, but in terms of the solution efficiency, the approximation algorithm performs very well. We achieve up to 13% cost savings in the (S, T) policy if we apply the proposed emergency shipment policy. Moreover, our computational results reveal that the approximated solution is often within 0.21% of the globally optimal solution.

Keywords: Inventory, emergency shipment, periodic review policy, approximation algorithm

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3 Dynamic Environmental Impact Study during the Construction of the French Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: A. Er-Raki, D. Hartmann, J. P. Belaud, S. Negny

Abstract:

This paper has a double purpose: firstly, a literature review of the life cycle analysis (LCA) and secondly a comparison between conventional (static) LCA and multi-level dynamic LCA on the following items: (i) inventories evolution with time (ii) temporal evolution of the databases. The first part of the paper summarizes the state of the art of the static LCA approach. The different static LCA limits have been identified and especially the non-consideration of the spatial and temporal evolution in the inventory, for the characterization factors (FCs) and into the databases. Then a description of the different levels of integration of the notion of temporality in life cycle analysis studies was made. In the second part, the dynamic inventory has been evaluated firstly for a single nuclear plant and secondly for the entire French nuclear power fleet by taking into account the construction durations of all the plants. In addition, the databases have been adapted by integrating the temporal variability of the French energy mix. Several iterations were used to converge towards the real environmental impact of the energy mix. Another adaptation of the databases to take into account the temporal evolution of the market data of the raw material was made. An identification of the energy mix of the time studied was based on an extrapolation of the production reference values of each means of production. An application to the construction of the French nuclear power plants from 1971 to 2000 has been performed, in which a dynamic inventory of raw material has been evaluated. Then the impacts were characterized by the ILCD 2011 characterization method. In order to compare with a purely static approach, a static impact assessment was made with the V 3.4 Ecoinvent data sheets without adaptation and a static inventory considering that all the power stations would have been built at the same time. Finally, a comparison between static and dynamic LCA approaches was set up to determine the gap between them for each of the two levels of integration. The results were analyzed to identify the contribution of the evolving nuclear power fleet construction to the total environmental impacts of the French energy mix during the same period. An equivalent strategy using a dynamic approach will further be applied to identify the environmental impacts that different scenarios of the energy transition could bring, allowing to choose the best energy mix from an environmental viewpoint.

Keywords: Nuclear Energy, Construction, Dynamic, Inventory, Energy Transition, Energy Mix, Static, LCA

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2 Virtual Container Yard: Assessing the Perceived Impact of Legal Implications to Container Carriers

Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Proshanto K. Mukherjee, Hansa Edirisinghe

Abstract:

Virtual Container Yard is (VCY) a modern concept that helps to reduce the empty container repositioning cost of carriers. The concept of VCY is based on container interchange between shipping lines. Although this mechanism has been theoretically accepted by the shipping community as a feasible solution, it has not yet achieved the necessary momentum among container shipping lines (CSL). Various researches have been conducted to ascertain the reason for this paradox, but no specific root cause has yet been established. This paper investigates whether there is any legal influence on this industry myopia about the VCY. It is believed that this is the first publication that focuses on the legal aspects of container exchange between carriers. Not much literature on this subject is available. This study establishes with statistical evidence that there is a phobia prevailing in the shipping industry that exchanging containers with other carriers may lead to various legal implications. The complexity of exchange is two faceted. CSLs assume that offering a container to another carrier (obviously, a competitor in terms of commercial context) or using a container offered by another carrier may lead to undue legal implications. This research reveals that this fear is reflected through four types of perceived components, namely, shipping associate; warehouse associate; network associate; and trading associate. These components carry eighteen subcomponents that comprehensively cover the entire process of a container shipment. The statistical explanation has been supported through regression analysis; INCO terms were used to illustrate the shipping process.

Keywords: Legal, Inventory, Maritime Law, virtual container yard

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1 A Heuristic Based Decomposition Approach for a Hierarchical Production Planning Problem

Authors: M. F. Baki, Nusrat T. Chowdhury, A. Azab

Abstract:

The production planning problem is concerned with specifying the optimal quantities to produce in order to meet the demand for a prespecified planning horizon with the least possible expenditure. Making the right decisions in production planning will affect directly the performance and productivity of a manufacturing firm, which is important for its ability to compete in the market. Therefore, developing and improving solution procedures for production planning problems is very significant. In this paper, we develop a Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of a multi-item hierarchical production planning problem with capacity constraint and present a column generation approach to solve the problem. The original Mixed Integer Linear Programming model of the problem is decomposed item by item into a master problem and a number of subproblems. The capacity constraint is considered as the linking constraint between the master problem and the subproblems. The subproblems are solved using the dynamic programming approach. We also propose a multi-step iterative capacity allocation heuristic procedure to handle any kind of infeasibility that arises while solving the problem. We compare the computational performance of the developed solution approach against the state-of-the-art heuristic procedure available in the literature. The results show that the proposed heuristic-based decomposition approach improves the solution quality by 20% as compared to the literature.

Keywords: Inventory, Emission Control, multi-level capacitated lot-sizing, setup carryover

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