Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Intimate Partner Violence Related Abstracts

17 Evaluation of the Accuracy of a ‘Two Question Screening Tool’ in the Detection of Intimate Partner Violence in a Primary Healthcare Setting in South Africa

Authors: A. Saimen, E. Armstrong, C. Manitshana

Abstract:

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a global human rights violation. It is universally under diagnosed and the institution of timeous multi-faceted interventions has been noted to benefit IPV victims. Currently, the concept of using a screening tool to detect IPV has not been widely explored in a primary healthcare setting in South Africa, and it was for this reason that this study has been undertaken. A systematic random sampling of 1 in 8 women over a period of 3 months was conducted prospectively at the OPD of a Level 1 Hospital. Participants were asked about their experience of IPV during the past 12 months. The WAST-short, a two-question tool, was used to screen patients for IPV. To verify the result of the screening, women were also asked the remaining questions from the WAST. Data was collected from 400 participants, with a response rate of 99.3%. The prevalence of IPV in the sample was 32%. The WAST-short was shown to have the following operating characteristics: sensitivity 45.2%, specificity 98%,positive predictive value 98%, negative predictive value 79%. The WAST-short lacks sufficient sensitivity and therefore is not an ideal screening tool for this setting. Improvement in the sensitivity of the WAST-short in this setting may be achieved by lowering the threshold for a positive result for IPV screening, and modification of the screening questions to better reflect IPV as understood by the local population.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Screening, Intimate Partner Violence, screening tools

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16 Effects of Family Order and Informal Social Control on Protecting against Child Maltreatment: A Comparative Study of Seoul and Kathmandu

Authors: Thapa Sirjana, Clifton R. Emery

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This paper examines the family order and Informal Social Control (ISC) by the extended families as a protective factor against Child Maltreatment. The findings are discussed using the main effects and the interaction effects of family order and informal social control by the extended families. The findings suggest that IPV mothers are associated with child abuse and child neglect. The children are neglected in the home more and physical abuse occurs in the case, if mothers are abused by their husbands. The mother’s difficulties of being abused may lead them to neglect their children. The findings suggest that ‘family order’ is a significant protective factor against child maltreatment. The results suggest that if the family order is neither too high nor too low than that can play a role as a protective factor. Soft type of ISC is significantly associated with child maltreatment. This study suggests that the soft type of ISC by the extended families is a helpful approach to develop child protection in both the countries. This study is analyzed the data collected from Seoul and Kathmandu families and neighborhood study (SKFNS). Random probability cluster sample of married or partnered women in 20 Kathmandu wards and in Seoul 34 dongs were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. Overall, the study is to make a comparative study of Korea and Nepal and examine how the cultural differences and similarities associate with the child maltreatment.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, Child Maltreatment, Kathmandu, informal social control and family order Seoul

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15 The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Police Decisions in Intimate Partner Violence Cases

Authors: Brenda Russell

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Police officers spend a great deal of time responding to domestic violence calls. Recent research has found that men and women in heterosexual and same-sex relationships are equally likely to initiate intimate partner violence IPV) and likewise susceptible to victimization, yet police training tends to focus primarily on male perpetration and female victimization. Criminal justice studies have found that male perpetrators of IPV are blamed more than female perpetrators who commit the same offense. While previous research has examined officer’s response in IPV cases with male and female heterosexual offenders, research has yet to investigate police response in same-sex relationships. This study examined officers’ decisions to arrest, perceptions of blame, perceived danger to others, disrespect, and beliefs in prosecution, guilt and sentencing. Officers in the U.S. (N = 248) were recruited using word of mouth and access to police association websites where a link to an online study was made available. Officers were provided with one of 4 experimentally manipulated scenarios depicting a male or female perpetrator (heterosexual or same-sex) in a clear domestic assault situation. Officer age, experience with IPV and IPV training were examined as possible covariates. Training in IPV was not correlated to any dependent variable of interest. Age was correlated with perpetrator arrest and blame (.14 and .16, respectively) and years of experience was correlated to arrest, offering informal advice, and mediating the incident (.14 to -.17). A 2(perpetrator gender) X 2 (victim gender) factorial design was conducted. Results revealed that officers were more likely to provide informal advice and mediate in gay male relationships, and were less likely to arrest perpetrators in same-sex relationships. When officer age and years of experience with domestic violence were statistically controlled, effects for perpetrator arrest and providing informal advice were no longer significant. Officers perceived heterosexual male perpetrators as more dangerous, blameworthy, disrespectful, and believed they would receive significantly longer sentences than all other conditions. When officer age and experience were included as covariates in the analyses perpetrator blame was no longer statistically significant. Age, experience and training in IPV were not related to perceptions of victims. Police perceived victims as more truthful and believable when the perpetrator was a male. Police also believed victims of female perpetrators were more responsible for their own victimization. Victims were more likely to be perceived as a danger to their family when the perpetrator was female. Female perpetrators in same-sex relationships and heterosexual males were considered to experience more mental illness than heterosexual female or gay male perpetrators. These results replicate previous research suggesting male perpetrators are more blameworthy and responsible for their own victimization, yet expands upon previous research by identifying potential biases in police response to IPV in same-sex relationships. This study brings to the forefront the importance of evidence-based officer training in IPV and provides insight into the need for a gender inclusive approach as well as addressing the necessity of the practical applications for police.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, heterosexual, officer response, police officer, same-sex

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14 The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Child Abuse in South Korea: Focused on the Moderating Effects of Patriarchal Attitude and Informal Social Control

Authors: Clifton R. Emery, Hye Lin Yang

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of intimate partner violence on child abuse, whether patriarchal attitude and informal social control moderate the relationship between intimate partner violence and child abuse. This study was conducted with data from The Seoul Families and Neighborhoods Study (SFNS). The SFNS is a representative random probability 3-stage cluster sample of 541 cohabiting couples in Seoul, South Korea collected in 2012. To verify research models, Random effect analysis were used. All analyses were performed using the Stata program. Results: Crucial findings are the following. First, intimate partner violence showed a significantly positive relationship with Child abuse. Second, there are significant moderating effects of informal social control on intimate partner violence - child abuse. Third, there are significant moderating effects of patriarchal attitude on intimate partner violence - child abuse. In other words, Patriarchal attitude is a significant risk factor of child abuse and informal social control is a significant Protection factor of child abuse. Based on results, the policy and practical implications for preventing child abuse, promoting informal social control were discussed.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, Child Abuse, informal social control, patriarchal attitude

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13 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku

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Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: Women, Mental Health, Intimate Partner Violence, reproductive age group

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12 The Unspoken Truth of Female Domestic Violence: An Integrative Review

Authors: Glenn Guira

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Domestic violence is an international pandemic that has affected women from all walks of life. The World Health Organization (2016), announced that recent global prevalence of violence against women indicates that 1 in 3 (35 %) women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner violence in their lifetime. It further said that violence against women is a major public health problem and violations of women’s human rights. Furthermore, the agency said that the factors associated in an increased risk of experiencing intimate partner and sexual violence include low education, child maltreatment or exposure to violence between parents, abuse during childhood, attitudes accepting violence and gender inequality. This is an integrative review of domestic violence focusing on four themes namely types of domestic violence against women, predictors of domestic violence against women, effects of domestic violence against women and strategies in addressing domestic violence against women. This integrative research study was conducted to identify relevant themes on domestic violence that was conducted and published. This study is geared toward understanding further domestic violence as a public health concern. Using the keywords domestic violence, Google Scholar, MEDLINE PLUS, and Ingenta Connect were searched to identify relevant studies. This resulted in 3,467 studies that fall within the copyright year 2006 – 2016. The studies were delimited to domestic violence against women because there are other types of violence that can be committed such as senior citizens abuse, child abuse, violence against males and gay/lesbian abuse. The significant findings of the research study are the following: the forms of domestic violence against women include physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, economic, spiritual and conflict-related violence against, the predictors of domestic violence against women include demographic, health-related, psychological, behavioral, partner-related and social-stress factors, the effects of domestic violence against women include victim-related factors and child-related factors and the strategies addressing domestic violence against women include personal-related strategies, education-related strategies, health-related strategies, legal-related strategies and judicial-related strategies. Consequent to the foregoing findings, the following conclusions are drawn by the researcher that there are published researches that presented different forms, predictors, effects and strategies addressing domestic violence committed by perpetrators against women. The researcher recommended that the summarized comprehensive data should be use to educate people who are potential victims of domestic violence and that future researchers should continue to conduct research for the development of pragmatic programs aimed at reducing domestic violence.

Keywords: Sexual Violence, Domestic Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Physical Abuse

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11 Testing a Dose-Response Model of Intergenerational Transmission of Family Violence

Authors: Katherine Maurer

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Background and purpose: Violence that occurs within families is a global social problem. Children who are victims or witness to family violence are at risk for many negative effects both proximally and distally. One of the most disconcerting long-term effects occurs when child victims become adult perpetrators: the intergenerational transmission of family violence (ITFV). Early identification of those children most at risk for ITFV is needed to inform interventions to prevent future family violence perpetration and victimization. Only about 25-30% of child family violence victims become perpetrators of adult family violence (either child abuse, partner abuse, or both). Prior research has primarily been conducted using dichotomous measures of exposure (yes; no) to predict ITFV, given the low incidence rate in community samples. It is often assumed that exposure to greater amounts of violence predicts greater risk of ITFV. However, no previous longitudinal study with a community sample has tested a dose-response model of exposure to physical child abuse and parental physical intimate partner violence (IPV) using count data of frequency and severity of violence to predict adult ITFV. The current study used advanced statistical methods to test if increased childhood exposure would predict greater risk of ITFV. Methods: The study utilized 3 panels of prospective data from a cohort of 15 year olds (N=338) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods longitudinal study. The data were comprised of a stratified probability sample of seven ethnic/racial categories and three socio-economic status levels. Structural equation modeling was employed to test a hurdle regression model of dose-response to predict ITFV. A version of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to measure physical violence victimization, witnessing parental IPV and young adult IPV perpetration and victimization. Results: Consistent with previous findings, past 12 months incidence rates severity and frequency of interpersonal violence were highly skewed. While rates of parental and young adult IPV were about 40%, an unusually high rate of physical child abuse (57%) was reported. The vast majority of a number of acts of violence, whether minor or severe, were in the 1-3 range in the past 12 months. Reported frequencies of more than 5 times in the past year were rare, with less than 10% of those reporting more than six acts of minor or severe physical violence. As expected, minor acts of violence were much more common than acts of severe violence. Overall, regression analyses were not significant for the dose-response model of ITFV. Conclusions and implications: The results of the dose-response model were not significant due to a lack of power in the final sample (N=338). Nonetheless, the value of the approach was confirmed for the future research given the bi-modal nature of the distributions which suggest that in the context of both child physical abuse and physical IPV, there are at least two classes when frequency of acts is considered. Taking frequency into account in predictive models may help to better understand the relationship of exposure to ITFV outcomes. Further testing using hurdle regression models is suggested.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Intimate Partner Violence, intergenerational transmission of family violence, physical child abuse

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10 A Cross-Sectional Study of Knowledge and Attitudes among College Students in a South Indian City about Intimate Partner Violence

Authors: Krithika Lakshmi Sathiya Moorthy

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Introduction: Young people’s attitude towards Intimate partner violence (IPV) is likely to influence their indulgence in or abstinence from IPV in future. We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students in a south Indian city regarding IPV, its associated factors and redressal mechanisms. Methods: A convenient sample of 247 students, pursuing medicine and engineering, participated in this analytical cross sectional study. They responded to a self-administered questionnaire developed and pretested for this study. The questionnaire comprises statements from a third person’s perspective and vignettes to reduce social desirability bias. Clearance was obtained from the Institute Ethical Committee of Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai, India. Data were entered in Epidata Entry v3.1, Odense, Denmark and analysed using SPSS v20.0. Results: Among 247 students, 116 (47%) were males and 59 (24.9%) hailed from rural areas. About 18% (43) of students believed that IPV was a problem only among females. Almost half of the students had witnessed IPV; at home between their parents (9.7%), other family members (13.4%), in their neighbourhood (13%) or public places (15%). Only 118 (47.8%) were aware that a law was in place in India to address IPV. The perceived risk factors for IPV were alcoholic spouse (78.9%), low income families (53.8%), personality traits (52.2%) and dowry system (51%). A sizeable number of students (38.4%) believed that some amount of physical violence was allowable in a marital relationship while 57.6% even considered IPV as an expression of love. Males as compared to females were more in agreement with negative gender stereotypes such as husband can– ‘threaten wife to ensure welfare of family’ (55% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), ‘spy on wife to check fidelity’ (41% vs. 27%, p < 0.001), ‘financially deprive housewife to punish’ (13% vs. 3.8%, p=0.001) and agreed with the statement that it is ‘duty of wife to comply with demands for sex from the husband’ (9.5% vs 4.6%, p=0.3). About 32% males and 25.6% females foresaw themselves as perpetrators of IPV in future. Conclusion: Knowledge about IPV and the associated risk factors among the study population was satisfactory. However, there was widespread acceptance of negative societal gender stereotypes, more so among males and some degrees of IPV were acceptable between married couples. The study advocates the need to halt the propagation of negative gender stereotypes in the impressionable young minds and the necessity to spread the awareness that no degree of IPV is acceptable. This knowledge is also required to plan the content and choose the appropriate media to effectively communicate the awareness about IPV among young persons.

Keywords: Knowledge, Intimate Partner Violence, India, students, attitude

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9 Sick Minds and Social Media: Treacherous Trends in Online Stalking, Aggression, and Murder

Authors: Amanda Maitland

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This preliminary study has examined ways in which social media may help cause stalker murder by individuals with personality disorders and a strong sense of sexual propriety. A public display on social media by the intended victim was felt to be a trigger that instigated interpersonal violence. To identify behavioural paradigms, case studies of intimate partner murders were explored using news media sources and documentaries. In all of the case studies, social media interaction and social media postings occurred shortly before the murder. The evidence suggested a preponderance of correlations between the social media postings, stalking behaviours, personality disorders, and the murder of an intimate partner. In addition to this, a profile for of Facebook/social media murder was gleaned from the paradigms of behavior found in the case studies. The evidence showed a complex relationship between severe violence, stalking, borderline personality, and intimate partner violence was identified through the study. The struggle clients have in dealing with the: public, ambiguous and unrelenting nature of social media postings was also observed. The murderers anguish and rage appeared to be further intensified by attitudes of sexual propriety and entitlement. These attitudes were evident in all the case studies. The study concluded with further research on how the public can protect themselves from entering situations where social media postings might trigger a violent response. Further to this, psychological approaches were identified that might support client’s with personality disorders to cope with perceived provocative and distressing data on the internet. Thus, the findings of this study will be of interest to: therapists, psychologists, nurses, criminologists and social workers.

Keywords: Social Media, Intimate Partner Violence, murder, Facebook, borderline personality, cyberstalking, sexual propriety

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8 Comparative Analyses of Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence in Ten Developing Countries: Evidence from Nationally Representative Surveys

Authors: Elena Chernyak, Ryan Ceresola

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Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem that affects a million women worldwide and impacts their health and wellbeing. Some risk factors for intimate partner violence against women (e.g., disobeying or arguing with a partner, women’s age, education, and employment) are similar in many countries, both developed and developing. However, one of the principal and most significant contributors to women’s vulnerability to violence perpetrated by their intimate partners is the witnessing of interparental aggression in the family of origin. Witnessing interparental violence may lead to acceptance of intimate partner violence as a normal way to resolve conflicts. Thus, utilization of violence becomes the behavioral model: men who witnessed the parental violence are more likely to employ physical violence against their female partners whereas women who observed their fathers beating their mothers learn to tolerate aggressive behavior and become victims of domestic violence themselves. Taking into consideration the importance of this subject matter, the association between witnessing intimate partner violence in family-of-origin and experience of intimate partner violence in adulthood requires further attention. The objective of this research is to analyze and compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence in ten developing countries in different regions, namely: Mali, Haiti, Jordan, Peru, the Philippines, Pakistan, Cambodia, Egypt, the Dominican Republic and Nigeria. Specifically, this research asks whether witnessing interparental violence in a family of origin is associated with the woman’s experience of intimate partner violence during adulthood and to what extent this factor varies among the countries under investigation. This study contributes to the literature on domestic violence against women, prevalence and experience of intimate partner violence against women in developing countries, and the risk factors, using recently collected, nationally representative population-based data from above-mentioned countries. The data used in this research are derived from the demographic and health surveys conducted in the ten mentioned above countries from 2013-2016. These surveys are cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of ever-married or cohabitating women of reproductive age and the good source of high quality and comprehensive information about women, their children, partners, and households. To complete this analysis, multivariate logistic regression was run for each of the countries, and the results are presented with odds ratios, in order to highlight the effect of witnessing intimate partner violence controlling for other factors. The results of this study indicated that having witnessed partner violence in a family of origin significantly (by 50-500%) increases the likelihood of experiencing later abuse for respondents in all countries. This finding provides robust support for the intergenerational transmission of violence theory that explains the link between interparental aggression and intimate partner violence in subsequent relationships in adulthood as a result of a learned model of behavior observed in childhood. Furthermore, it was found that some of the control variables (e.g., education, number of children, and wealth) are associated with intimate partner violence in some countries under investigation while are not associated with male partner’s abusive behavior in some other, which may be explained by specific cultural and economic factors.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, developing countries, Risk Factors, domestic violence against women, demographic and health surveys

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7 Debating the Role of Patriarchy in the Incidence of Gender-Based Violence in Jordan: Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Nour Daoud

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Patriarchy continues to thrive in Jordan where male-controlled values are still entrenched in a society that is suffering from upsetting percentages of Gender-based Violence (GBV). This paper is a systematic review of the literature with an attempt to evaluate and interpret all available research evidence relevant to determining the extent to which patriarchy contributes to the occurrence, re-occurrence, and continuation of GBV in Jordan. Twenty-one (21) full-text articles were selected for the in-depth review due to meeting the established criteria for inclusion. 81 percent of articles included primary data while 19 percent included secondary data. Analysis of data was based on a specific extraction form that was developed using the ‘Excel’ to respond to the main goal of the paper. Interpretation of data was in light of the theorization of different feminism schools on the relationship between patriarchy and gender-based violence. Findings show that 33 percent of the selected articles affirm that the patriarchal standpoint best explains the role of patriarchy in the incidence of gender-based violence in Jordan under its three main themes (Honor-based Violence, Intimate Partner Violence and Street Harassment). Apart from the limited number of articles that were found debating this argument and the low percentage of articles that acknowledged the role of patriarchy in the incidence of gender-based violence in Jordan, this paper breaks the ice to implement future empirical studies on this subject. Also, it is an invitation for all Jordanian women to unite their efforts in order to eradicate all forms of victimization against them.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, street harassment, Middle-East, honor-based violence

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6 Study on the Characteristics of Victims and Victimizers of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain and Its Impact on Criminal Intervention

Authors: María José Benítez Jiménez

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This research is based on the hypothesis that, despite being found that the problem of violence against the female partner occurs in all social classes, the criminal intervention falls, above all, on victims and aggressors with sociodemographic characteristics of the most excluded social groups. The methodology used in this study has been a collection of information through Spanish official statistics from 2004 to 2016: population, police, judicial and penitentiary data from Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and statistics National Institute. The data provided show that women victims and aggressors who come into contact with criminal intervention bodies for filing a complaint or having been reported, respectively, show a very high percentage, usually well above 50%, only primary studies or even that. Their employment situation is also precarious, in a percentage that could also be around 70%. The percentage distribution of these two variables is clearly above that which occurs in the whole of the Spanish population, in a particularly marked way as regards the employment situation. Immigrants triple, as victims or as aggressors of gender violence, the percentages of the Spanish population in terms of their contact with the organs of criminal intervention. Also the rate of foreign inmates in prisons for violence against the female couple doubles that of Spanish inmates.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, Spain, inmigrants, sociodemographic characteristics

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5 A Qualitative Study Investigating Perceptions of Female Narcissism in Intimate Partner Violence

Authors: Rory MacLean, Ava Valashjardi, Kathy Charles

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Objectives: The role of gender differences in the emergence of narcissistic personality has been significantly overlooked. This is evident in the prevalence rates within clinical settings and empirical research, in which males are overrepresented. The gender bias is believed to derive from narrow conceptualisations and measurements of narcissism over-emphasising grandiosity, which commonly has a close resemblance to male qualities in the society. The over-reliance on grandiose narcissism in the literature has not only neglected key central features of narcissism, namely its vulnerable counterpart but also failed to accurately represent narcissistic features in females. This study sought to explicitly investigate delineations in the manifestations of female narcissism and their attempts at self-regulation in the context of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). This novel phenomenon was explored through the lens of ex-partners’ perceptions of female narcissists. Method: A qualitative approach was adopted to gain an in-depth insight of the subtleties and nuances of gender differences in narcissistic personality. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with ten male participants who reported having experienced an abusive relationship with a female narcissist. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Results/Discussion: Three overarching themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) dualistic personas of narcissism; (2) the mask of femininity; (3) the hidden paradox of gender roles. Findings illustrated that perceived expressions of female narcissists depicted presentations of narcissistic vulnerability, in which underlying motives of abuse were driven by fears of abandonment. Analysis also demonstrated that gender-related norms further shaped motives and self-regulatory strategies for females to obtain positions of power and control. These were established through adopting a ‘victim status’, playing the ‘mother card’ and using legal and societal benefits to their advantage. Results further showed that men perceived the manifestations of narcissism in females to be overlooked by society and often misdiagnosed by psychotherapists as borderline personality disorder. Feelings of being unheard and disbelieved underpinned the men's narrative and acted as a barrier to seek help. Such results arguably show the need in psychotherapy to carefully unpick and engage with current misinterpretations and overlooked elements of narcissism to help identify appropriate diagnosis and subsequently help possible victims of female-perpetrated violence. Conclusion: Narcissism describes a phenomenon in females that moves beyond the overt grandiose stereotype. A gendered focus enhances theoretical understanding regarding the multifaceted nature of narcissism. Female narcissists employ strategic attempts at self-construction in sinister and abusive ways governed by what society allows them to express. The distinctive expressions of narcissistic vulnerability in females shed light on significant implications in diagnosis and treatment in psychotherapeutic settings.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Intimate Partner Violence, Narcissism, Gender Roles

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4 Domestic Violence, Well-Being and Women's Inclusion: Evidence from Northern Ireland

Authors: Jessica Leigh Doyle

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In recent years there has been increasing academic and policy interest in domestic violence (DV) and in the implications of DV for the physical and psychological well-being of those who experience it. Yet, despite this interest, very few detailed empirical explorations of these issues have been conducted to date. Of the detailed empirical work that does exist, most studies have focused narrowly on physical violence and the impact of physical violence on rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. This has often been to the exclusion of wider experiences of DV in relation to psychological, sexual and financial abuse, and of broader victim self-perceptions of psychological well-being that include self-esteem, social participation and quality of life as core components. This paper contributes towards filling this gap by examining these issues on the basis of comprehensive empirical evidence from the Northern Ireland context. Using qualitative methods, the paper presents the findings from 63 semi-structured interviews with women victims of DV from across Northern Ireland. The findings discuss the varied types of violence (physical, psychological, sexual, and financial) that women experience, how these experiences shape their broad physical and psychological well-being and capacity to live active and fulfilling lives and the processes of recovery from IPV. The implications of these findings for research and policy are then discussed.

Keywords: Well-being, Domestic Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Violence Against Women, Gender equality

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3 Indigenous Women and Intimate Partner Homicide in Australia: Preventing Future Deaths through Law, Policy and Practice Change

Authors: Kyllie Cripps

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In Australia, not dissimilar to other jurisdictions with indigenous populations, indigenous women are more likely to experience violence than any other section of society. In recent years in response to horrific examples of Indigenous women’s deaths, Australian Coronial courts have investigated, wanting to know more about the circumstances that led to the deaths. This paper critically examined 12 Coronial Court investigations from around Australia, analyzing them thematically. The analysis highlighted the differential vulnerability of indigenous women to intimate partner homicides. In all the cases reviewed, it was evident that the women’s deaths, in most instances were entirely preventable. Evidence was also presented demonstrating that services were aware of the women’s heightened risks but were unable to sufficiently coordinate themselves to provide wrap around support to minimise the risk of violence and to maximise the women’s safety. Consequently, putting the women in environments where their deaths were both predictable and inevitable. The profound system failings at the intersections of law, policy, and practice have ultimately cost indigenous women their lives. This paper firstly explores the nuances of the Coronial Court findings – demonstrating the similarities and differences present within the cases. Part two interrogates the reported system failings, and part three considers potential improvements in system integration to prevent future deaths. The paper concludes recognizing that Indigenous women play important valued roles in indigenous communities, their loss has profound costs and consequences, and to honor their memory, we must learn from their deaths and improve responses to intimate partner violence.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, Homicide, indigenous women

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2 Men's Intimate Violence: Theory and Practice Relationship

Authors: Omer Zvi Shaked

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Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a widespread social problem. Since the 1970's, and due to political changes resulting from the feminist movement, western society has been changing its attitude towards the phenomenon and has been taking an active approach to reduce its magnitude. Enterprises in the form of legislation, awareness and prevention campaigns, women's shelters, and community intervention programs became more prevalent as years progressed. Although many initiatives were found to be productive, the effectiveness of one, however, remained questionable throughout the years: intervention programs for men's intimate violence. Surveys outline two main intervention models for men's intimate violence. The first is the Duluth model, which argued that men are socialized to be dominant - while women are socialized to be subordinate - and men are therefore required by social imperative to enforce, physically if necessary, their dominance. The Duluth model became the chief authorized intervention program, and some states in the US even regulated it as the standard criminal justice program for men's intimate violence. However, meta-analysis findings demonstrated that based on a partner's reports, Duluth treatment completers have 44% recidivism rate, and between 40% and 85% dropout range. The second model is the Cognitive-Behavioral Model (CBT), which is a highly accepted intervention worldwide. The model argues that cognitive misrepresentations of intimate situations precede violent behaviors frequently when anger predisposition exists. Since anger dysregulation mediates between one's cognitive schemes and violent response, anger regulation became the chief purpose of the intervention. Yet, a meta-analysis found only a 56% risk reduction for CBT interventions. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the background behind the domination of both the Duluth model and CBT interventions. This presentation will discuss the ways in which theoretical conceptualizations of men's intimate violence, as well as ideologies, had contributed to the above-mentioned interventions' wide acceptance, despite known lack of scientific and evidential support. First, the presentation will review the prominent interventions for male intimate violence, the Duluth model, and CBT. Second, the presentation will review the prominent theoretical models explaining men's intimate violence: The Patriarchal model, the Abusive Personality model, and the Post-Traumatic Stress model. Third, the presentation will discuss the interrelation between theory and practice, and the nature of affinity between research and practice regarding men's intimate violence. Finally, the presentation will set new directions for further research, aiming to improve intervention's efficiency with men's intimate violence and advance social work practice in the field.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, CBT, theory and practice relationship, Duluth, abusive personality, post-traumatic stress

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1 Jordanian Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates with Family Functioning and Demographics

Authors: Reem Ali, Fatmeh Alzoubi

Abstract:

Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics (M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 (SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 (SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores (r = –.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS (r = –.27, p = .00) and (r = –.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence, attitudes, family functioning, Jordanian men and women’s health

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