Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Intervention Related Abstracts

52 Tertiary Education Trust Fund Intervention Projects and Resource Utilization in Universities in South Western States, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwlola Felicia Kikelomo

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETF) intervention projects and resource utilization in universities in South Western State of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive design of the correlation type. Purposive sampling technique was used to select six out of 14 beneficiary universities in the States. Instruments used to collect data were TETF Intervention Projects Checklist (TETFIPC), Educational Facilities Checklists (EFC) and Resources Utilization Checklists (RUC). The research questions raised were answered using percentage and utilization rates, while Pearson product-moment correlation statistic was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study indicated that building construction had the highest TETF allocation (64.5%), while staff development opportunities had the least (1.1%) in the sampled universities. Significant and positive relationship existed between time and space utilization rates and student academic performance in the universities (r (1,800) = 0.63 and r (1,800) = 0.59, p ≤ 0.05 respectively). Based, on these findings, it was recommended that there should be periodic evaluation of completed TETF projects and utilization to ensure that TETF funds are properly used for the approved projects; and that TETF should improve on the provision of educational facilities to universities for staff and students’ use through increase in education tax from 2% to 4% with collaboration with the world bank and other funding agencies as being practiced in other countries of the world such as Norway, Spain, and United Kingdom.

Keywords: Education, Human Development, Intervention, tertiary education trust fund

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51 Improving Self-Administered Medication Adherence for Older Adults: A Systematic Review

Authors: Mathumalar Loganathan, Lina Syazana, Bryony Dean Franklin

Abstract:

Background: The therapeutic benefit of self-administered medication for long-term use is limited by an average 50% non-adherence rate. Patient forgetfulness is a common factor in unintentional non-adherence. With a growing ageing population, strategies to improve self-administration of medication adherence are essential. Our aim was to review systematically the effects of interventions to optimise self-administration of medication. Method: Database searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsynINFO, CINAHL from 1980 to 31 October 2013. Search terms included were ‘self-administration’, ‘self-care’, ‘medication adherence’, and ‘intervention’. Two independent reviewers undertook screening and methodological quality assessment, using the Downs and Black rating scale. Results: The search strategy retrieved 6 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three intervention strategies were identified: self-administration medication programme (SAMP), nursing education and medication packaging (pill calendar). A nursing education programme focused on improving patients’ behavioural self-management of drug prescribing. This was the most studied area and three studies highlighting an improvement in self-administration of medication. Conclusion: Results are mixed and there is no one interventional strategy that has proved to be effective. Nevertheless, self-administration of medication programme seems to show most promise. A multi-faceted approach and clearer policy guideline are likely to be required to improve prescribing for these vulnerable patients. Mixed results were found for SAMP. Medication packaging (pill calendar) was evaluated in one study showing a significant improvement in self-administration of medication. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity in the outcome measures.

Keywords: Intervention, self-administered medication, prescribing, older patients

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50 Feasibility of Risk Assessment for Type 2 Diabetes in Community Pharmacies Using Two Different Approaches: A Pilot Study in Thailand

Authors: Thitaporn Thoopputra, Tipaporn Pongmesa, Shuchuen Li

Abstract:

Aims: To evaluate the application of non-invasive diabetes risk assessment tool in community pharmacy setting. Methods: Thai diabetes risk score was applied to assess individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Interactive computer-based risk screening (IT) and paper-based risk screening (PT) tools were applied. Participants aged over 25 years with no known diabetes were recruited in six participating pharmacies. Results: A total of 187 clients, mean aged (+SD) was 48.6 (+10.9) years. 35% were at high risk. The mean value of willingness-to-pay for the service fee in IT group was significantly higher than PT group (p=0.013). No significant difference observed for the satisfaction between groups. Conclusions: Non-invasive risk assessment tool, whether paper-based or computerized-based can be applied in community pharmacy to support the enhancing role of pharmacists in chronic disease management. Long term follow up is needed to determine the impact of its application in clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.

Keywords: Prevention, Risk Assessment, Intervention, Community Pharmacy, Type 2 diabetes

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49 Development and Mineral Profile Analysis of Fruit, Vegetable and Wild Herb Based Juices to Be Consumed in Elderly Centres in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Mkhize Xolile, Davies Theopheluis

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to develop a variety of fruit, vegetable and indigenous wild herb (amaranth) based juices, which can increase mineral consumption (of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Zn). Ten samples of juice varieties were developed. The concentration range for the standards was between 10 and 150 ppm. Standards and samples were analysed using Perkin Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the AAnalyst 400 model was used. The indigenous herb based juice was the most nutritious than all the other varieties developed. Mg and Fe could contribute significantly in improving cardio vascular health, bone functionality and immunity of elderly.

Keywords: Minerals, Hypertension, Intervention, Elderly, juice

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48 Sovereign State System in the Era of Globalisation: An Appraisal

Authors: Dilip Gogoi

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This paper attempts to explore the notion of sovereign state system, its emergence and legitimization by the treaty of Westphalia, 1648 in Europe and examines how the very notion of sovereign state is subject to changes in the later part of the 20th century both politically and economically in the wake of globalisation. The paper firstly traces the tradition of Westphalian sovereign state system which influenced the dominant understanding about sovereign state system till mid 20th century. Secondly, it explores how the notion of sovereign nation state is subjected to change in the post World War II specially in the context of universal acceptance of human rights and right to intervene in internal affairs of a sovereign state to protect the same, the decolonization and legitimization of the principle of self determination and through the experience of European Integration. Thirdly, it analyses how globalisation drives certain fundamental changes and poses challenges to the sovereign state system. The concluding part of the paper argues that sovereign state system is relevant and will continue to be relevant although it needs to redefine its role in the changing global environment.

Keywords: Globalisation, Intervention, Sovereignty, Westphalia, nation-state system

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47 Proposed Organizational Development Interventions in Managing Occupational Stressors for Business Schools in Batangas City

Authors: Marlon P. Perez

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The study intended to determine the level of occupational stress that was experienced by faculty members of private and public business schools in Batangas City with the end in view of proposing organizational development interventions in managing occupational stressors. Stressors such as factors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, relationships at work, career development and organizational structure and climate were used as determinants of occupational stress level. Descriptive method of research was used as its research design. There were only 64 full-time faculty members coming from private and public business schools in Batangas City – University of Batangas, Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas, Golden Gate Colleges, Batangas State University and Colegio ng Lungsod ng Batangas. Survey questionnaire was used as data gathering instrument. It was found out that all occupational stressors were assessed stressful when grouped according to its classification of tertiary schools while response of subject respondents differs on their assessment of occupational stressors. Age variable has become significantly related to respondents’ assessments on factors intrinsic to the job and career development; however, it was not significantly related to role in the organization, relationships at work and organizational structure and climate. On the other hand, gender, marital status, highest educational attainment, employment status, length of service, area of specialization and classification of tertiary school were revealed to be not significantly related to all occupational stressors. Various organizational development interventions have been proposed to manage the occupational stressors that are experienced by business faculty members in the institution.

Keywords: Assessment, Intervention, Organizational Development, Occupational Stress, stressors, faculty members, business school, manage

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46 Interventions for Children with Autism Using Interactive Technologies

Authors: Maria Hopkins, Sarah Koch, Fred Biasini

Abstract:

Autism is lifelong disorder that affects one out of every 110 Americans. The deficits that accompany Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), such as abnormal behaviors and social incompetence, often make it extremely difficult for these individuals to gain functional independence from caregivers. These long-term implications necessitate an immediate effort to improve social skills among children with an ASD. Any technology that could teach individuals with ASD necessary social skills would not only be invaluable for the individuals affected, but could also effect a massive saving to society in treatment programs. The overall purpose of the first study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an avatar tutor for social skills training in children with ASD. “Face Say” was developed as a colorful computer program that contains several different activities designed to teach children specific social skills, such as eye gaze, joint attention, and facial recognition. The children with ASD were asked to attend to FaceSay or a control painting computer game for six weeks. Children with ASD who received the training had an increase in emotion recognition, F(1, 48) = 23.04, p < 0.001 (adjusted Ms 8.70 and 6.79, respectively) compared to the control group. In addition, children who received the FaceSay training had higher post-test scored in facial recognition, F(1, 48) = 5.09, p < 0.05 (adjusted Ms: 38.11 and 33.37, respectively) compared to controls. The findings provide information about the benefits of computer-based training for children with ASD. Recent research suggests the value of also using socially assistive robots with children who have an ASD. Researchers investigating robots as tools for therapy in ASD have reported increased engagement, increased levels of attention, and novel social behaviors when robots are part of the social interaction. The overall goal of the second study was to develop a social robot designed to teach children specific social skills such as emotion recognition. The robot is approachable, with both an animal-like appearance and features of a human face (i.e., eyes, eyebrows, mouth). The feasibility of the robot is being investigated in children ages 7-12 to explore whether the social robot is capable of forming different facial expressions to accurately display emotions similar to those observed in the human face. The findings of this study will be used to create a potentially effective and cost efficient therapy for improving the cognitive-emotional skills of children with autism. Implications and study findings using the robot as an intervention tool will be discussed.

Keywords: autism, Technology, Intervention, Emotions

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45 The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Dynamics of Resistance to Sovereignty Violation: The Case of East Timor (1975-1999)

Authors: Laura Southgate

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The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as much of the scholarship on the organisation, celebrates its ability to uphold the principle of regional autonomy, understood as upholding the norm of non-intervention by external powers in regional affairs. Yet, in practice, this has been repeatedly violated. This dichotomy between rhetoric and practice suggests an interesting avenue for further study. The East Timor crisis (1975-1999) has been selected as a case-study to test the dynamics of ASEAN state resistance to sovereignty violation in two distinct timeframes: Indonesia’s initial invasion of the territory in 1975, and the ensuing humanitarian crisis in 1999 which resulted in a UN-mandated, Australian-led peacekeeping intervention force. These time-periods demonstrate variation on the dependent variable. It is necessary to observe covariation in order to derive observations in support of a causal theory. To establish covariation, my independent variable is therefore a continuous variable characterised by variation in convergence of interest. Change of this variable should change the value of the dependent variable, thus establishing causal direction. This paper investigates the history of ASEAN’s relationship to the norm of non-intervention. It offers an alternative understanding of ASEAN’s history, written in terms of the relationship between a key ASEAN state, which I call a ‘vanguard state’, and selected external powers. This paper will consider when ASEAN resistance to sovereignty violation has succeeded, and when it has failed. It will contend that variation in outcomes associated with vanguard state resistance to sovereignty violation can be best explained by levels of interest convergence between the ASEAN vanguard state and designated external actors. Evidence will be provided to support the hypothesis that in 1999, ASEAN’s failure to resist violations to the sovereignty of Indonesia was a consequence of low interest convergence between Indonesia and the external powers. Conversely, in 1975, ASEAN’s ability to resist violations to the sovereignty of Indonesia was a consequence of high interest convergence between Indonesia and the external powers. As the vanguard state, Indonesia was able to apply pressure on the ASEAN states and obtain unanimous support for Indonesia’s East Timor policy in 1975 and 1999. However, the key factor explaining the variance in outcomes in both time periods resides in the critical role played by external actors. This view represents a serious challenge to much of the existing scholarship that emphasises ASEAN’s ability to defend regional autonomy. As these cases attempt to show, ASEAN autonomy is much more contingent than portrayed in the existing literature.

Keywords: Intervention, Sovereignty, ASEAN, east timor

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44 Functional Impairment in South African Children with ADHD: Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention

Authors: Mareli Fischer, Kevin G. F. Thomas

Abstract:

Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood neurobehavioural disorders, little empirical research has been published on its clinical presentation in Africa, and, globally, few studies evaluate ADHD intervention programs that emphasize parent training. Hence, Stage 1 of this research programme aimed to describe the functional impairment of South African children with ADHD, and also sought to investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables (e.g., sex, age, socioeconomic status, family environment) and clinical variables (e.g., ADHD subtype and comorbidity) on the degree of that impairment. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents as a diagnostic tool, and the Child Behavior Checklist, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Impairment Rating Scale as measures of functional impairment. Results from this stage of the research indicated that South African children and adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD experience most functional impairment in the school domain, as well as in the area of social functioning. None of the measured sociodemographic variables had a significant detrimental or protective effect on how ADHD symptoms impacted on functioning. In terms of comorbidity, the presence of Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were all associated with significantly impaired overall functioning. Stage 2 of the research programme aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a child-specific intervention that targeted the primary areas of impairment identified in Stage 1. Existing literature suggests that a positive parent-training programme, in the group format, is one of the best options for cost-effective and successful ADHD intervention. Hence, the intervention took that form. Parents were taught basic behaviour analysis concepts within a supportive group context. Evaluation of the intervention’s efficacy used many of the same measures as in Stage 1, but also featured semi-structured interviews with participants and naturalistic observation of parent-child interaction. We will discuss preliminary results of that evaluation. Studying functional impairment and designing intervention plans in this way will pave the way for evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD.

Keywords: Children, Intervention, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, parenting groups

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43 Social Responsibility in Reducing Gap between High School and 1st Year University Maths: SMU Case, South Africa

Authors: Solly M. Seeletse, Joel L. Thabane

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Students enrolling at the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) come mostly from the previously disadvantaged communities of South Africa. Their backgrounds are deprived in resources and modern technologies of education. Most of those admitted in the basic sciences were rejected in medicine and health related study programmes in SMU. Mathematics (maths) is the main subject for admission into SMU study programmes. However, maths results are usually low. In an attempt to help to prepare the students in the neighbourhood schools of SMU, some Maths educators partnered with local schools to communicate the needs and investigate the causes of poor maths results. They embarked on an action research to determine the level of educators’ maths education. The general aim of the research was to investigate the causes of deficiencies in maths teaching and results in the local secondary schools, focusing on teachers and learners. Asking the teachers about their education and learners about maths concepts of most difficulty, these were identified. The researchers assisted in teaching the difficult concepts. The study highlighted the most difficult concepts and the teachers’ lack of training in some content. Intervention of the researchers showed to be effective only for the very poor performing schools. Those with descent pass rates of over 50% did not benefit from it. This was the sign of lack of optimality in the methods used. The research recommendations suggested that intervention methods should be improved to be effective in all schools, and extension of the endeavours to more schools.

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Intervention, action research, support

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42 The Importance of the Phases of Information, Diagnosis, Planning, Intervention and Management in a Historic Center

Authors: Giovanni Duran Polo

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Demonstrate the importance of the stages such as Information, Diagnosis, Management, and Intervention is fundamental to have a historical, live, and quality inhabited center. One of the major actions to take is to promote the concept of the management of a historic center with harmonious development. For that, concerned actors should strengthen the concept that said historic center may be the neighborhood of all and for all. The centers of historical cities, presented as any other urban area, social, environmental issues etc; yet they get added value that have no other city neighborhoods. The equity component, either by the urban plan, or environmental quality offered properties of architectural, landscape or some land uses are the differentiating element, while the tool that makes them attractive face pressure exerted by new housing developments or shopping centers. That's why through the experience of working in historical centers, they are declared the actions in heritage areas. This paper will show how the encounter with each of these places are trying to take the phases of information, to gather all the data needed to be closer to the territory with specific data, diagnosis; which allowed the actors to see what state they were, felt how the heart is related to the rest of the city, show what problems affected the situation and what potential it had to compete in a global market. Also, to discuss the importance of the organization, as it is legal and normative basis for it have an order and a concept, when you know what can and what cannot, in an area where the citizen has many myth or history, when he wanted to intervene in protected buildings. It is also appropriate to show how it could develop the intervention phase, where the shares on the tangible elements and intervention for the protection of the heritage property are executed. The management is the final phase which will carry out all that was raised on paper, it's time to orient, explain, persuade, promote, and encourage citizens to take care of the heritage. It is profitable and also an obligation and it is not an insurmountable burden. It has to be said this is the time to pull all the cards to make the historical center and heritage becoming more alive today. It is the moment to make it more inhabited and to transformer it into a quality place, so citizens will cherish and understand the importance of such a place. Inhabited historical centers, endowments and equipment required, with trade quality, with constant cultural offer, with well-preserved buildings and tidy, modern and safe public spaces are always attractive for tourism, but first of all, the place should be conceived for citizens, otherwise everything will be doomed to failure.

Keywords: Development, Management, Diagnosis, Intervention, heritage historic center, patrimony

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41 Promoting Personhood and Citizenship Amongst Individuals with Learning Disabilities: An Occupational Therapy Approach

Authors: Rebecca Haythorne

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Background: Agendas continuously emphasise the need to increase work based training and opportunities for individuals with learning disabilities. However research and statistics suggest that there is still significant stigma and stereotypes as to what they can contribute, or gain from being part of the working environment. Method: To tackles some of these prejudices an Occupational Therapy based intervention was developed for learning disability service users working at a social enterprise farm. The intervention aimed to increase positive public perception around individual capabilities and encourage individuals with learning disabilities to take ownership and be proud of their individual personhood and citizenship. This was achieved by using components of the Model of Human Occupation to tailor the intervention to individual values, skills and working contributions. The final project involved making creative wall art for public viewing, focusing on 'who works there and what they do'. This was accompanied by a visitor information guide, allowing individuals to tell visitors about themselves, the work they do and why it is meaningful to them. Outcomes: The intervention has helped to increased metal well-being and confidence of learning disability service users “people will know I work here now” and “I now have something to show my family about the work I do at the farm”. The intervention has also increased positive public perception and community awareness “you can really see the effort that’s gone into doing this” and “it’s a really visual experience to see people you don’t expect to see doing this type of work”. Resources left behind have further supported individuals to take ownership in creating more wall art to be sold at the farm shop. Conclusion: the intervention developed has helped to improve mental well-being of both service users and staff and improve community awareness. Due to this, the farm has decided to roll out the intervention to other areas of the social enterprise and is considering having more Occupational Therapy involvement in the future.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Citizenship, Intervention, Personhood

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40 Teachers’ Perceptions of the Efficacy of Social Stories in the Development of Social Skills for Students with Autism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faihan Alotaibi

Abstract:

This study explores Saudi teachers’ perceptions of the efficacy of social stories in the development of social skills in students with autism in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in two phases. Data were collected in sequential quantitative and qualitative phases. Participants in this study were 100 teachers in the quantitative phase and 15 teachers were interviewed. In this poster, the researcher will present the data result in the qualitative second phase in which an understanding of teachers’ experiences was deepened by conducting semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of fifteen teachers of diverse experience, covering six initial themes: the social story concept, sources of social stories, the effectiveness of social stories in improving social skills in students with autism, barriers to using social stories for students with autism, cultural consideration and context of social stories, and factors which contribute to the best use of social stories to developing of social skills for students with autism.

Keywords: autism, Intervention, Social Skills, social storyteachers’ perceptions

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39 The Application of Action Research to Integrate the Innovation in Learning Experience in a Design Course

Authors: Walaa Mohammed Metwally

Abstract:

This case study used the action research concept as a tool to integrate the innovation in a learning experience on a design course. The action research was investigated at Prince Sultan University, College of Engineering in the Interior Design and Architecture Department in January 2015, through the Higher Education Academy program. The action research was presented first with the definition of the research, leading to how it was used and how solutions were found. It concluded by showing that once the action research application in interior design and architecture were studied it was an effective tool to improve student’s learning, develop their practice in design courses, and it discussed the negative and positive issues that were encountered.

Keywords: Innovation, Intervention, peer review, action research, learning experience

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38 Inpatient Drug Related Problems and Pharmacist Intervention at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in South India: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Bollu Mounica

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Background: Nowadays drug related problems were seen very commonly within the health care practice. These could result in the medication errors, adverse events, drug interactions and harm to patients. Pharmacist has an identified role in minimizing and preventing such type of problems. Objectives: To detect the incidence of drug related problems for the hospitalized patient, and to analyze the clinical pharmacist interventions performed during the review of prescription orders of the general medicine, psychiatry, surgery, pediatrics, gynaecology units of a large tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, observational and interventional study. The analysis took place daily with the following parameters: dose, rate of administration, presentation and/or dosage form, presence of inappropriate/unnecessary drugs, necessity of additional medication, more proper alternative therapies, presence of relevant drug interactions, inconsistencies in prescription orders, physical-chemical incompatibilities/solution stability. From this evaluation, the drug therapy problems were classified, as well as the resulting clinical interventions. For a period starting November 2012 until December 2014, the inpatient medication charts and orders were identified and rectified by ward and practicing clinical pharmacists within the inpatient pharmacy services in a tertiary care teaching hospital on routine daily activities. Data was collected and evaluated. The causes of this problem were identified. Results: A total of 360 patients were followed. Male (71.66%) predominance was noted over females (28.33%). Drug related problems were more commonly seen in patients aged in between 31-60. Most of the DRP observed in the study resulted from the dispensing errors (26.11%), improper drug selection (17.22%), followed by untreated indications (14.4%) Majority of the clinical pharmacist recommendations were on need for proper dispensing (26.11%), and drug change (18.05%). Minor significance of DRPs were noted high (41.11 %), whereas (35.27 %) were moderate and (23.61 %) were major. The acceptance rate of intervening clinical pharmacist recommendation and change in drug therapy was found to be high (86.66%). Conclusion: Our study showed that the prescriptions reviewed had some drug therapy problem and the pharmacist interventions have promoted positive changes needed in the prescriptions. In this context, routine participation of clinical pharmacists in clinical medical rounds facilitates the identification of DRPs and may prevent their occurrence.

Keywords: Intervention, clinical pharmacist, drug related problems, drug prescriptions

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37 Language Development and Learning about Violence

Authors: Karen V. Lee

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The background and significance of this study involves research about a music teacher discovering how language development and learning can help her overcome harmful and lasting consequences from sexual violence. Education about intervention resources from language development that helps her cope with consequences influencing her career as teacher. Basic methodology involves the qualitative method of research as theoretical framework where the author is drawn into a deep storied reflection about political issues surrounding teachers who need to overcome social, psychological, and health risk behaviors from violence. Sub-themes involve available education from learning resources to ensure teachers receive social, emotional, physical, spiritual, and intervention resources that evoke visceral, emotional responses from the audience. Major findings share how language development and learning provide helpful resources to victims of violence. It is hoped the research dramatizes an episodic yet incomplete story that highlights the circumstances surrounding the protagonist’s life. In conclusion, the research has a reflexive storied framework that embraces harmful and lasting consequences from sexual violence. The reflexive story of the sensory experience critically seeks verisimilitude by evoking lifelike and believable feelings from others. Thus, the scholarly importance of using language development and learning for intervention resources can provide transformative aspects that contribute to social change. Overall, the circumstance surrounding the story about sexual violence is not uncommon in society. Language development and learning supports the moral mission to help teachers overcome sexual violence that socially impacts their professional lives as victims.

Keywords: Sexual Violence, Intervention, story, language development and learning

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36 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak

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This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: Violence, Performance, Public Sector, Intervention, safety climate

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35 Tertiary Training of Future Health Educators and Health Professionals Involved in Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Strategies

Authors: Thea Werkhoven, Wayne Cotton

Abstract:

Adult and childhood rates of obesity in Australia are health concerns of high national priority, retaining epidemic status in the populations affected. Attempts to prevent further increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in the population aged below eighteen years have had varied success. A multidisciplinary approach has been used, employing strategies in schools, through established health care system usage and public health campaigns. Over the last decade a plateau in prevalence has been reached in the youth population afflicted by obesity and interest has peaked in school based strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. Of interest to this study is the importance of the tertiary training of future health educators or health professionals destined to be involved in obesity prevention and treatment strategies. Health educators and health professionals are considered instrumental to the success of prevention and treatment strategies, required to possess sufficient and accurate knowledge in order to be effective in their positions. A common influence on the success of school based health promoting activities are the weight based attitudes possessed by health educators, known to be negative and biased towards overweight or obese children during training and practice. Whilst the tertiary training of future health professionals includes minimal nutrition education, there is no mandatory training in health education or nutrition for pre-service health educators in Australian tertiary institutions. This study aimed to assess the impact of a pedagogical intervention on pre-service health educators and health professionals enrolled in a health and wellbeing elective. The intervention aimed to increase nutrition knowledge and decrease weight bias and was embedded in the twelve week elective. Participants (n=98) were tertiary students at a major Australian University who were enrolled in health (47%) and non-health related degrees (53%). A quantitative survey using four valid and reliable instruments was conducted to measured nutrition knowledge, antifat attitudes and weight stereotyping attitudes at baseline and post-intervention. Scores on each instrument were compared between time points to check if they had significantly changed and to determine the effect of the intervention on attitudes and knowledge. Antifat attitudes at baseline were considered low and decreased further over the course of the intervention. Scores representing weight bias did decrease but the change was not significant. Fat stereotyping attitudes became stronger over the course of the intervention and this change was significant. Nutrition knowledge significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention. The design of the nutrition knowledge and attitude amelioration content of the intervention was semi-successful in achieving its outcomes. While the level of nutrition knowledge was improved over the course of the intervention, an unintentional increase was observed in weight based prejudice which is known to occur in interventions that employ stigma reduction methodologies. Further research is required into a structured methodology that increases level of nutrition knowledge and ameliorates weight bias at the tertiary level. In this way training provided would help prepare future health educators with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective and bias free in their practice.

Keywords: Education, Nutrition, Obesity, Intervention

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34 Gender Mainstreaming in Public Universities in Mexico

Authors: Carlos David Carrillo Trujillo, Rebelín Echeverría Echeverría, Nancy Evia Alamilla, Rocío Quintal López

Abstract:

Gender as a social construct is a term now widely studied. Within the social sciences it has become very important. In this sense, psychology tries to make some contributions from your area. The intention is to promote equal opportunities for men and women. Social, employment and educational inequities perpetuate sexism, violence and other important social problems in Mexico. The gender perspective is conceptualized as a tool to promote laws, policies, plans, programs and procedures where women are made ​​visible and empowered. The aim of this is the pursuit of equality. Thus, gender mainstreaming is one of the main challenges of education in Mexico. Only a few universities have programs, research or subjects related to the topic. Human resources, and time allocated to teachers are identified as obstacles to the institutionalization of gender. The objective was to make a diagnosis on course offerings and policies on gender. A documentary study and interviews with managers of at least 20 higher education institutions (IES's) were performed. The results indicate the need for greater gender courses, research projects and intervention. The need to promote policies that seek equal opportunities between men and women is also noted.

Keywords: Universities, Intervention, Institutionalization, Gender Mainstreaming

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33 Proposed Intervention to the Attention of Harassment at a Public University

Authors: R. Echeverría Echeverría, C. Carrillo Trujillo, N. Evia Alamilla

Abstract:

Today, bullying is an expression of violence. It is a present problem in different contexts. Bullying and harassment have become subject matter of professional psychology , anthropology and other social sciences and related areas. However, most research on bullying have focused on peer violence and basic education. There is little attention to harassment in higher education. It also has little generation of research and interventions in universities, undergraduate and postgraduate level. The aim of this paper is to present a proposal for intervention to the attention of college students who have had an experience of harassment and / or bullying in a Public University of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. The methodology was qualitative phenomenological. Semiestructura interview techniques and focus groups were used. 6 students participated who have lived harassment or bullying. Also they are participating teachers and university leaders who play an important role in the presence of such cases. The purpose is to analyze the presence of policies for the prevention, treatment and punishment of those problems. The qualitative data analysis will be based on the general proposal of Rodriguez Gomez Gil Flores and García Jiménez (1999). The results show the need to create a body entrusted to provide timely attention to cases of bullying or harassment that are reported. It is important to take legal and psychological support of the University authorities. It is proposed to create a mechanism to ensure timely care and not victimized who has had the experience; in addition to the punishment of those who exercised to ensure that violence. In discussing the successes and failures of the proposal are highlighted. And the processes that have been facilitated or hampered progress for the project.

Keywords: Intervention, Bullying, harassment, public university

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32 Addressing Oral Sensory Issues and Possible Remediation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Illustrated with a Case Study

Authors: A. K. Aswathy, Asha Manoharan, Arya Manoharan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study are to define the nature of oral sensory issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of this issues specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within therapeutic settings. Literature review and case example is used to define the predominant nature of the oral sensory issues that are experienced by some children on the autism spectrum. Characteristics of this complex disorder that can have an impact on feeding skill and behavior are also identified. These factors are then integrated to create assessment and intervention techniques that can be used in conjunction with traditional feeding approaches to facilitate improvements in eating as well as reducing oral apraxic component in this unique population. The complex nature of ASD and its many influences on feeding skills and behavior create the need for modification to both assessment and treatment approaches. Additional research is needed to create therapeutic protocols that can be used by speech-language pathologists to effectively assess and treat feeding and oro motor apraxic difficulties that are commonly encountered in children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, Assessment, Intervention, Feeding, oral sensory issues, oral apraxia

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31 Effectiveness of a Malaysian Workplace Intervention Study on Physical Activity Levels

Authors: M. Z. Bin Mohd Ghazali, N. C. Wilson, A. F. Bin Ahmad Fuad, M. A. H. B. Musa, M. U. Mohamad Sani, F. Zulkifli, M. S. Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Physical activity levels are low in Malaysia and this study was undertaken to determine if a four week work-based intervention program would be effective in changing physical activity levels. The study was conducted in a Malaysian Government Department and had three stages: baseline data collection, four-week intervention and two-month post intervention data collection. During the intervention and two-month post intervention phases, physical activity levels (determined by a pedometer) and basic health profiles (BMI, abdominal obesity, blood pressure) were measured. Staff (58 males, 47 females) with an average age of 33 years completed baseline data collection. Pedometer steps averaged 7,102 steps/day at baseline, although male step counts were significantly higher than females (7,861 vs. 6114). Health profiles were poor: over 50% were overweight/obese (males 66%, females 40%); hypertension (males 23%, females 6%); excess waist circumference (males 52%, females 17%). While 86 staff participated in the intervention, only 49 regularly reported their steps. There was a significant increase (17%) in average daily steps from 8,965 (week 1) to 10,436 (week 4). Unfortunately, participation in the intervention program was avoided by the less healthy staff. Two months after the intervention there was no significant difference in average steps/day, despite the fact that 89% of staff reporting they planned to make long-term changes to their lifestyle. An unexpected average increase of 2kg in body weight occurred in participants, although this was less than the 5.6kg in non-participants. A number of recommendations are made for future interventions, including the conclusion that pedometers were a useful tool and popular with participants.

Keywords: Health, Walking, Intervention, pedometers

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30 [Keynote Speech]: Evidence-Based Outcome Effectiveness Longitudinal Study on Three Approaches to Reduce Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Schoolchildren: Group CBT, Moral Education, Bioneurological Intervention

Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung

Abstract:

While aggression had high stability throughout developmental stages and across generations, it should be the top priority of researchers and frontline helping professionals to develop prevention and intervention programme for aggressive children and children at risk of developing aggressive behaviours. Although there is a substantial amount of anti-bullying programmes, they gave disappointingly small effect sizes. The neglectful practical significance could be attributed to the overly simplistic categorisation of individuals involved as bullies or victims. In the past three decades, the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression has been well-proved. As children displaying reactively aggressive behaviours have distinct social-information processing pattern with those showing proactively aggressive behaviours, it is critical to identify the unique needs of the two subtypes accordingly when designing an intervention. The onset of reactive aggression and proactive aggression was observed at earliest in 4.4 and 6.8 years old respectively. Such findings called for a differential early intervention targeting these high-risk children. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the author was the first to establish an evidence-based intervention programme against reactive and proactive aggression. With the largest samples in the world, the author, in the past 10 years, explored three different approaches and their effectiveness against aggression quantitatively and qualitatively with longitudinal design. The three approaches presented are (a) cognitive-behavioral approach, (b) moral education, with Chinese marital arts and ethics as the medium, and (c) bioneurological measures (omega-3 supplementation). The studies adopted a multi-informant approach with repeated measures before and after the intervention, and follow-up assessment. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. In the cognitive-behavioral approach, 66 reactive aggressors and 63 proactive aggressors, aged from 11 to 17, were identified from 10,096 secondary-school children with questionnaire and subsequent structured interview. Participants underwent 10 group sessions specifically designed for each subtype of aggressor. Results revealed significant declines in aggression levels from the baseline to the follow-up assessment after 1 year. In moral education through the Chinese martial arts, 315 high-risk aggressive children, aged 6 to 12 years, were selected from 3,511 primary-school children and randomly assigned into four types of 10-session intervention group, namely martial-skills-only, martial-ethics-only, both martial-skills-and-ethics, and physical fitness (placebo). Results showed only the martial-skills-and-ethics group had a significant reduction in aggression after treatment and 6 months after treatment comparing with the placebo group. In the bioneurological approach, 218 children, aged from 8 to 17, were randomly assigned to the omega-3 supplement group and the placebo group. Results revealed that compared with the placebo group, the omega-3 supplement group had significant declines in aggression levels at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All three approaches were effective in reducing proactive and reactive aggression. Traditionally, intervention programmes against aggressive behaviour often adapted the cognitive and/or behavioural approach. However, cognitive-behavioural approach for children was recently challenged by its demanding requirement of cognitive ability. Traditional cognitive interventions may not be as beneficial to an older population as in young children. The present study offered an insightful perspective in aggression reduction measures.

Keywords: Intervention, proactive aggression, reactive aggression, outcome effectiveness

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29 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair

Abstract:

There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Intervention, Psychoeducation, traditional healing, cultural boundaries, Asian American, mental health stigma

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28 Design of Evaluation for Ehealth Intervention: A Participatory Study in Italy, Israel, Spain and Sweden

Authors: Monika Jurkeviciute, Amia Enam, Johanna Torres Bonilla, Henrik Eriksson

Abstract:

Introduction: Many evaluations of eHealth interventions conclude that the evidence for improved clinical outcomes is limited, especially when the intervention is short, such as one year. Often, evaluation design does not address the feasibility of achieving clinical outcomes. Evaluations are designed to reflect upon clinical goals of intervention without utilizing the opportunity to illuminate effects on organizations and cost. A comprehensive design of evaluation can better support decision-making regarding the effectiveness and potential transferability of eHealth. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present a feasible and comprehensive design of evaluation for eHealth intervention, including the design process in different contexts. Methodology: The situation of limited feasibility of clinical outcomes was foreseen in the European Union funded project called “DECI” (“Digital Environment for Cognitive Inclusion”) that is run under the “Horizon 2020” program with an aim to define and test a digital environment platform within corresponding care models that help elderly people live independently. A complex intervention of eHealth implementation into elaborate care models in four different countries was planned for one year. To design the evaluation, a participative approach was undertaken using Pettigrew’s lens of change and transformations, including context, process, and content. Through a series of workshops, observations, interviews, and document analysis, as well as a review of scientific literature, a comprehensive design of evaluation was created. Findings: The findings indicate that in order to get evidence on clinical outcomes, eHealth interventions should last longer than one year. The content of the comprehensive evaluation design includes a collection of qualitative and quantitative methods for data gathering which illuminates non-medical aspects. Furthermore, it contains communication arrangements to discuss the results and continuously improve the evaluation design, as well as procedures for monitoring and improving the data collection during the intervention. The process of the comprehensive evaluation design consists of four stages: (1) analysis of a current state in different contexts, including measurement systems, expectations and profiles of stakeholders, organizational ambitions to change due to eHealth integration, and the organizational capacity to collect data for evaluation; (2) workshop with project partners to discuss the as-is situation in relation to the project goals; (3) development of general and customized sets of relevant performance measures, questionnaires and interview questions; (4) setting up procedures and monitoring systems for the interventions. Lastly, strategies are presented on how challenges can be handled during the design process of evaluation in four different countries. The evaluation design needs to consider contextual factors such as project limitations, and differences between pilot sites in terms of eHealth solutions, patient groups, care models, national and organizational cultures and settings. This implies a need for the flexible approach to evaluation design to enable judgment over the effectiveness and potential for adoption and transferability of eHealth. In summary, this paper provides learning opportunities for future evaluation designs of eHealth interventions in different national and organizational settings.

Keywords: Evaluation, Intervention, eHealth, Elderly, multi-cultural

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27 The Psychologist's Role in a Social Assistance Reference Center: A Case of Violence and Child Sexual Abuse in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: G. Melo, J. Felix, S. Maciel, C. Fernandes, W. Rodrigues

Abstract:

In Brazilian public policy, the Centres of Reference for Social Assistance (CRAS in Portuguese) are part of the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS in Portuguese). SUAS is responsible for addressing spontaneous or currently active cases that are brought forth from other services in the social assistance network. The following case was reviewed by CRAS’s team in Recife, Brazil, after a complaint of child abuse was filed against the mother of a 7-year-old girl by the girl’s aunt. The girl is the daughter of an incestuous relationship between her mother and her older brother. The complaint was registered by service staff and five interventions were subsequently carried out on behalf of the child. These interventions provided a secure place for dialogue with both the child and her family and allowed for an investigation of the abuse to proceed. They took place in the child’s school as well as her aunt’s residence. At school, the child (with her classmates) watched a video and listened to a song about the prevention of child abuse. This was followed up with a second intervention to determine any signs of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), by having the child play with the mobile app ‘My Angela’. Books on the themes of family and fear were also read to the child on different occasions at her school – after every intervention she was asked to draw something related to fear and her concept of a family. After the interventions and discussing the case as a team, we reached several conclusions: 1) The child did not appear to show any symptoms of PTSD; 2) She normally fantasized about her future and life story; 3) She did not allow herself to be touched by strangers with whom she lacks a close relationship (such as classmates or her teacher); 4) Through her drawings, she reproduced the conversations she had had with the staff; 5) She habitually covered her drawings when asked questions about the abuse. In this particular clinical case, we want to highlight that the role of the Psychologist’s intervention at CRAS is to attempt to resolve the issue promptly (and not to develop a prolonged clinical study based on traditional methods), by making use of the available tools from the social assistance network, and by making referrals to the relevant authorities, such as the Public Ministry, so that final protective actions can be taken and enforced. In this case, the Guardian Council of the Brazilian Public Ministry was asked to transfer the custody of the child to her uncle. The mother of the child was sent to a CAPS (Centre for Psychosocial Care), having been diagnosed with psychopathology. The child would then participate in NGO programs that allow for a gradual reduction of social exposure to her mother before being transferred to her uncle’s custody in Sao Paulo.

Keywords: Social Psychology, Violence, Intervention, Child Abuse

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26 Mastery and Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Preterm Birth among Latinas

Authors: Kathie Records, R. Jeanne Ruiz, Kimberly Ayers, Rebecca Pasillas

Abstract:

Background: Preterm births of less than 37 weeks gestation occur disproportionately to Hispanics living along the U.S.-Mexico border. Prematurity has devastating and costly effects on children, families and the health care system. Few preventive interventions have been tested for this vulnerable group. Objectives: To present the modeling and pilot testing of the theory-based Mastery Lifestyle Intervention (MLI), designed to reduce and prevent PTB among Mexican American women (the terms Hispanics or Latinas will also be used to represent this group) living in the United States. Design and Methods: The conceptualization of the problem of preterm births and the available literature underpinning the mastery lifestyle intervention will be reviewed. The lifestyle intervention includes foundational components of problem solving therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. Findings from implementation of a one-group pilot test and focus group evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of the MLI. Summary: Participants found the MLI to be feasible and acceptable, and reported perceiving improved health status and familial relationships. Suggestions were provided for modifications prior to efficacy testing. The MLI appears to be a theoretically and empirically grounded intervention that holds promise for preventing preterm births among Latinas.

Keywords: Intervention, stress, Hispanic, birth

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25 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

Abstract:

Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, diet, Intervention, mete-analysis

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24 Exploration of FOMO, or the 'Fear of Missing out' and the Use of Mindfulness and Values-Based Interventions for Alleviating Its Effects and Bolstering Well-Being

Authors: Chasity O'Connell

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The use of social media and networking sites play a significant role in the lives of adolescents and adults. While research supports that social support and connectedness in general is beneficial; the nature of communication and interaction through social media and its subsequent benefits and impacts could be arguably different. As such, this research aims to explore a specific facet of social media interaction called fear of missing out, or 'FOMO' and investigate its relationship within the context of life stressors, social media usage, anxiety and depressive-symptoms, mindfulness, and psychological well-being. FOMO is the 'uneasy and sometimes all-consuming feeling that you’re missing out—that your peers are doing, in the know about, or in possession of more or something better than you'. Research suggests that FOMO can influence an individual’s level of engagement with friends and social media consumption, drive decisions on participating in various online or offline activities, and ultimately impact mental health. This study hopes to explore the potentially mitigating influence of mindfulness and values-based interventions in reducing the discomfort and distress that can accompany FOMO and increase the sense of psychological well-being in allowing for a more thoughtful and deliberate engagement in life. This study will include an intervention component wherein participants (comprised of university students and adults in the community) will partake in a six-week, group-based intervention focusing on learning practical mindfulness skills and values-exploration exercises (along with a waitlist control group). In doing so, researchers hope to understand if interventions centered on increasing one’s awareness of the present moment and one’s internal values impact decision-making and well-being with regard to social interaction and relationships.

Keywords: Values, Intervention, stress, Distress, Mindfulness, psychological well-being, FOMO

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23 Efficacy of Phonological Awareness Intervention for People with Language Impairment

Authors: I. Wardana Ketut, I. Suparwa Nyoman

Abstract:

This study investigated the form and characteristic of speech sound produced by three Balinese subjects who have recovered from aphasia as well as intervened their language impairment on side of linguistic and neuronal aspects of views. The failure of judging the speech sound was caused by impairment of motor cortex that indicated there were lesions in left hemispheric language zone. Sound articulation phenomena were in the forms of phonemes deletion, replacement or assimilation in individual words and meaning building for anomic aphasia. Therefore, the Balinese sound patterns were stimulated by showing pictures to the subjects and recorded to recognize what individual consonants or vowels they unclearly produced and to find out how the sound disorder occurred. The physiology of sound production by subject’s speech organs could not only show the accuracy of articulation but also any level of severity the lesion they suffered from. The subjects’ speech sounds were investigated, classified and analyzed to know how poor the lingual units were and observed to clarify weaknesses of sound characters occurred either for place or manner of articulation. Many fricative and stopped consonants were replaced by glottal or palatal sounds because the cranial nerve, such as facial, trigeminal, and hypoglossal underwent impairment after the stroke. The phonological intervention was applied through a technique called phonemic articulation drill and the examination was conducted to know any change has been obtained. The finding informed that some weak articulation turned into clearer sound and simple meaning of language has been conveyed. The hierarchy of functional parts of brain played important role of language formulation and processing. From this finding, it can be clearly emphasized that this study supports the role of right hemisphere in recovery from aphasia is associated with functional brain reorganization.

Keywords: Phonology, Intervention, Stroke, Aphasia

Procedia PDF Downloads 86