Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

International Relations Related Abstracts

12 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, International Relations, Oil, Energy Efficiency, energy regulations

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11 Indo-Pak Relationship: Understanding the Past to Make Sense of the Future

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

The unpredictable and vacillating relationship between India and Pakistan since days of Independence struggle is known world over. And this instability has never lost its magnitude to decrease the tensions between the two countries. Since India aspires to run for the race of future superpower and Pakistan struggles to remove the tag of a highly fickle and under developed economy; ruined largely not by the outsiders, but its own people and systems; it becomes really important to gauge what steps would these neighbors take in years to come. The progress and stability of both countries heavily relies on the favorable equations between the two nations. Therefore the paper tries to trace some roots of their faltering relationship and attempts to predict their future in a multidimensional perspective.

Keywords: International Relations, Economy, faltering relationship, multidimensional perspective

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10 Creative Peace Diplomacy Model by the Perspective of Dialogue Management for International Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to keep peace all over the world. The study titled “peace diplomacy for international relations” is consist of three part. In the first part, peace diplomacy is going to be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. And, in this part, peace communication will be explained by international communication perspective. In the second part of the study,public relations events and communication campaigns will be developed originally for peace diplomacy. In this part, it is aimed original public communication dialogue management tools for peace diplomacy. the aim of the final part of the study, is to produce original public communication model for international relations. The model includes peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols, dialogue education, dialogue management strategies, peace actors, communication models, peace team management and public diplomacy steps. The creative part of the study aims to develop a model used for international relations for all countries. Creative Peace Diplomacy Model will be developed in the case of Turkey-Turkey-France and Turkey-Greece relations. So, communication and public relations events and campaigns are going to be developed as original for only this study.

Keywords: International Relations, Dialogue Management, peace diplomacy, public communication model

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9 Selecting a Foreign Country to Build a Naval Base Using a Fuzzy Hybrid Decision Support System

Authors: Latif Yanar, Muammer Kaçan

Abstract:

Decision support systems are getting more important in many fields of science and technology and used effectively especially when the problems to be solved are complicated with many criteria. In this kind of problems one of the main challenges for the decision makers are that sometimes they cannot produce a countable data for evaluating the criteria but the knowledge and sense of experts. In recent years, fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic based decision models gaining more place in literature. In this study, a decision support model to determine a country to build naval base is proposed and the application of the model is performed, considering Turkish Navy by the evaluations of Turkish Navy officers and academicians of international relations departments of various Universities located in Istanbul. The results achieved from the evaluations made by the experts in our model are calculated by a decision support tool named DESTEC 1.0, which is developed by the authors using C Sharp programming language. The tool gives advices to the decision maker using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Analytic Network Process, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process all at once. The calculated results for five foreign countries are shown in the conclusion.

Keywords: International Relations, Decision Support System, analytic network process, analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy analytic network process, naval base, country selection

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8 Video-Observation: A Phenomenological Research Tool for International Relation?

Authors: Andreas Aagaard Nohr

Abstract:

International Relations is an academic discipline which is rarely in direct contact with its field. However, there has in recent years been a growing interest in the different agents within and beyond the state and their associated practices; yet some of the research tools with which to study them are not widely used. This paper introduces video-observation as a method for the study of IR and argues that it offers a unique way of studying the complexity of the everyday context of actors. The paper is divided into two main parts: First, the philosophical and methodological underpinnings of the kind of data that video-observation produces are discussed; primarily through a discussion of the phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Second, taking simulation of a WTO negotiation round as an example, the paper discusses how the data created can be analysed: in particular with regard to the structure of events, the temporal and spatial organization of activities, rhythm and periodicity, and the concrete role of artefacts and documents. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ontological, epistemological, and practical challenges and limitations that ought to be considered if video-observation is chosen as a method within the field of IR.

Keywords: International Relations, phenomenology, video-observation

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7 The Islamic Perspective in International Relations

Authors: Hakam Junus, Natassha Chrysanti

Abstract:

The international relations theory currently is dominated by the western theoretical perspectives. Although the western theories are often used by many scholars as the universal perspective to explain the phenomena that occur in the world, sometimes the existing theories are failed to explain various issues that occur in the non-western world, for example, in the studies concerning on terrorism issues. Using inappropriate theories to explain the international issues such as terrorism will cause a failure in the decision-making process. The lack of understanding regarding Islamic perspective could be one of the factors that make international society unable to eradicate violent terrorism in the name of religion. Thus, this paper is argued that considering Islamic perspective as one of the major studies in international relations is significant to build a bridge between the Islamic world and the western world. It is believed that enhancing the study of Islamic perspective will create better understanding of the Islamic world and will enrich the study of international relations. This paper is conducted through a qualitative approach, in which data is obtained from the literature analysis. Considering Islamic perspective is important because Islam is listed as one of the major religions in the world. It is also due to the geopolitical spread of the Muslim in the world and the likelihood of the Islamic perspective to shape and influence Muslim’s behavior in the international level. The study of Islamic perspective in the international level is neither to contempt nor to oppose the existing western theories; rather it is needed in order to broaden the perspective in the international relations studies. The Islamic perspective is different compared to the non-western school of thought such as realism, and liberalism in some respects. The Islamic perspective cannot be explained through the lens of rationalist approaches. Compares to the post-positivism international relations perspectives, Islamic perspective is probably closer to the constructivist school of thought. However, the Islamic perspective offers some uniqueness that is not limited to the socially constructed ideas as in the constructivist arguments. This paper will be developed according to the discussion of three aspects that make Islamic perspective different with the existing international relations theories. The first aspect is the main actors in the international level. The second aspect is regarding on what appears to be the most important point for the actors in the international relations. The third aspect is regarding the pattern of relationship between the actors in the international level. In addition, this paper will briefly discuss the perspective of Islam in economics compare to the existing theories in the realm of international political economy.

Keywords: International Relations, Islam, Societies, non-western theories

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6 Identifying the Sacred in International Relations: A Religion-Based Analysis on Intimacy between Indonesia and Palestine

Authors: Andi Triswoyo

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The sacred has been a dominant influence in the human lives. International relations, as the mirror of the human relations in a whole, reflected such cases. Inter-state relations has been predominantly how the sacred played the main roles of. The relations between Indonesia and Palestine could be shot as the sacred-analyzed case of inter-state relations. The intimacy of them could be analyzed comfortably in IR normal perspective, such as realism, liberalism, and Marxism. Hopefully, Religion perspective would make better explanation how Indonesia-Palestine relations had so worth. This paper will use some narrative-explanatory stage to elaborate that cases. Moreover, the sacred can give such alternative analyses to interpret how international relations occurred in this time regard of the rise a new theory of International Relations.

Keywords: International Relations, Indonesia, Palestine, the sacred

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5 Prospect for Peace: Criticism to Over-Focusing on Religion in Conflicts

Authors: Leyi Wang

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The effect of religion on conflicts is usually over-focused. Religion is not the root cause of conflicts. There are always social, political or economic factors pushing the acceleration of conflicts. Meanwhile, the charisma of religion on calling for adherents is often utilized by political leaders as a tool of providing legitimacy to the initiating of violence and mobilizing the public during conflicts. What people identify from the connections between religion and conflicts is fake. There are some strategies used by politicians to upgrade the conflicts into violence. Consequently, there are some assumptions of which try to limit the religion’s effects on accelerating conflicts. This essay aims to discuss the roles of religion in international relations and argues that the religion difference is not the real source of conflicts in the globe, by reviewing the relevant literature for understanding the research background and gap of this topic. Also, this essay will suggest some implementations on dealing with the regional conflicts.

Keywords: International Relations, Criticism, Religion, Conflicts

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4 International Dispute Settlements According to the Law of the Sea: Coastal States vs. Maritime Conflicts

Authors: Ermal Xhelilaj

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International practice has revealed that many maritime conflicts have been initiated as a direct result of coastal states’ disagreements over maritime boundaries and other related maritime issues. These disagreements embrace relevant problematic matters reflecting international conflicts, which in order to prevent further escalation into international crises or even armed conflicts have to be legally resolved. The most challenging cases in international system involve regional or bilateral disputes regarding maritime boundaries delimitations between states, which may result in the activation of respective armed forces, considered crucial elements for the protection of territorial sovereignty. Taken under considerations the legal issues that Law of the Sea Convention (1982) reflects, including the legal provisions over disputes settlements, the importance of analyzing this paramount issue might be considered relevant at present. Therefore, this study will be focused in discussing legal and practical issues that concern the resolution of international maritime disputes seen from international relations point of view, by initially analyzing UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) relevant legal provisions, further discussing several notable cases over maritime boundaries delimitations as well as concluding with some recommendations related to this issue. The author is of the opinion that although the boundaries delimitation’s legal regime of UNCLOS reflects important standards for dispute settlements, yet considering the complex situation that represents this issue, relevant amendments might be necessary to be undertaken by international maritime organizations in order to further clarify the aforementioned legal matter.

Keywords: International Relations, Law of the Sea, maritime conflicts, dispute settlements

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3 Umkhonto Wesizwe as the Foundation of Post-Apartheid South Africa’s Foreign Policy and International Relations.

Authors: Bheki R. Mngomezulu

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The present paper cogently and systematically traces the history of Umkhonto Wesizwe (MK) and identifies its important role in shaping South Africa’s post-apartheid foreign policy and international relations under black leadership. It provides the political and historical contexts within which we can interpret and better understand South Africa’s controversial ‘Quiet Diplomacy’ approach to Zimbabwe’s endemic political and economic crises, which have dragged for too long. On 16 December 1961, the African National Congress (ANC) officially launched the MK as its military wing. The main aim was to train liberation fighters outside South Africa who would return into the country to topple the apartheid regime. Subsequently, the ANC established links with various countries across Africa and the globe in order to solicit arms, financial resources and military training for its recruits into the MK. Drawing from archival research and empirical data obtained through oral interviews that were conducted with some of the former MK cadres, this paper demonstrates how the ANC forged relations with a number of countries that were like-minded in order to ensure that its dream of removing the apartheid government became a reality. The findings reveal that South Africa’s foreign policy posture and international relations after the demise of apartheid in 1994 built on these relations. As such, even former and current socialist countries that were frowned upon by the Western world became post-apartheid South Africa’s international partners. These include countries such as Cuba and China, among others. Even countries that were not recognized by the Western world as independent states received good reception in post-apartheid South Africa’s foreign policy agenda. One of these countries is Palestine. Within Africa, countries with questionable human rights records such as Nigeria and Zimbabwe were accommodated in South Africa’s foreign policy agenda after 1994. Drawing from this history, the paper concludes that it would be difficult to fully understand and appreciate South Africa’s foreign policy direction and international relations after 1994 without bringing the history and the politics of the MK into the equation. Therefore, the paper proposes that the utilitarian role of history should never be undermined in the analysis of a country’s foreign policy direction and international relations. Umkhonto Wesizwe and South Africa are used as examples to demonstrate how such a link could be drawn through archival and empirical evidence.

Keywords: International Relations, Foreign Policy, apartheid, African National Congress

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2 Counter-Hegemonic Movements and Their Consequences at the International Level: Transposing Gramsci to the 21st Century

Authors: Hanna Corsini

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This article provides an analysis of counter-hegemonic movements and their consequences for the neoliberal world order at the international level. Even if calls for change are becoming louder, current research on populist forces at the domestic level in comparative politics is lacking an investigation of the international dimensions of the rise of such movements. At the same time, in the International Relations field, the focus still remains on the surge of challengers at the global level, while the national one stays neglected. This paper argues that to fill this gap as identified in the academic literature, the concept of hegemony, and more precisely, as deployed by Antonio Gramsci, can bear some interesting insights. An adaptation to the 21st century of Gramsci’s concept is proposed, highlighting the explanatory power that key concepts of his theoretical framework have. Transposing it to contemporary politics provides precious elements for an in-depth understanding of counter-hegemonic movements and the consequences of their rise for the neoliberal world order. In an era of disruption and turmoil in national politics, International Relations theory cannot avoid to engage with this dimension. However, populism as a theoretical concept lacks the capacity to go beyond the domestic border. It is therefore essential to create a dialogue between these two fields. Ultimately, the paper claims that (counter-)hegemony is crucial to build a bridge between the international and the domestic level.

Keywords: International Relations, hegemony, Gramsci, counter-hegemonic movements

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1 Intercultural Education through Literature Reception: An in-Depth Study of the Cultural and Literary Relations of Romania and China during 1948-2018

Authors: Iulia Elena Gîță

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According to the sociological theory of literature, constraints on the creation and share of cultural works can be placed between two extremes: one with a high level of politicization and the other with a high level of commercialization. The overall objective of the present research is to follow the principles of Sociology of Translation to closely map and analyse the publishing activity of Romania concerning China and Chinese literature during four stages of Romanian history between 1948-2018. This paper proposes, thus, an extended approach to literature, to its cultural, political and economic reception. In achieving the proposed objectives, the research expands far beyond the literary text itself, to its macro context, analysing, through quantitative research methods, a statistical database created based on two phases - the first part containing literary and non-fictional works that address and discuss issues related to China; the second part includes literary translations of Chinese literature into Romanian, either by direct translation or by an intermediate language. Throughout this paper we will map not only the number of works, but also the topics approached by writers along the two periods of the political life of Romania.

Keywords: International Relations, Publishing, Chinese Literature, intercultural understanding, bilateral relations, socio-cultural reception, socio-political constraints

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