Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

intermetallic compound Related Abstracts

3 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina


The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Composition, Morphology, Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound

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2 Microvoid Growth in the Interfaces during Aging

Authors: Jae-Yong Park, Gwancheol Seo, Young-Ho Kim


Microvoids, sometimes called Kikendall voids, generally form in the interfaces between Sn-based solders and Cu and degrade the mechanical and electrical properties of the solder joints. The microvoid formation is known as the rapid interdiffusion between Sn and Cu and impurity content in the Cu. Cu electroplating from the acid solutions has been widely used by microelectronic packaging industry for both printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit (IC) applications. The quality of electroplated Cu that can be optimized by the electroplating conditions is critical for the solder joint reliability. In this paper, the influence of electroplating conditions on the microvoid growth in the interfaces between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) solder and Cu layer was investigated during isothermal aging. The Cu layers were electroplated by controlling the additive of electroplating bath and current density to induce various microvoid densities. The electroplating bath consisted of sulfate, sulfuric acid, and additives and the current density of 5-15 mA/cm2 for each bath was used. After aging at 180 °C for up to 250 h, typical bi-layer of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) was gradually growth at the SAC/Cu interface and microvoid density in the Cu3Sn showed disparities in the electroplating conditions. As the current density increased, the microvoid formation was accelerated in all electroplating baths. The higher current density induced, the higher impurity content in the electroplated Cu. When the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Cl- ion were mixed in an electroplating bath, the microvoid formation was the highest compared to other electroplating baths. On the other hand, the overall IMC thickness was similar in all samples irrespective of the electroplating conditions. Impurity content in electroplated Cu influenced the microvoid growth, but the IMC growth was not affected by the impurity content. In conclusion, the electroplated conditions are properly optimized to avoid the excessive microvoid formation that results in brittle fracture of solder joint under high strain rate loading.

Keywords: additive, electroplating, intermetallic compound, microvoid

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1 Failure Mode Analysis of a Multiple Layer Explosion Bonded Cryogenic Transition Joint

Authors: Richard Colwell, Thomas Englert


In cryogenic liquefaction processes, brazed aluminum core heat exchangers are used to minimize surface area/volume of the exchanger. Aluminum alloy (5083-H321; UNS A95083) piping must transition to higher melting point 304L stainless steel piping outside of the heat exchanger kettle or cold box for safety reasons. Since aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel cannot be directly welded to together, a transition joint consisting of 5 layers of different metals explosively bonded are used. Failures of two of these joints resulted in process shut-down and loss of revenue. Failure analyses, FEA analysis, and mock-up testing were performed by multiple teams to gain a further understanding into the failure mechanisms involved.

Keywords: intermetallic compound, explosion bonding, thermal strain, titanium-nickel Interface

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