Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Interferometry Related Abstracts

6 Treatment of Interferograms Image of Perturbation Processes in Metallic Samples by Optical Method

Authors: Daira Radouane, Naim Boudmagh, Hamada Adel

Abstract:

The but of this handling is to use the technique of the shearing with a mechanism lapping machine of image: a prism of Wollaston. We want to characterize this prism in order to be able to employ it later on in an analysis by shearing. A prism of Wollaston is a prism produced in a birefringent material i.e. having two indexes of refraction. This prism is cleaved so as to present the directions associated with these indices in its face with entry. It should be noted that these directions are perpendicular between them.

Keywords: Interferometry, Aluminium, non destructive control, treatment of image

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5 Airborne Particulate Matter Passive Samplers for Indoor and Outdoor Exposure Monitoring: Development and Evaluation

Authors: Kholoud Abdulaziz, Kholoud Al-Najdi, Abdullah Kadri, Konstantinos E. Kakosimos

Abstract:

The Middle East area is highly affected by air pollution induced by anthropogenic and natural phenomena. There is evidence that air pollution, especially particulates, greatly affects the population health. Many studies have raised a warning of the high concentration of particulates and their affect not just around industrial and construction areas but also in the immediate working and living environment. One of the methods to study air quality is continuous and periodic monitoring using active or passive samplers. Active monitoring and sampling are the default procedures per the European and US standards. However, in many cases they have been inefficient to accurately capture the spatial variability of air pollution due to the small number of installations; which eventually is attributed to the high cost of the equipment and the limited availability of users with expertise and scientific background. Another alternative has been found to account for the limitations of the active methods that is the passive sampling. It is inexpensive, requires no continuous power supply, and easy to assemble which makes it a more flexible option, though less accurate. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the use of passive sampling for particulate matter pollution monitoring in dry tropical climates, like in the Middle East. More specifically, a number of field measurements have be conducted, both indoors and outdoors, at Qatar and the results have been compared with active sampling equipment and the reference methods. The samples have been analyzed, that is to obtain particle size distribution, by applying existing laboratory techniques (optical microscopy) and by exploring new approaches like the white light interferometry to. Then the new parameters of the well-established model have been calculated in order to estimate the atmospheric concentration of particulates. Additionally, an extended literature review will investigate for new and better models. The outcome of this project is expected to have an impact on the public, as well, as it will raise awareness among people about the quality of life and about the importance of implementing research culture in the community.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Interferometry, passive samplers, indoor, outdoor

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4 Application of Optical Method Based on Laser Devise as Non-Destructive Testing for Calculus of Mechanical Deformation

Authors: R. Daira, V. Chalvidan

Abstract:

We present the speckle interferometry method to determine the deformation of a piece. This method of holographic imaging using a CCD camera for simultaneous digital recording of two states object and reference. The reconstruction is obtained numerically. This latest method has the advantage of being simpler than the methods currently available, and it does not suffer the holographic configuration faults online. Furthermore, it is entirely digital and avoids heavy analysis after recording the hologram. This work was carried out in the laboratory HOLO 3 (optical metrology laboratory in Saint Louis, France) and it consists in controlling qualitatively and quantitatively the deformation of object by using a camera CCD connected to a computer equipped with software of Fringe Analysis.

Keywords: Image Processing, Nondestructive Testing, Interferometry, speckle

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3 Application of Optical Method for Calcul of Deformed Object Samples

Authors: R. Daira

Abstract:

The electronic speckle interferometry technique used to measure the deformations of scatterers process is based on the subtraction of interference patterns. A speckle image is first recorded before deformation of the object in the RAM of a computer, after a second deflection. The square of the difference between two images showing correlation fringes observable in real time directly on monitor. The interpretation these fringes to determine the deformation. In this paper, we present experimental results of deformation out of the plane of two samples in aluminum, electronic boards and stainless steel.

Keywords: deformation, Interferometry, Holography, optical method

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2 A Versatile Data Processing Package for Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar Deformation Monitoring

Authors: Zheng Wang, Zhenhong Li, Jon Mills

Abstract:

Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GBSAR) represents a powerful remote sensing tool for deformation monitoring towards various geohazards, e.g. landslides, mudflows, avalanches, infrastructure failures, and the subsidence of residential areas. Unlike spaceborne SAR with a fixed revisit period, GBSAR data can be acquired with an adjustable temporal resolution through either continuous or discontinuous operation. However, challenges arise from processing high temporal-resolution continuous GBSAR data, including the extreme cost of computational random-access-memory (RAM), the delay of displacement maps, and the loss of temporal evolution. Moreover, repositioning errors between discontinuous campaigns impede the accurate measurement of surface displacements. Therefore, a versatile package with two complete chains is developed in this study in order to process both continuous and discontinuous GBSAR data and address the aforementioned issues. The first chain is based on a small-baseline subset concept and it processes continuous GBSAR images unit by unit. Images within a window form a basic unit. By taking this strategy, the RAM requirement is reduced to only one unit of images and the chain can theoretically process an infinite number of images. The evolution of surface displacements can be detected as it keeps temporarily-coherent pixels which are present only in some certain units but not in the whole observation period. The chain supports real-time processing of the continuous data and the delay of creating displacement maps can be shortened without waiting for the entire dataset. The other chain aims to measure deformation between discontinuous campaigns. Temporal averaging is carried out on a stack of images in a single campaign in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of discontinuous data and minimise the loss of coherence. The temporal-averaged images are then processed by a particular interferometry procedure integrated with advanced interferometric SAR algorithms such as robust coherence estimation, non-local filtering, and selection of partially-coherent pixels. Experiments are conducted using both synthetic and real-world GBSAR data. Displacement time series at the level of a few sub-millimetres are achieved in several applications (e.g. a coastal cliff, a sand dune, a bridge, and a residential area), indicating the feasibility of the developed GBSAR data processing package for deformation monitoring of a wide range of scientific and practical applications.

Keywords: Deformation Monitoring, Interferometry, ground-based synthetic aperture radar, small baseline subset algorithm

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1 MIMO Radar-Based System for Structural Health Monitoring and Geophysical Applications

Authors: Aldo Cero, Davide D’Aria, Paolo Falcone, Luigi Maggi, Giovanni Amoroso

Abstract:

The paper presents a methodology for real-time structural health monitoring and geophysical applications. The key elements of the system are a high performance MIMO RADAR sensor, an optical camera and a dedicated set of software algorithms encompassing interferometry, tomography and photogrammetry. The MIMO Radar sensor proposed in this work, provides an extremely high sensitivity to displacements making the system able to react to tiny deformations (up to tens of microns) with a time scale which spans from milliseconds to hours. The MIMO feature of the system makes the system capable of providing a set of two-dimensional images of the observed scene, each mapped on the azimuth-range directions with noticeably resolution in both the dimensions and with an outstanding repetition rate. The back-scattered energy, which is distributed in the 3D space, is projected on a 2D plane, where each pixel has as coordinates the Line-Of-Sight distance and the cross-range azimuthal angle. At the same time, the high performing processing unit allows to sense the observed scene with remarkable refresh periods (up to milliseconds), thus opening the way for combined static and dynamic structural health monitoring. Thanks to the smart TX/RX antenna array layout, the MIMO data can be processed through a tomographic approach to reconstruct the three-dimensional map of the observed scene. This 3D point cloud is then accurately mapped on a 2D digital optical image through photogrammetric techniques, allowing for easy and straightforward interpretations of the measurements. Once the three-dimensional image is reconstructed, a 'repeat-pass' interferometric approach is exploited to provide the user of the system with high frequency three-dimensional motion/vibration estimation of each point of the reconstructed image. At this stage, the methodology leverages consolidated atmospheric correction algorithms to provide reliable displacement and vibration measurements.

Keywords: Tomography, SAR, Interferometry, MIMO radar

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