Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Intercultural Communication Related Abstracts

14 Prospects in Teaching Arabic Grammatical Structures to Non-Arab Learners

Authors: Yahya Toyin Muritala, Nonglaksana Kama, Ahmad Yani

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to investigate various linguistic techniques in enhancing and facilitating the acquisition of the practical knowledge of Arabic grammatical structuring among non-Arab learners of the standard classical Arabic language in non-Arabic speaking academic settings in the course of the current growth of the internationalism and cultural integration in some higher institutions. As the nature of the project requires standard investigations into the unique principal features of Arabic structurings and implications, the findings of the research work suggest some principles to follow in solving the problems faced by learners while acquiring grammatical aspects of Arabic language. The work also concentrates on the the structural features of the language in terms of inflection/parsing, structural arrangement order, functional particles, morphological formation and conformity etc. Therefore, grammatical aspect of Arabic which has gone through major stages in its early evolution of the classical stages up to the era of stagnation, development and modern stage of revitalization is a main subject matter of the paper as it is globally connected with communication and religion of Islam practiced by millions of Arabs and non-Arabs nowadays. The conclusion of the work shows new findings, through the descriptive and analytical methods, in terms of teaching language for the purpose of effective global communication with focus on methods of second language acquisitions by application.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Language structure, Arabic grammar, classical Arabic, non-Arabic speaking environment and prospects

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13 Peace Based Diplomacy, Peace Communication and Peace Lobbying in the Example of Turkey-France Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

The first stage to procure peace communication is to construct a mutual accordance, which can be defined as: To constitute reconciliation ground in order to open and constitute the right peace and dialogue areas. For example: In Turkey’s EU entry process, in order to procure French public opinion, to constitute a communication frame is a must. For the constitution of this frame, the titles of discussion in which it will be moved and for which French public opinion will show its support must be determined. The most important title of this ground is Turkey’s peace potential for Europe with its strategic position. For this reason, it’s is so strategic for peace communication that Turkey’s contributions for Europe and World should be opened up for discussion in public opinion in France and be introduced as a strong accordance ground.Peace based diplomacy, peace communication strategies and peace lobbying in the example of Turkey-France relations presents a strong peace titles.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, mediation education, common sense leaders, artistic sensitivity

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12 Intercultural Communication in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

Abstract:

This paper discusses how the teaching of English as a foreign language in Malawi can enhance intercultural communication competence in a multicultural society. It argues that incorporation of intercultural communication in the teaching of English as a foreign language would improve cultural awareness in communication in the multicultural Malawi. The teaching of English in Malawi is geared towards producing students who would communicate in the global world. This entails the use of proper pedagogical approaches and instructional materials that prepare the students toward intercultural awareness. In view of this, the language teachers were interviewed in order to determine their instructional approaches to intercultural communication. Instructional materials were further evaluated to assess how interculturality is incorporated. The study found out that teachers face perceptual and technical challenges that hinder them from exercising creativity to incorporate interculturality in their lessons. This is also compounded by lack of clear direction in the teaching materials on cultural elements. The paper, therefore, suggests a holistic approach to the teaching of English language in Malawian school in which the diversity of culture in classrooms must be considered an opportunity for addressing students’ cultural needs that may be lacking in the instructional materials.

Keywords: Foreign Language, Language Teaching, Intercultural Communication, Grammar, cultural awareness

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11 Religion and Politeness: An Exploratory Study for the Integration of Religious Expressions with Politeness Strategies in Iraqi Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: Rasha Alsabbah

Abstract:

This study explores the relationship between polite language use and religion in the Iraqi culture in computer mediated communication. It tackles the speech acts where these expressions are employed, the frequency of their occurrence and the aims behind them. It also investigates if they have equivalent expressions in English and the possibility of translating them in intercultural communication. Despite the wide assumption that language is a reflection of culture and religion, it started to grant the attention sociologists during the recent 40 years when scholars have questioned the possible interconnection between religion and language in which religion is used as a mean of producing language and performing pragmatic functions. It is presumed that Arabs in general, and Iraqis in particular, have an inclination to use religious vocabulary in showing politeness in their greeting and other speech acts. Due to Islamic religion and culture’s influences, it is observed that Iraqis are very much concerned of maintaining social solidarity and harmonious relationships which make religion a politeness strategy that operates as the key point of their social behaviours. In addition, religion has found to influence almost all their interactions in which they have a tendency of invoking religious expressions, the lexicon of Allah (God), and Qur’anic verses in their daily politeness discourse. This aspect of Islamic culture may look strange, especially to people who come from individualist societies, such as England. Data collection in this study is based on messaging applications like Viber, WhatsApp, and Facebook. After gaining the approval of the participants, there was an investigation for the different aims behind these expressions and the pragmatic function that they perform. It is found that Iraqis tend to incorporate the lexicon of Allah in most of their communication. Such employment is not only by religious people but also by individuals who do not show strong commitment to religion. Furthermore, the social distance and social power between people do not play a significant role in increasing or reducing the rate of using these expressions. A number of these expressions, though can be translated into English, do not have one to one counterpart or reflect religious feeling. In addition, they might sound odd upon being translated or transliterated in oral and written communication in intercultural communication.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Religion, Speech Acts, politeness, computer mediated communication (CMC), situation bound utterances rituals

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10 Translating Discourse Organization Structures Used in Chinese and English Scientific and Engineering Writings

Authors: Ming Qian, Davis Qian

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This study compares the different organization structures of Chinese and English writing discourses in the engineering and scientific fields, and recommends approaches for translators to convert the organization structures properly. Based on existing intercultural communication literature, English authors tend to deductively give their main points at the beginning, following with detailed explanations or arguments afterwards while the Chinese authors tend to place their main points inductively towards the end. In this study, this hypothesis has been verified by the authors’ Chinese-to-English translation experiences in the fields of science and engineering (e.g. journal papers, conference papers and monographs). The basic methodology used is the comparison of writings by Chinese authors with writings of the same or similar topic written by English authors in terms of organization structures. Translators should be aware of this nuance, so that instead of limiting themselves to translating the contents of an article in its original structure, they can convert the structures to fill the cross-culture gap. This approach can be controversial because if a translator changes the structure organization of a paragraph (e.g. from a 'because-therefore' inductive structure by a Chinese author to a deductive structure in English), this change of sentence order could be questioned by the original authors. For this reason, translators need to properly inform the original authors on the intercultural differences of English and Chinese writing (e.g. inductive structure versus deductive structure), and work with the original authors to maintain accuracy while converting from one structure used in a source language to another structure in the target language. The authors have incorporated these methodologies into their translation practices and work closely with the authors on the inter-cultural organization structure mapping. Translating discourse organization structure should become a standard practice in the translation process.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Information Structure, translation practice, discourse structure

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9 Cultural Aspect Representation: An Analysis of EFL Textbook Grade 10 Years 2017 in Indonesia

Authors: Soni Ariawan

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The discourse of language and culture relation is an interesting issue to be researched. The debate is not about what comes first, language or culture, but it strongly argues that learning foreign language also means learning the culture of the language. The more interesting issue found once constructing an EFL textbook dealing with proportional representation among source culture, target culture and international culture. This study investigates cultural content representation in EFL textbook grade 10 year 2017 in Indonesia. Cortazzi and Jin’s theoretical framework is employed to analyse the reading texts, conversations, and images. The finding shows that national character as the main agenda of Indonesian government is revealed in this textbook since the textbook more frequently highlights the source culture (Indonesian culture) compared to target and international culture. This is aligned with the aim of Indonesian government to strengthen the national identity and promoting local culture awareness through education. To conclude, the study is expected to be significant in providing the idea for government to consider cultural balances representation in constructing textbook. Furthermore, teachers and students should be aware of cultural content revealed in the EFL textbook and be able to enhance intercultural communication not only in the classroom but also in a wider society.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, local culture, EFL textbook, target culture, international culture

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8 A Multilingual Model in the Multicultural World

Authors: Marina Petrova

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Language policy issues related to the preservation and development of the native languages of the Russian peoples and the state languages of the national republics are increasingly becoming the focus of recent attention of educators and parents, public and national figures. Is it legal to teach the national language or the mother tongue as the state language? Due to that dispute language phobia moods easily evolve into xenophobia among the population. However, a civilized, intelligent multicultural personality can only be formed if the country develops bilingualism and multilingualism, and languages as a political tool help to find ‘keys’ to sufficiently closed national communities both within a poly-ethnic state and in internal relations of multilingual countries. The purpose of this study is to design and theoretically substantiate an efficient model of language education in the innovatively developing Republic of Sakha. 800 participants from different educational institutions of Yakutia worked at developing a multilingual model of education. This investigation is of considerable practical importance because researchers could build a methodical system designed to create conditions for the formation of a cultural language personality and the development of the multilingual communicative competence of Yakut youth, necessary for communication in native, Russian and foreign languages. The selected methodology of humane-personal and competence approaches is reliable and valid. Researchers used a variety of sources of information, including access to related scientific fields (philosophy of education, sociology, humane and social pedagogy, psychology, effective psychotherapy, methods of teaching Russian, psycholinguistics, socio-cultural education, ethnoculturology, ethnopsychology). Of special note is the application of theoretical and empirical research methods, a combination of academic analysis of the problem and experienced training, positive results of experimental work, representative series, correct processing and statistical reliability of the obtained data. It ensures the validity of the investigation’s findings as well as their broad introduction into practice of life-long language education.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Language policy, multilingual and multicultural education, the Sakha Republic of Yakutia

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7 Intercultural Initiatives and Canadian Bilingualism

Authors: Muna Shafiq

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Growth in international immigration is a reflection of increased migration patterns in Canada and in other parts of the world. Canada continues to promote itself as a bilingual country, yet the bilingual French and English population numbers do not reflect this platform. Each province’s integration policies focus only on second language learning of either English or French. Moreover, since English Canadians outnumber French Canadians, maintaining, much less increasing, English-French bilingualism appears unrealistic. One solution to increasing Canadian bilingualism requires creating intercultural communication initiatives between youth in Quebec and the rest of Canada. Specifically, the focus is on active, experiential learning, where intercultural competencies develop outside traditional classroom settings. The target groups are Generation Y Millennials and Generation Z Linksters, the next generations in the career and parenthood lines. Today, Canada’s education system, like many others, must continually renegotiate lines between programs it offers its immigrant and native communities. While some purists or right-wing nationalists would disagree, the survival of bilingualism in Canada has little to do with reducing immigration. Children and youth immigrants play a valuable role in increasing Canada’s French and English speaking communities. For instance, a focus on more immersion, over core French education programs for immigrant children and youth would not only increase bilingual rates; it would develop meaningful intercultural attachments between Canadians. Moreover, a vigilant increase of funding in French immersion programs is critical, as are new initiatives that focus on experiential language learning for students in French and English language programs. A favorable argument supports the premise that other than French-speaking students in Québec and elsewhere in Canada, second and third generation immigrant students are excellent ambassadors to promote bilingualism in Canada. Most already speak another language at home and understand the value of speaking more than one language in their adopted communities. Their dialogue and participation in experiential language exchange workshops are necessary. If the proposed exchanges take place inter-provincially, the momentum to increase collective regional voices increases. This regional collectivity can unite Canadians differently than nation-targeted initiatives. The results from an experiential youth exchange organized in 2017 between students at the crossroads of Generation Y and Generation Z in Vancouver and Quebec City respectively offer a promising starting point in assessing the strength of bringing together different regional voices to promote bilingualism. Code-switching between standard, international French Vancouver students, learn in the classroom versus more regional forms of Quebec French spoken locally created regional connectivity between students. The exchange was equally rewarding for both groups. Increasing their appreciation for each other’s regional differences allowed them to contribute actively to their social and emotional development. Within a sociolinguistic frame, this proposed model of experiential learning does not focus on hands-on work experience. However, the benefits of such exchanges are as valuable as work experience initiatives developed in experiential education. Students who actively code switch between French and English in real, not simulated contexts appreciate bilingualism more meaningfully and experience its value in concrete terms.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Experiential Learning, social and emotional learning, sociolinguistic code-switching

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6 Thai Cultural Conceptualizations that Underly Intercultural Business Communication Problems with Koreans

Authors: Yangwon Hyun

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Nowadays, business settings are becoming increasingly multilingual and multicultural under the conditions of globalization. When people from different linguistic and cultural background interact, their divergent cultural conceptualizations may result in communicative problems. Even though intercultural business communication between Thais and South Koreans has become increasingly significant along with the development of international trade relations, there have been very few attempts to conduct research on interactional problems in that context. Based on a Cultural Linguistics perspective, this study analyzes Thai cultural conceptualizations that underly interactional problems with Koreans at Korean business organizations where were located in Thailand. The data was gathered through in-depth interviews with ten Korean and ten Thai employees as well as through six months of field observations. The results indicate that there are three cultural pragmatic schemas that underly problems of interaction between the two groups; (1) the schema of kreng-jai as a communicative strategy of withholding one’s intentions in order to not hurt another’s emotion, (2) the schema of mai-pen-rai as a linguistic strategy of inducing interlocutors to not be concerned about substantial matters so as to avoid confrontations, and (3) the schema of jai-yen as a linguistic expression used for persuading interlocutors to maintain a calm state of mind in order to avoid conflicts. The linguistic behaviors of Thai employees in relation to these three cultural schemas had led to misunderstandings and interpersonal conflicts with Korean supervisors and co-workers. These interactional problems were caused not only because Koreans were unfamiliar with Thai cultural conceptualizations, but also because these conceptualizations were incompatible with goal-oriented Korean business discourse. The findings of this study can enhance mutual understandings between Thai and Korean employees. Thus, it contributes to the promotion of smooth intercultural communication in the workplace.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Cultural Linguistics, Cultural Conceptualizations, business context, thai culture

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5 Cultural Adjustment Problems in Academic and Social Life Experienced by Indonesian Postgraduate Students Studying in London

Authors: Erizal Lugman

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An increasing number of students from Indonesia study in universities in the UK. Because of the substantial cultural differences between the Western and Indonesian cultures, this study investigates the issues in academic and social life experienced by Indonesian postgraduate students, with a sample of 11 Indonesian postgraduate students (8 male, 3 female) studying in London during the cultural adjustment stage. This research made use of a semi-structured interview and was analyzed qualitatively using thematic content analysis to reveal key areas of concern in the academic setting, social life, and language-related issues. The findings confirm that the most challenging aspects experienced by the participants are the use of academic English in academic situations and the students’ lack of critical thinking. Nine out of 11 students agreed that they had problems with writing essays during the cultural adjustment stage. Because of the collectivist culture in Indonesia, making friends with locals was the most concerning issue in the participants’ sociocultural adjustment, followed by difficulty in finding places to pray, looking for Halal food and using the Western toilet system The findings suggest recommendations that the students must be more aware of the cultural differences between Indonesian and Western cultures, including in the academic setting and social life. Also, the lecturers should pay more attention to their speech in the British accent which is sometimes difficult to understand.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, cultural adjustment, academic adjustment, indonesian culture

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4 Intercultural Competence, (Im)Politeness and the Use of Social Media during the Intercultural Adjustment Period of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in the UK

Authors: Erizal Lugman

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To achieve their academic goals whilst studying abroad, international students must successfully adjust to cross-cultural differences. As a result, they need to develop new abilities including intercultural competence and politeness in order to effectively communicate with different languages and cultures. (Im)politeness is also an essential aspect of intercultural competence which is vital for effective intercultural communication. This study seeks to integrate different aspects of intercultural competence, (im)politeness and the use of social media platforms which is solely focused on Indonesian students studying in the UK. Using a purposive sampling method, participants will be recruited to address the research questions who will all be volunteers and have lived in Britain for at least six months or who have passed the cultural adjustment period. Using a range of quantitative and qualitative methods, in this respect, participants will be recruited and asked to relate the intercultural experiences they encountered during the cultural adjustment period through the use of e-portfolios, interviews, and critical reflection. This will be followed by online surveying from the Indonesian participants' point of view using the cross-cultural adaptability inventory (CCAI), which aims to measure the individual potential for cross-cultural adaptability. A discursive approach will be employed which aims to focus on analysing (im)politeness as reported and narrated by the participants.

Keywords: Social Media, Intercultural Communication, intercultural competence, im)politeness

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3 Intensive Intercultural English Language Pedagogy among Parents from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds (CALD)

Authors: Ann Dashwood

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Using Standard Australian English with confidence is a cultural expectation of parents of primary school aged children who want to engage effectively with their children’s teachers and school administration. That confidence in support of their children’s learning at school is seldom experienced by parents whose first language is not English. Sharing language with competence in an intercultural environment is the common denominator for meaningful communication and engagement to occur in a school community. Experience in relevant, interactive sessions is known to enhance engagement and participation. The purpose of this paper is to identify a pedagogy for parents otherwise isolated from daily use of functional Australian cultural language learned to engage effectively in their children’s learning at school. The outcomes measure parents’ intercultural engagement with classroom teachers and attention to the school’s administrative procedures using quantitative and qualitative methods. A principled communicative task-based language learning approach, combined with intercultural communication strategies provide the theoretical base for intensive English inquiry-based learning and engagement. The quantitative analysis examines data samples collected by classroom teachers and administrators and parents’ writing samples. Interviews and observations qualitatively inform the study. Currently, significant numbers of projects are active in community centers and schools to enhance English language knowledge of parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English (LBOTE). The study is significant to explore the effects of an intensive English pedagogy with parents of varied English language backgrounds, by targeting inquiry-based language use for social interactions in the school and wider community, specific engagement and cultural interaction with teachers and school activities and procedures.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Engagement, school community, language teaching pedagogy, LBOTE

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2 Intensive Intercultural English Language for Enhanced School Community Engagement: An Exploratory Study Applied to Parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English in a Regional Australian Primary School

Authors: Ann Dashwood

Abstract:

Using standard Australian English with confidence is a cultural expectation of parents of primary school aged children who want to engage effectively with their children’s teachers and school administration. That confidence in support of their children’s learning at school is seldom experienced by parents whose first language is not English. Sharing language with competence in an intercultural environment is the common denominator for meaningful communication and engagement to occur in a school community. Experience in relevant interactive sessions is known to enhance engagement and participation. The purpose of this paper is to identify interactional settings for which parents who are isolated from the daily use of functional Australian cultural language learned to engage more effectively in their children’s learning at school. The outcomes measured parents’ intercultural engagement with classroom teachers and attention to the school’s administrative procedures. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods. The principles of communicative task-based language learning combined with intercultural communication principles provided the theoretical base for intensive English task-based learning and engagement. The quantitative analysis examined data samples collected by classroom teachers and administrators and parents’ writing samples. Interviews and observations qualitatively informed the study. Currently significant numbers of projects are active in community centres and schools to enhance English language knowledge of parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English (LBOTE). The study was significant to explore the effects of conducting intensive English with parents of varied English language backgrounds by targeting language use for social interactions in the community, specific engagement in school activities, cultural interaction with teachers and responsiveness to complying with school procedures.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Engagement, school community, LBOTE

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1 Experiential Language Learning as a Tool for Effective Global Leadership

Authors: Christiane Dumont

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This paper proposes to revisit foreign-language learning as a tool to increase motivation through advocacy and develop effective natural communication skills, which are critical leadership qualities. To this end, collaborative initiatives undertaken by advanced university students of French with local and international community partners will be reviewed. Close attention will be paid to the acquisition of intercultural skills, the reflective process, as well as the challenges and outcomes. Two international development projects conducted in Haiti will be highlighted, i.e., collaboration with a network of providers in the Haitian cultural heritage preservation and tourism sector (2014-15) and development of investigation and teacher training tools for a primary/secondary school in the Port-au-Prince area (current). The choice of community-service learning as a framework to teach French-as-a-second-language stemmed from the need to raise awareness against stereotypes and prejudice, which hinder the development of effective intercultural skills. This type of experiential education also proved very effective in identifying and preventing miscommunication caused by the lack of face-to-face interaction in our increasingly technology-mediated world. Learners experienced first-hand, the challenges and advantages of face-to-face communication, which, in turn, enhanced their motivation for developing effective intercultural skills. Vygotsky's and Kolb's theories, current research on service learning (Dwight, Eyler), action/project-based pedagogy (Beckett), and reflective learning (TSC Farrell), will provide useful background to analyze the benefits and challenges of community-service learning. The ultimate goal of this paper is to find out what makes experiential learning truly unique and transformative for both the learners and the community they wish to serve. It will demonstrate how enhanced motivation, community engagement, and clear, concise, and respectful communication impact and empower learners. The underlying hope is to help students in high-profile, and leading-edge industries become effective global leaders.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Effective Leadership, Reflective learning, Experiential Learning, learner motivation

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