Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

intensive care units Related Abstracts

7 Energy Efficient Shading Strategies for Windows of Hospital ICUs in the Desert

Authors: A. Sherif, A. El Zafarany, R. Arafa

Abstract:

Hospitals, everywhere, are considered heavy energy consumers. Hospital Intensive Care Unit spaces pose a special challenge, where design guidelines requires the provision of external windows for day-lighting and external view. Window protection strategies could be employed to reduce energy loads without detriment effect on comfort or health care. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using various window strategies on the annual cooling, heating and lighting energy use of a typical Hospital Intensive Unit space. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) space in Cairo, located in the Egyptian desert. This study concluded that the use of shading systems is more effective in conserving energy in comparison with glazing of different types, in the Cairo ICUs. The highest energy savings in the West and South orientations were accomplished by external perforated solar screens, followed by overhangs positioned at a protection angle of 45°.

Keywords: Energy, hospital, intensive care units, shading

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6 Evaluation of Adequacy of Caspofungin Prescription in a Tunisian Hospital Cohort

Authors: Mariem Meddeb Sidhom, Souhayel Hedfi, Rjaibia Houda, Mehdi Dridi, Mohamed Ali Yousfi, Sâadia Gargouri

Abstract:

Considering the important increase in costs of caspofungin treatments and ahead the evolution of its indication, pharmacy department was prompted to realize a review of the adequacy of prescriptions in the medical intensive care units (ICU). A retrospective observational study was conducted in Tunis military hospital concerning ICU prescriptions of caspofungin from 2008 until 2013. A pharmacist had returned to the patient’s medical records to collect data and to the microbiology department for parasitological results. The adequacy of prescriptions was evaluated by a pharmacist and an infectiologist parasitologist, referring to predefined scale of criteria resuming the indications of the marketing authorization (MA) and grade AI-AII of the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Sixty two ICU patients have been treated with caspofungin during the period of study; however, 8 files were lost. Thus, 54 patients were included in the study having received 55 prescriptions of caspofungin. Males were a majority with 64.8% of the population. Mean age was 51 years. Caspofungin was indicated in accordance with the IDSA recommendations in 43.6% of the cases. The most case of non respect to the guidelines was the indication of caspofungin as empirical treatment in non neutropenic patients. Caspofungin was utilized as a first line treatment in 9 cases where it was possible to give fluconazole first, as germs were fluconazole- sensitive. Caspofungin was indicated in 2 patients with good renal function and in which nor amphotericin B, liposomal ampho B neither itraconazole had been previously used, as indicates the MA. The posology of caspofungin was respected in all prescriptions with a loading dose of 70 mg in the first day and a maintenance dose of 50 mg daily. Seven patients had received a daily dose of 70 mg, the recommended dose for people weighing more than 80 Kg. Caspofungin prescriptions are far to be adequately done. There is a clear need of optimization in indicating this molecule and that must be done in collaboration between the pharmacy department, the ICUs and parasitology department.

Keywords: prescription, intensive care units, caspofungin, marketing authorization, Tunisian hospital cohort

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5 User-Centered Design in the Development of Patient Decision Aids

Authors: Ariane Plaisance, Holly O. Witteman, Patrick Michel Archambault

Abstract:

Upon admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), all patients should discuss their wishes concerning life-sustaining interventions (e.g., cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)). Without such discussions, interventions that prolong life at the cost of decreasing its quality may be used without appropriate guidance from patients. We employed user-centered design to adapt an existing decision aid (DA) about CPR to create a novel wiki-based DA adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailored to individual patient’s risk factors. During Phase 1, we conducted three weeks of ethnography of the decision-making context in our ICU to identify clinician and patient needs for a decision aid. During this time, we observed five dyads of intensivists and patients discussing their wishes concerning life-sustaining interventions. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with the attending intensivists in this ICU. During Phase 2, we conducted three rounds of rapid prototyping involving 15 patients and 11 other allied health professionals. We recorded discussions between intensivists and patients and used a standardized observation grid to collect patients’ comments and sociodemographic data. We applied content analysis to field notes, verbatim transcripts and the completed observation grids. Each round of observations and rapid prototyping iteratively informed the design of the next prototype. We also used the programming architecture of a wiki platform to embed the GO-FAR prediction rule programming code that we linked to a risk graphics software to better illustrate outcome risks calculated. During Phase I, we identified the need to add a section in our DA concerning invasive mechanical ventilation in addition to CPR because both life-sustaining interventions were often discussed together by physicians. During Phase II, we produced a context-adapted decision aid about CPR and mechanical ventilation that includes a values clarification section, questions about the patient’s functional autonomy prior to admission to the ICU and the functional decline that they would judge acceptable upon hospital discharge, risks and benefits of CPR and invasive mechanical ventilation, population-level statistics about CPR, a synthesis section to help patients come to a final decision and an online calculator based on the GO-FAR prediction rule. Even though the three rounds of rapid prototyping led to simplifying the information in our DA, 60% (n= 3/5) of the patients involved in the last cycle still did not understand the purpose of the DA. We also identified gaps in the discussion and documentation of patients’ preferences concerning life-sustaining interventions (e.g.,. CPR, invasive mechanical ventilation). The final version of our DA and our online wiki-based GO-FAR risk calculator using the IconArray.com risk graphics software are available online at www.wikidecision.org and are ready to be adapted to other contexts. Our results inform producers of decision aids on the use of wikis and user-centered design to develop DAs that are better adapted to users’ needs. Further work is needed on the creation of a video version of our DA. Physicians will also need the training to use our DA and to develop shared decision-making skills about goals of care.

Keywords: ethnography, User-Centered Design, intensive care units, life-sustaining therapies

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4 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: Algeria, intensive care units, epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, teaching hospital of Oran

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3 Improving Health Care and Patient Safety at the ICU by Using Innovative Medical Devices and ICT Tools: Examples from Bangladesh

Authors: Mannan Mridha, Mohammad S. Islam

Abstract:

Innovative medical technologies offer more effective medical care, with less risk to patient and healthcare personnel. Medical technology and devices when properly used provide better data, precise monitoring and less invasive treatments and can be more targeted and often less costly. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) equipped with patient monitoring, respiratory and cardiac support, pain management, emergency resuscitation and life support devices is particularly prone to medical errors for various reasons. Many people in the developing countries now wonder whether their visit to hospital might harm rather than help them. This is because; clinicians in the developing countries are required to maintain an increasing workload with limited resources and absence of well-functioning safety system. A team of experts from the medical, biomedical and clinical engineering in Sweden and Bangladesh have worked together to study the incidents, adverse events at the ICU in Bangladesh. The study included both public and private hospitals to provide a better understanding for physical structure, organization and practice in operating processes of care, and the occurrence of adverse outcomes the errors, risks and accidents related to medical devices at the ICU, and to develop a ICT based support system in order to reduce hazards and errors and thus improve the quality of performance, care and cost effectiveness at the ICU. Concrete recommendations and guidelines have been made for preparing appropriate ICT related tools and methods for improving the routine for use of medical devices, reporting and analyzing of the incidents at the ICU in order to reduce the number of undetected and unsolved incidents and thus improve the patient safety.

Keywords: Medical devices, intensive care units, medical errors, patient care and safety

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2 Mental Health of Caregivers in Public Hospital Intensive Care Department: A Multicentric Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Naima Bouatay, Chaima Harrathi, Samia Machroughl, Ahmed Mhalla

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Background and Aims: Professionals of health care sector are exposed to psychosocial constraints like stress, harassment, violence, which can lead to many mental health problems such as, depression, addictive behavior, and burn-out. Moreover, it’s well established that caregivers affected to intensive care units are more likely to experience such constraints and mental health problems. For these caregivers, the mental health state may affect care quality and patient’s safety. This study aims either to identify occupational psychosocial constraints and their mental health consequences among paramedical and medical caregivers affected to intensive units in Tunisian public hospital. Methods: An exhaustive three months cross-sectional study conducted among medical and paramedical staffs of intensive care units in three Tunisian university hospitals. After informed consent collection, we evaluated work-related stress, workplace harassment, depression, anxious troubles, addictive behavior, and self-esteems through an anonymous self-completed inquiry form. Five validated questionnaires and scales were included in this form: Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, Negative Acts Questionnaire, Rosenberg, Beck depression inventory and Hamilton Anxiety scale. Results: We included 129 intensive unit caregivers; with a mean age of 36.1 ± 1.1 years and a sex ratio of 0.58. Among these caregivers, 30% were specialist or under-specialization doctors. The average seniority in the intensive care was 6.1 ± 1.2 (extremes=1 to 40 years). Atypical working schedules were noted among 36.7% of the subjects with an imposed choice in 52.4% of cases. During the last 12 months preceding the survey, 51.7% of care workers were absent from work because of a health problem with stops exceeding 15 days in 11.7%. Job strain was objective among 15% of caregivers and 38.33% of them were victims of moral harassment. A low or very low self-esteem was noted among 40% of respondents. Moreover, active smoking was reported by 20% subjects, alcohol consumption by 13.3% and psychotropic substance use by 1.7% of them. According to Beck inventory and Hamilton Anxiety scale, we concluded that 61.7% of intensive care providers were depressed, with 'severe' depression in 13.3% of cases and 49.9% of them present anxious disorders. Multivariate analysis objective that, job strain was correlated with young age (p=0.005) and shorter work seniority (p=0.001). Workplace and moral harassment was more prevalent among females (p=0.009), under-specialization doctor (p=0.021), those affected to atypical schedules (p=0.008). Concerning depression, it was more prevalent among staff in job strain situation (p = 0.004), among smokers caregivers (p = 0.048), and those with no leisure activity (p < 0.001). Anxious disorders were positively correlated to chronic diseases history (p = 0.001) and work-bullying exposure (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our findings reflected a high frequency of caregivers who are under stress at work and those who are victims of moral harassment. These health professionals were at increased risk for developing psychiatric illness such depressive and anxious disorders and addictive behavior. Our results suggest the necessity of preventive strategies of occupational psychosocial constraints in order to preserve professional’s mental health and maximize patient safety and quality of care.

Keywords: Mental Health, intensive care units, health care sector, psychosocial constraints

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1 Retrospective Study of Bronchial Secretions Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

Abstract:

Purpose: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are exposed to a different spectrum of microorganisms relative to the hospital. Due to the fact that the majority of these patients are intubated, bronchial secretions should be examined. Material and Method: Bronchial secretions should be taken with care so as not to be mixed with sputum or saliva. The bronchial secretions are placed in a sterile container and then inoculated into blood, Mac Conkey No2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed and then the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 365 samples of bronchial secretions from the Intensive Care Unit. 237 were found positive. S. epidermidis was identified in 1 specimen, A. baumannii in 60, K. pneumoniae in 42, P. aeruginosa in 50, C. albicans in 40, P. mirabilis in 4, E. coli in 4, S. maltophilia in 6, S. marcescens in 6, S. aureus in 12, S. pneumoniae in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, P. fluorescens in 1, E. aerogenes in 1, E. cloacae in 5. Conclusions: The majority of ICU patients appear to be a fertile ground for the development of infections. The nature of the findings suggests that a significant part of the bacteria found comes from the unit (nosocomial infection).

Keywords: Cultures, Infections, intensive care units, bronchial secretions

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