Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

intensity Related Abstracts

12 Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital

Authors: Shoji Katagiri, Hugang Han


This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in Economic Growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions, we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.

Keywords: ICT, Capital accumulation, endogenous economic growth, intensity

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11 Obstacle Classification Method Based on 2D LIDAR Database

Authors: Moohyun Lee, Soojung Hur, Yongwan Park


In this paper is proposed a method uses only LIDAR system to classification an obstacle and determine its type by establishing database for classifying obstacles based on LIDAR. The existing LIDAR system, in determining the recognition of obstruction in an autonomous vehicle, has an advantage in terms of accuracy and shorter recognition time. However, it was difficult to determine the type of obstacle and therefore accurate path planning based on the type of obstacle was not possible. In order to overcome this problem, a method of classifying obstacle type based on existing LIDAR and using the width of obstacle materials was proposed. However, width measurement was not sufficient to improve accuracy. In this research, the width data was used to do the first classification; database for LIDAR intensity data by four major obstacle materials on the road were created; comparison is made to the LIDAR intensity data of actual obstacle materials; and determine the obstacle type by finding the one with highest similarity values. An experiment using an actual autonomous vehicle under real environment shows that data declined in quality in comparison to 3D LIDAR and it was possible to classify obstacle materials using 2D LIDAR.

Keywords: Database, Segmentation, classification, Lidar, intensity, obstacle

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10 Tumor Boundary Extraction Using Intensity and Texture-Based on Gradient Vector

Authors: Namita Mittal, Himakshi Shekhawat, Ankit Vidyarthi


In medical research study, doctors and radiologists face lot of complexities in analysing the brain tumors in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Brain tumor detection is difficult due to amorphous tumor shape and overlapping of similar tissues in nearby region. So, radiologists require one such clinically viable solution which helps in automatic segmentation of tumor inside brain MR image. Initially, segmentation methods were used to detect tumor, by dividing the image into segments but causes loss of information. In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed which detect Region of Interest (ROI) on the basis of difference in intensity values and texture values of tumor region using nearby tissues with Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) technique in the identification of ROI. Proposed approach uses both intensity and texture values for identification of abnormal section of the brain MR images. Experimental results show that proposed method outperforms GVF method without any loss of information.

Keywords: Segmentation, Texture, brain tumor, intensity, GVF, MR images

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9 Mirror-Like Effect Based on Correlations among Atoms

Authors: Qurrat-Ul-Ain Gulfam, Zbigniew Ficek


The novel idea to use single atoms as highly reflecting mirrors has recently gained much attention. Usually, to observe the reflective nature of an atom, it is required to couple the atom to an external medium such that a directional spontaneous emission could be realized. We propose an alternative way to achieve the directional emission by considering a system of correlated atoms in free space. It is well known that mutually interacting atoms have a strong tendency to emit the radiation along particular discrete directions. That relieves one from the stingy condition of associating the atomic system to another media and facilitates the experimental implementation to a large degree. Moreover, realistic 3-dimensional collective emission can be taken into account in the dynamics. Two interesting spatial setups have been considered; one where a probe atom is confined in a linear cavity formed by two atomic mirrors and, the other where a probe atom faces a chain of correlated atoms. We observe an evidence of the mirror-like effect in a simple system of a chain of three atoms. The angular distribution of the radiation intensity observed in the far field is greatly affected by the atomic interactions. Hence, suitable directions for enhanced reflectivity can be determined.

Keywords: intensity, atom-mirror effect, correlated system, dipole-dipole interactions

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8 Analysis of Rainfall Hazard in North East of Algeria

Authors: Imene Skhakhfa, Lahbaci Ouerdachi


The design of sewerage systems is directly related to rainfall, which has a highly random character. Showers are usually described by three characteristics: intensity, volume and duration. Several studies considered only in two of the three models. The objective of our work is to perform an analysis of the impact of three variables on put in charge of sewerage system, responsible for misbehavior, origin of urban flooding. 30 events were considered events for the longest, most rushed and most intense period which runs from 1986 -2001. We built the IDF curves and heavy projects double symmetrical triangles associated with this selection. A simulation of the operation, with the model canoe, sewage from the city of Annaba (Algeria) in the three rain solicitation project, double triangles associated with events considered. It appears that the sewage of the city of Annaba, in terms of charging, is much more sensitive to rain most precipitous, and the more intense causing loadings and last the longest. Further analysis of all the rain and the field measurements are underway to confirm the test simulations.

Keywords: Design, Simulation, Duration, volume, intensity, sewerage

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7 Comparison of Unit Hydrograph Models to Simulate Flood Events at the Field Scale

Authors: Imene Skhakhfa, Lahbaci Ouerdachi


To ensure the overall coherence of simulated results, it is necessary to develop a robust validation process. In many applications, it is no longer content to calibrate and validate the model only in relation to the hydro graph measured at the outlet, but we try to better simulate the functioning of the watershed in space. Therefore the timing also performs compared to other variables such as water level measurements in intermediate stations or groundwater levels. As part of this work, we limit ourselves to modeling flood of short duration for which the process of evapotranspiration is negligible. The main parameters to identify the models are related to the method of unit hydro graph (HU). Three different models were tested: SNYDER, CLARK and SCS. These models differ in their mathematical structure and parameters to be calibrated while hydrological data are the same, the initial water content and precipitation. The models are compared on the basis of their performance in terms six objective criteria, three global criteria and three criteria representing volume, peak flow, and the mean square error. The first type of criteria gives more weight to strong events whereas the second considers all events to be of equal weight. The results show that the calibrated parameter values are dependent and also highlight the problems associated with the simulation of low flow events and intermittent precipitation.

Keywords: Model Calibration, runoff, intensity, hydrograph

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6 Heart and Plasma LDH and CK in Response to Intensive Treadmill Running and Aqueous Extraction of Red Crataegus pentagyna in Male Rats

Authors: A. Abdi, A. Barari, A. Hojatollah Nikbakht, Khosro Ebrahim


Aim: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a high intensity treadmill running training (8 weeks) with or without aqueous extraction of Crataegus pentagyna on heart and plasma LDH and CK. Design: Thirty-two Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 125-135 gr weight) were used. Animals were randomly assigned into training (n = 16) and control (n = 16) groups and further divided into saline-control (SC, n = 8), saline-training (ST, n = 8), red Crataegus pentagyna extraction -control (CPEC, n = 8), and red Crataegus pentagyna extraction -training (CPET, n = 8) groups. Training groups have performed a high-intensity running program 34 m/min on 0% grade, 60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a motor-driven treadmill for 8 weeks. Animals were fed orally with Crataegus extraction and saline solution (500mg/kg body weight/or 10ml/kg body weight) for last six weeks. Seventy- two hours after the last training session, rats were sacrificed; plasma and heart were excised and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. LDH and CK levels were measured by colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was performed using a one way analysis of variance and Tukey test. Significance was accepted at P = 0.05. Results: Result showed that consumption crataegus lowers LDH and CK in heart and plasma. Also the heart LDH and CK were lower in the CPET compared to the ST, while plasma LDH and CK in CPET was higher than the ST. The results of ANOVA showed that the due high-intensity exercise and consumption crataegus, there are significant differences between levels of hearth LDH (P < 0/001), plasma (P < 0/006) and hearth (P < 0/001) CK. Conclusion: It appears that high-intensity exercise led to increased tissue damage and inflammatory factors in plasma. In other hand, consumption aqueous extraction of Red Crataegus maybe inhibits these factors and prevents muscle and heart damage.

Keywords: intensity, LDH, Crataegus

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5 A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model

Authors: Viliam Makis, Fariba Azizi, Firoozeh Haghighi


In this paper, we propose a method to model the relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods.

Keywords: intensity, cause of failure, linear degradation path, reliability function, expectation-maximization algorithm, masked data

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4 Diversity and Intensity of International Technology Transfer and their Impacts on Organizational Performance

Authors: Sungjoo Lee, Seongryong Kang, Woonjin Kim


Under the environment of fierce competition and globalized economy, international technology collaboration has gained increasing attention as a way to improve innovation efficiency. While international technology transfer helps a firm to acquire necessary technology in a short period of time, it also has a risk; embedding external technology from overseas partners may cause a transaction cost due to the regional, cultural and language barriers, which tend to offset the benefits of such transfer. Though a number of previous studies have focused on the effects of technology in-transfer on firm performance, few have conducted in the context of international technology transfer. To fill this gap, this study aims to investigate the impact of international technology in-transfer on firm performance – both innovation and financial performance, with a particular emphasis on the diversity and intensity of such transfer. To do this, we adopted technology balance payment (TBP) data of Korean firms from 2010 to 2011, where an intermediate regression analysis was used to identify the intermediate effects of absorptive capacity. The analysis results indicate that i) the diversity and intensity of international technology transfer influence innovation performance by improving R&D capability positively; and ii) the diversity has a positive impact but the intensity has a negative impact on financial performance through the intermediation of R&D intensity. The research findings are expected to provide meaningful implications for establishing global technology strategy and developing policy programs to facilitate technology transfer.

Keywords: Diversity, Performance, Technology Transfer, intensity, international technology acquisition

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3 Global Positioning System Match Characteristics as a Predictor of Badminton Players’ Group Classification

Authors: Ben Coetzee, Yahaya Abdullahi, Linda Van Den Berg


The study aimed at establishing the global positioning system (GPS) determined singles match characteristics that act as predictors of successful and less-successful male singles badminton players’ group classification. Twenty-two (22) male single players (aged: 23.39 ± 3.92 years; body stature: 177.11 ± 3.06cm; body mass: 83.46 ± 14.59kg) who represented 10 African countries participated in the study. Players were categorised as successful and less-successful players according to the results of five championships’ of the 2014/2015 season. GPS units (MinimaxX V4.0), Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belts and digital video cameras were used to collect match data. GPS-related variables were corrected for match duration and independent t-tests, a cluster analysis and a binary forward stepwise logistic regression were calculated. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) was used to determine the validity of the group classification model. High-intensity accelerations per second were identified as the only GPS-determined variable that showed a significant difference between groups. Furthermore, only high-intensity accelerations per second (p=0.03) and low-intensity efforts per second (p=0.04) were identified as significant predictors of group classification with 76.88% of players that could be classified back into their original groups by making use of the GPS-based logistic regression formula. The ROC showed a value of 0.87. The identification of the last-mentioned GPS-related variables for the attainment of badminton performances, emphasizes the importance of using badminton drills and conditioning techniques to not only improve players’ physical fitness levels but also their abilities to accelerate at high intensities.

Keywords: Global Positioning System, Badminton, intensity, effort, match analysis, inertial movement analysis

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2 Interior Architecture in the Anthropocene: Engaging the Subnature through the Intensification of Body-Surface Interaction

Authors: Verarisa Ujung


The Anthropocene – as scientists define as a new geological epoch where human intervention has the dominant influence on the geological, atmospheric, and ecological processes challenges the contemporary discourse in architecture and interior. The dominant influence characterises the incapability to distinguish the notion of nature, subnature, human and non-human. Consequently, living in the Anthropocene demands sensitivity and responsiveness to heighten our sense of the rhythm of transformation and recognition of our environment as a product of natural, social and historical processes. The notion of subnature is particularly emphasised in this paper to investigate the poetic sense of living with subnature. It could be associated with the critical tool for exploring the aesthetic and programmatic implications of subnature on interiority. The ephemeral immaterial attached to subnature promotes the sense of atmospheric delineation of interiority, the very inner significance of body-surface interaction, which central to interior architecture discourse. This would then reflect human’s activities; examine the transformative change, the architectural motion and the traces that left between moments. In this way, engaging the notion of subnature enable us to better understand the critical subject on interiority and might provide an in-depth study on interior architecture. Incorporating the exploration on the form, materiality, and pattern of subnature, this research seeks to grasp the inner significance of micro to macro approaches so that the future of interior might be compelled to depend more on the investigation and development of responsive environment. To reflect upon the form, materiality and intensity of subnature that specifically characterized by the natural, social and historical processes, this research examines a volcanic land, White Island/Whakaari, New Zealand as the chosen site of investigation. Emitting various forms and intensities of subnatures - smokes, mud, sulphur gas, this volcanic land also open to the new inhabitation within the sulphur factory ruins that reflects human’s past occupation. In this way, temporal and natural selected manifestations of materiality, artefact, and performance can be traced out and might reveal the meaningful relations among space, inhabitation, and well-being of inhabitants in the Anthropocene.

Keywords: Surface, body, Interior architecture, intensity, intensification, anthropocene, subnature

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1 Determinants of Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lithuanian Agriculture

Authors: D. Makuteniene


Agriculture, as one of the human activities, emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emission and undoubtedly has an impact on climate change. The main gaseous products of agricultural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroxadoxide. The sources and emission of these gases depend on land use, soil, crops, manure, livestock, and energy consumption. One of the indicators showing the agricultural impact on climate change is an intensity of GHG emission and its dynamics. This study analyzed the determinants of an intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian agriculture using data decomposition. The research revealed that, although greenhouse gas emission increased during the research period, however, agricultural net value added grew more rapidly, which contributed to a reduction of intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuania between 2000 and 2015. It was identified that during the research period intensity of greenhouse gas emission was mostly increased by the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, as compared to the change of the area of agricultural land, and by the change of the number of full-time employees, as compared to the change of net value added. Conversely, the change of energy consumption in agriculture, as compared to the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, had a bigger impact in decreasing intensity of greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: Agriculture, Greenhouse Gas Emission, intensity, determinants of intensity

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