Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Intellectual Disability Related Abstracts

23 Access to Justice for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in Indonesia: Case and Problem in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Fines Fatimah, SH. MH.

Abstract:

Indonesia is one of the countries that has ratified the UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). The ratification of this convention brings consequences on the adjustment of national legislation with the UNCRPD convention, where this ratification at the same time is a measure in the eyes of the international community that a state party could be consistent with the issues and problems of disability. Persons with disabilities often have little access to justice when they are forced to deal with the criminal justice system. Pursuit of justice through litigation are often not in their favor, therefore without any awareness of law enforcement/awareness of disability will further complicate access to justice for persons with disabilities. Under Article 13 of the UNCRPD, it appeared that the convention requires ratifying states to guarantee equal opportunity and treatment in justice for persons with disabilities. The States should also ensure that any judicial rules must be adapted to the circumstances of persons with disabilities so that people with disabilities can fully participate in all stages of the trial court and, for example, as a witness. Finally, the state must provide training to understand these persons with disabilities (for those who work in the judiciary institution such as police or prison officials). Further, this paper aims to describe problem faced by persons with intellectual disabilities to access justice in Indonesian Criminal Justice System. This paper tries to find and propose the alternative solutions to promote the quality of law enforcement in Indonesia, especially for persons with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: Access to justice, Intellectual Disability, Indonesian criminal justice system, ratifying states

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
22 Sibling Relationship of Adults with Intellectual Disability in China

Authors: Luyin Liang

Abstract:

Although sibling relationship has been viewed as one of the most important family relationships that significantly impacted on the quality of life of both adults with Intellectual Disability (AWID) and their brothers/sisters, very few research have been done to investigate this relationship in China. This study investigated Chinese siblings of AWID’s relational motivations in sibling relationship and their determining factors. Quantitative research method has been adopted and 284 samples were recruited in this study. Siblings of AWID’s two types of relational motivations, including obligatory motivations and discretionary motivations were examined. Their emotional closeness, senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and expectancy of self-reward in sibling relationship were measured by validated scales. Personal, and familial-social demographic characteristics were also investigated. Linear correlation test and standard multiple regression analysis were the major statistical methods that have been used to analyze the data. The findings of this study showed that all the measured factors, including siblings of AWID’s emotional closeness, their senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and self-reward expectations had significant relationships with their both types of motivations. However, when these factors were grouped together to measure each type of these motivations, the prediction results were varied. The order of factors that best predict siblings of AWID’s obligatory motivations was: their senses of responsibility, emotional closeness, experiences of ID stigma, and their expectancy of self-reward, whereas the order of these factors that best determine siblings of AWID’s discretionary motivations was: their self-reward expectations, experiences of ID stigma, senses of responsibility, and emotional closeness. Among different demographic characteristics, AWID’s disability condition, their siblings’ age, gender, marital status, number of children, both siblings’ living arrangements and family financial status were found to have significant impacts on siblings of AWID’s both types of motivations in sibling relationship. The results of this study could enhance social work practitioners’ understandings about the needs and challenges of siblings of AWID. Suggestions on advocacies for policy changes and services improvements for these siblings were discussed in this study.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, China, sibling relationship, adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
21 Gaze Behaviour of Individuals with and without Intellectual Disability for Nonaccidental and Metric Shape Properties

Authors: S. Haider, B. Bhushan

Abstract:

Eye Gaze behaviour of individuals with and without intellectual disability are investigated in an eye tracking study in terms of sensitivity to Nonaccidental (NAPs) and Metric (MPs) shape properties. Total fixation time is used as an indirect measure of attention allocation. Studies have found Mean reaction times for non accidental properties (NAPs) to be shorter than for metric (MPs) when the MP and NAP differences were equalized. METHODS: Twenty-five individuals with intellectual disability (mild and moderate level of Mental Retardation) and twenty-seven normal individuals were compared on mean total fixation duration, accuracy level and mean reaction time for mild NAPs, extreme NAPs and metric properties of images. 2D images of cylinders were adapted and made into forced choice match-to-sample tasks. Tobii TX300 Eye Tracker was used to record total fixation duration and data obtained from the Areas of Interest (AOI). Variable trial duration (total reaction time of each participant) and fixed trail duration (data taken at each second from one to fifteen seconds) data were used for analyses. Both groups did not differ in terms of fixation times (fixed as well as variable) across any of the three image manipulations but differed in terms of reaction time and accuracy. Normal individuals had longer reaction time compared to individuals with intellectual disability across all types of images. Both the groups differed significantly on accuracy measure across all image types. Normal individuals performed better across all three types of images. Mild NAPs vs. Metric differences: There was significant difference between mild NAPs and metric properties of images in terms of reaction times. Mild NAPs images had significantly longer reaction time compared to metric for normal individuals but this difference was not found for individuals with intellectual disability. Mild NAPs images had significantly better accuracy level compared to metric for both the groups. In conclusion, type of image manipulations did not result in differences in attention allocation for individuals with and without intellectual disability. Mild Nonaccidental properties facilitate better accuracy level compared to metric in both the groups but this advantage is seen only for normal group in terms of mean reaction time.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, Eye Movements, eye gaze fixations, stimulus properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
20 Caring for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Malawi: Parental Psychological Experiences and Needs

Authors: Charles Masulani Mwale

Abstract:

Background: It is argued that 85% of children with the disability live in resource-poor countries where there are few available disability services. A majority of these children, including their parents, suffer a lot as a result of the disability and its associated stigmatization, leading to a marginalized life. These parents also experience more stress and mental health problems such as depression, compared with families of normal developing children. There is little research from Africa addressing these issues especially among parents of intellectually disabled children. WHO encourages research on the impact that child with a disability have on their family and appropriate training and support to the families so that they can promote the child’s development and well-being. This study investigated the parenting experiences, mechanisms of coping with these challenges and psychosocial needs while caring for children with intellectual disabilities in both rural and urban settings of Lilongwe and Mzuzu. Methods: This is part of a larger Mixed-methods study aimed at developing a contextualized psychosocial intervention for parents of intellectually disabled children. 16 focus group discussions and four in-depth interviews were conducted with parents in catchments areas for St John of God and Children of Blessings in Mzuzu and Lilongwe cities respectively. Ethical clearance was obtained from COMREC. Data were stored in NVivo software for easy retrieval and management. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Note-taking was performed during all the observations. Data triangulation from the interviews, note taking and the observations were done for validation and reliability. Results: Caring for intellectually disabled children comes with a number of challenges. Parents experience stigma and discrimination; fear for the child’s future; have self-blame and guilt; get coerced by neighbors to kill the disabled child; and fear violence by and to the child. Their needs include respite relief, improved access to disability services, education on disability management and financial support. For their emotional stability, parents cope by sharing with others and turning to God while other use poor coping mechanisms like alcohol use. Discussion and Recommendation: Apart from neighbors’ coercion to eliminate the child life, the findings of this study are similar to those done in other countries like Kenya and Pakistan. It is recommended that parents get educated on disability, its causes, and management to array fears of unknown. Community education is also crucial to promote community inclusiveness and correct prevailing myths associated with disability. Disability institutions ought to intensify individual as well as group counseling services to these parents. Further studies need to be done to design culturally appropriate and specific psychosocial interventions for the parents to promote their psychological resilience.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, Psychological distress, Intellectual Disability, psychosocial interventions, psychological resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
19 Psychological Security and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability

Authors: Muneera Abdul Haleem Bukhari, Maryam I. Alshirawi, Elsayed S. Elkhamisi

Abstract:

This study aimed at understanding the relationship between psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, exploring the levels of psychological security and self-esteem, as well as determining the differences between genders in psychological security and self-esteem. The sample of the study contained (60) Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, (34) males and (26) females who are enrolled in the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation Center and Hope Institute in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Their ages are between (15-23) years old. The Psychological Security Scale and self-Esteem Scale (prepared by James Battle) were used by the researcher. Results showed that levels of psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability was above average; results also showed the order of the psychological security dimensions in the following manner (future outlook – mood - family security – social security) and the order of the dimensions of self-esteem in the following manner (social self-esteem – personal self-esteem – general self-esteem) among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability; as for the differences between genders, the study showed that there was an increased level of psychological security among males. However, there was no difference in self-esteem between both sexes.

Keywords: Adolescent, Intellectual Disability, self-esteem, psychological security, the Kingdom of Bahrain

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
18 Detection, Analysis and Determination of the Origin of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay (ID/DD) Patients and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Patients by Molecular and Cytogenetic Methods

Authors: Pavlina Capkova, Josef Srovnal, Vera Becvarova, Marie Trkova, Zuzana Capkova, Andrea Stefekova, Vaclava Curtisova, Alena Santava, Sarka Vejvalkova, Katerina Adamova, Radek Vodicka

Abstract:

ASDs are heterogeneous and complex developmental diseases with a significant genetic background. Recurrent CNVs are known to be a frequent cause of ASD. These CNVs can have, however, a variable expressivity which results in a spectrum of phenotypes from asymptomatic to ID/DD/ASD. ASD is associated with ID in ~75% individuals. Various platforms are used to detect pathogenic mutations in the genome of these patients. The performed study is focused on a determination of the frequency of pathogenic mutations in a group of ASD patients and a group of ID/DD patients using various strategies along with a comparison of their detection rate. The possible role of the origin of these mutations in aetiology of ASD was assessed. The study included 35 individuals with ASD and 68 individuals with ID/DD (64 males and 39 females in total), who underwent rigorous genetic, neurological and psychological examinations. Screening for pathogenic mutations involved karyotyping, screening for FMR1 mutations and for metabolic disorders, a targeted MLPA test with probe mixes Telomeres 3 and 5, Microdeletion 1 and 2, Autism 1, MRX and a chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) (Illumina or Affymetrix). Chromosomal aberrations were revealed in 7 (1 in the ASD group) individuals by karyotyping. FMR1 mutations were discovered in 3 (1 in the ASD group) individuals. The detection rate of pathogenic mutations in ASD patients with a normal karyotype was 15.15% by MLPA and CMA. The frequencies of the pathogenic mutations were 25.0% by MLPA and 35.0% by CMA in ID/DD patients with a normal karyotype. CNVs inherited from asymptomatic parents were more abundant than de novo changes in ASD patients (11.43% vs. 5.71%) in contrast to the ID/DD group where de novo mutations prevailed over inherited ones (26.47% vs. 16.18%). ASD patients shared more frequently their mutations with their fathers than patients from ID/DD group (8.57% vs. 1.47%). Maternally inherited mutations predominated in the ID/DD group in comparison with the ASD group (14.7% vs. 2.86 %). CNVs of an unknown significance were found in 10 patients by CMA and in 3 patients by MLPA. Although the detection rate is the highest when using CMA, recurrent CNVs can be easily detected by MLPA. CMA proved to be more efficient in the ID/DD group where a larger spectrum of rare pathogenic CNVs was revealed. This study determined that maternally inherited highly penetrant mutations and de novo mutations more often resulted in ID/DD without ASD in patients. The paternally inherited mutations could be, however, a source of the greater variability in the genome of the ASD patients and contribute to the polygenic character of the inheritance of ASD. As the number of the subjects in the group is limited, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this conclusion. Inherited CNVs have a role in aetiology of ASD possibly in combination with additional genetic factors - the mutations elsewhere in the genome. The identification of these interactions constitutes a challenge for the future. Supported by MH CZ – DRO (FNOl, 00098892), IGA UP LF_2016_010, TACR TE02000058 and NPU LO1304.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, autistic spectrum disorders, copy number variant, chromosomal microarray, karyotyping, MLPA, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
17 Optimising Participation in Physical Activity Research for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Yetunde M. Dairo, Johnny Collett, Helen Dawes

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Engagement with physical activity (PA) research is poor among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), particularly in those from residential homes. This study explored why, by asking managers of residential homes, adults with ID and their carers. Methods: Participants: A convenient sample of 23 individuals from two UK local authorities, including a group of ID residential home managers, adults with ID and their support staff. Procedures: A) Residential home managers (n=6) were asked questions about their willingness to allow their residents to participate in PA research; B) eleven adults with ID and their support workers (n=6) were asked questions about their willingness to accept 7-day accelerometer monitoring and/or the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version (IPAQ-s) as PA measures. The IPAQ-s was administered by the researcher and they were each provided with samples of accelerometers to try on. Results: A) Five out of six managers said that the burden of wearing the accelerometer for seven days would be too high for the people they support, the majority of whom might be unable to express their wishes. They also said they would be unwilling to act as proxy respondents for the same reason. Additionally, they cited time pressure, understaffing, and reluctance to spend time on the research paperwork as further reasons for non-participation. B) All 11 individuals with ID completed the IPAQ-s while only three accepted the accelerometer, one of whom was deemed inappropriate to wear it. Reasons for rejecting accelerometers included statements from participants of: ‘too expensive’, ‘too heavy’, ‘uncomfortable’, and two people said they would not want to wear it for more than one day. All adults with ID (11) and their support workers (6) provided information about their physical activity levels through the IPAQ-s. Conclusions: Care home managers are a barrier to research participation. However, adults with ID would be happy for the IPAQ-s as a PA measure, but less so for the 7-day accelerometer monitoring. In order to improve participation in this population, the choice of PA measure is considered important. Moreover, there is a need for studies exploring how best to engage ID residential home managers in PA research.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, physical activity measurement, research engagement, research participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
16 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan, Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan

Abstract:

Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: Sport, coordination, Intellectual Disability, Balance, motor skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
15 The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Developing Emotion Regulation Skill for Adolescent with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Rose Mini Agoes Salim, Shahnaz Safitri, Pratiwi Widyasari

Abstract:

Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that appears before the age of 18 years old. The prominent impacts of intellectual disability in adolescents are failure to establish interpersonal relationships as socially expected and lower academic achievement. Meanwhile, it is known that emotion regulation skills have a role in supporting the functioning of individual, either by nourishing the development of social skills as well as by facilitating the process of learning and adaptation in school. This study aims to look for the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in developing emotion regulation skills for adolescents with intellectual disability. DBT's special consideration toward clients’ social environment and their biological condition is foreseen to be the key for developing emotion regulation capacity for subjects with intellectual disability. Through observations on client's behavior, conducted before and after the completion of DBT intervention program, it was found that there is an improvement in client's knowledge and attitudes related to the mastery of emotion regulation skills. In addition, client's consistency to actually practice emotion regulation techniques over time is largely influenced by the support received from the client's social circles.

Keywords: Adolescent, Intellectual Disability, emotion regulation, Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
14 Understanding What People with Epilepsy and Their Care-Partners Value about an Electronic Patient Portal

Authors: K. Power, M. White, B. Dunleavey, E. Comerford, C. Doherty, N. Delanty, R. Corbridge, M. Fitzsimons

Abstract:

Introduction: Providing people with access to their own healthcare information and engaging them as co-authors of their health record can promote better transparency, trust, and inclusivity in the healthcare system. With the advent of electronic health records, there is a move towards involving patients as partners in their healthcare by providing them with access to their own health data via electronic patient portals (ePortal). For example, a recently developed ePortal to the Irish National Epilepsy Electronic Patient Record (EPR) provides access to summary medical records, tools for Patient Reported Outcomes (PROM), health goal-setting and preparation for clinical appointments. Aim: To determine what people with epilepsy (their families/carers) value about the Irish epilepsy ePortal. Methods: A socio-technical process was employed recruiting 30 families of people with epilepsy who also have an intellectual disability (ID). Family members who are a care partner of the person with epilepsy (PWE) were invited to co-design, develop and implement the ePortal. Family members engaged in usability and utility testing which involved a face to face meeting to learn about the ePortal, register for a user account and evaluate its structure and content. Family members were instructed to login to the portal on at least two separate occasions following the meeting and to complete a self-report evaluation tool during this time. The evaluation tool, based on a Usability Questionnaire (Lewis, 1993), consists of a short assessment of comfort using technology, instructions for using the ePortal and some tasks to complete. Tasks included validating summary record details, assessing ePortal ease of use, evaluation of information presented. Participants were asked for suggestions on how to improve the portal and make it more applicable to PWE who also have an ID. Results: Family members responded positively to the ePortal and valued the ability to share information between clinicians and care partners; use the ePortal as a passport between different healthcare settings (e.g., primary care to hospital). In the context of elderly parents of PWE, the ePortal is valued as a tool for supporting shared care between family members. Participants welcomed the facility to log lists of questions and goals to discuss with the clinician at the next clinical appointment as a means of improving quality of care. Participants also suggested further enhancements to the ePortal such as access to clinic letters which can provide an aide memoir in terms of the careplan agreed with the clinical team. For example, through the ePortal, people could see what investigations or therapies are scheduled. Conclusion: The Epilepsy Patient Portal is accessible via a range of devices such as smartphones and tablets. ePortals have the potential to help personalise care, improve patient involvement in clinical decision making, engage them as quality and safety partners, and help clinicians be more responsive to patient needs. Acknowledgement: The epilepsy ePortal project is part of PISCES, a Lighthouse Project funded by eHealth Ireland and HSE to help build an understanding of the benefits of eHealth technologies in the Irish Healthcare System.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Intellectual Disability, usability testing, electronic patient portal, electronic patient record

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
13 The Difficulties Witnessed by People with Intellectual Disability in Transition to Work in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adel S. Alanazi

Abstract:

The transition of a student with a disability from school to work is the most crucial phase while moving from the stage of adolescence into early adulthood. In this process, young individuals face various difficulties and challenges in order to accomplish the next venture of life successfully. In this respect, this paper aims to examine the challenges encountered by the individuals with intellectual disabilities in transition to work in Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, this study has undertaken a qualitative research-based methodology; wherein interpretivist philosophy has been followed along with inductive approach and exploratory research design. The data for the research has been gathered with the help of semi-structured interviews, whose findings are analysed with the help of thematic analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities, officials, supervisors and specialists of two vocational rehabilitation centres providing training to intellectually disabled students, in addition to that, directors of companies and websites in hiring those individuals. The total number of respondents for the interview was 15. The purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents for the interview. This sampling method is a non-probability sampling method which draws respondents from a known population and allows flexibility and suitability in selecting the participants for the study. The findings gathered from the interview revealed that the lack of awareness among their parents regarding the rights of their children who are intellectually disabled; the lack of adequate communication and coordination between various entities; concerns regarding their training and subsequent employment are the key difficulties experienced by the individuals with intellectual disabilities. Training in programmes such as bookbinding, carpentry, computing, agriculture, electricity and telephone exchange operations were involved as key training programmes. The findings of this study also revealed that information technology and media were playing a significant role in smoothing the transition to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, religious and cultural attitudes have been identified to be restricted for people with such disabilities in seeking advantages from job opportunities. On the basis of these findings, it can be implied that the information gathered through this study will serve to be highly beneficial for Saudi Arabian schools/ rehabilitation centres for individuals with intellectual disability to facilitate them in overcoming the problems they encounter during the transition to work.

Keywords: Employment, Intellectual Disability, transition services, rehabilitation centre

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
12 Heart Rate Variability Responses Pre-, during, and Post-Exercise among Special Olympics Athletes

Authors: Kearney Dover, Viviene Temple, Lynneth Stuart-Hill

Abstract:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in adjacent heartbeats. HRV is a non-invasive measure of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides information about the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous systems. The HRV of a well-conditioned heart is generally high at rest, whereas low HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes/conditions, including congestive heart failure, diabetic neuropathy, depression, and hospital admissions. HRV has received very little research attention among individuals with intellectual disabilities in general or Special Olympic athletes. Purpose: 1) Having a longer post-exercise rest and recovery time to establish how long it takes for the athletes’ HRV components to return to pre-exercise levels, 2) To determine if greater familiarization with the testing processes influences HRV. Participants: Two separate samples of 10 adult Special Olympics athletes will be recruited for 2 separate studies. Athletes will be between 18 and 50 years of age and will be members of Special Olympics BC. Anticipated Findings: To answer why the Special Olympics athletes display poor cardiac responsiveness to changes in autonomic modulation during exercise. By testing the cortisol levels in the athletes, we can determine their stress levels which will then explain their measured HRV.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, autonomic modulation, cortisol levels

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
11 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

Abstract:

Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: Inclusion, Systems Thinking, Urban Design and Planning, Intellectual Disability, Neighbourhoods, independent living

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
10 The Impact of Universal Design for Learning Implementation on Teaching Practices for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adnan Alhazmi

Abstract:

Background: UDL can be understood as a framework that holds the potential to elaborate the alternatives and platforms for the students with intellectual disabilities within general education settings and aims at offering flexible pathways that can support all the students in gaining a mastering over the goals of learning. This system of learning addresses the problem of the variability of the learner by delineating the diverse ways in which the individuals can understand, conceive, express and deal with the information. Goal: The aim of the proposed research is to examine the impact of the implementation of UDL in teaching practices for the students with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabian schools. Method: This research has used a combination of quantitative and qualitative designs. Survey questionnaires were used to gather the data for under this analytical descriptive method. The application of the qualitative interpretive approach was applied with the help of the interview to gather a detailed understanding on the aim of the research. For this purpose, the semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thus, the primary data will be gathered with the help of survey and interview to examine the impact of universal design learning implementation on teaching practices for intellectually disabled students in Saudi Arabian schools. The survey was conducted to examine the prevailing teaching practices for the students with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia and evaluate if the teaching experience influences the current practices or not. The surveys were distributed to 50 teachers who teach the students with intellectual disabilities. However, the interviews were conducted to explore barriers of implementing UDL in Saudi Arabia and provide suggested guideline for the implementation of UDL in Saudi Arabia. The interviews, therefore, were with 10 teachers teaching the same subject. Findings: A key findings highlighted in this study revealed that the UDL framework serves as a crucial guide for teachers within inclusive settings to undertake meaningful planning for the individuals with intellectual disabilities so that they are able to access, participate, and grow within the general education curriculum. Other findings of the study highlighted the need to prepare the educators and all faculty members to understand the purpose and need for inclusion, the UDL framework so that better information about academic and social expectations for individuals with intellectual disabilities can be delivered. Conclusion: On the basis of the preliminary study undertaken on the subject of research, it could be suggested that UDL can serve to be an effective support for undertaking a meaningful inclusion of students with intellectual disability (ID) in general educational settings. It holds the potential role of working as an institutional design framework that could be used for designing curriculum for students with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: Inclusion, Intellectual Disability, Universal design for learning, teaching practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
9 Psychopathy Evaluation for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Institute Using Chinese Version of the Psychopathology Inventory

Authors: Lin Fu-Gong

Abstract:

Background: As WHO announced, people with intellectual disability (ID) were vulnerable to mental health problems. And there were few custom-made mental health scales for those people to monitor their mental health. Those people with mental problems often accompanied worse prognosis and usually became to be a heavier burden on the caregivers. Purpose: In this study, we intend to develop a psychopathy scale as a practical tool for monitoring the mental health for people with ID living in institute. Methods: In this study, we adopt the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults developed by professor Matson with certified reliability and validity in Western countries with Dr. Matson’s agreement in advance. We first translated the inventory into Chinese validated version considering the domestic culture background in the past year. And the validity and reliability evaluation of mental health status using this inventory among the people with intellectual living in the institute were done. Results: The inventory includes eight psychiatric disorder scales as schizophrenic, affective, psychosexual, adjustment, anxiety, somatoform, personality disorders and inappropriate mental adjustment. Around 83% of 40 invested people, who randomly selected from the institute, were found to have at least one disorder who were recommended with medical help by two evaluators. Among the residents examined, somatoform disorder and inappropriate mental adjustment were most popular with 60% and 78% people respectively. Conclusion: The result showed the prevalence psychiatric disorders were relatively high among people with ID in institute and the mental problems need to be further cared and followed for their mental health. The results showed that the psychopathology inventory was a useful tool for institute caregiver, manager and for long-term care policy to the government. In the coming stage, we plan to extend the use of the valid Chinese version inventory among more different type institutes for people with ID to establish their dynamic mental health status including medical need, relapse and rehabilitation to promote their mental health.

Keywords: Mental Health, Intellectual Disability, Psychiatric Disorder, psychopathology inventory, the institute

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
8 Risk and Protective Factors for the Health of Primary Care-Givers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disability: A Narrative Review and Discussion

Authors: Jenny Fairthorne, Yuka Mori, Helen Leonard

Abstract:

Background: Primary care-givers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) have poorer health and quality of life (QoL) than primary care-givers (hereafter referred to as just care-givers) of typically developing children. We aimed to review original research which described factors impacting the health of care-givers of children with ASD or ID and to discuss how these factors might influence care-giver health. Methods: We searched Web of Knowledge, Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar using selections of words from each of three groups. The first comprised terms associated with ASD and ID and included autism, pervasive development disorder, intellectual disability, mental retardation, disability, disabled, Down and Asperger. The second included terms related to health such as depression, physical, mental, psychiatric, psychological and well-being. The third was terms related to care-givers such as mother, parent and care-giver. We included an original paper in our review if it was published between 1st January 1990 and 31st December, 2016, described original research in a peer-reviewed journal and was written in English. Additional criteria were that the research used a study population of 15 persons or more; described a risk or protective factor for the health of care-givers of a child with ASD, ID or a sub-type (such as ASD with ID or Down syndrome). Using previous research, we developed a simple and objective five-level tool to assess the strength of evidence provided by the reviewed papers. Results: We retained 33 papers. Factors impacting primary care-giver health included child behaviour, level of support, socio-economic status (SES) and diagnostic issues. Challenging child behaviour, the most commonly identified risk factor for poorer care-giver health and QoL was reported in ten of the studies. A higher level of support was associated with improved care-giver health and QoL. For example, substantial evidence indicated that family support reduced care-giver burden in families with a child with ASD and that family and neighbourhood support was associated with improved care-giver mental health. Higher socio-economic status (SES) was a protective factor for care-giver health and particularly maternal health. Diagnostic uncertainty and an unclear prognosis are factors which can cause the greatest concern to care-givers of children with ASD and those for whom a cause of their child’s ID has not been identified. We explain how each of these factors might impact caregiver health and how they might act differentially in care-givers of children with different types of ASD or ID (such as Down syndrome and ASD without ID). Conclusion: Care-givers of children with ASD may be more likely to experience many risk factors and less likely to experience the protective factors we identified for poorer mental health. Interventions to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors could pave the way for improved care-giver health. For example, workshops to train care-givers to better manage challenging child behaviours and earlier diagnosis of ASD (and particularly ASD without ID) would seem likely to improve care-giver well-being. Similarly, helping to expand support networks might reduce care-giver burden and stress leading to improved health.

Keywords: Health, autism, Intellectual Disability, Mothers, review, caregivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
7 Challenges of Skill Training among Women with Intellectual Disability: Stakeholders' Perspective

Authors: Jayanti Pujari

Abstract:

The present study attempts to find out the barriers faced by adult women with an Intellectual disability during their training at vocational training centres offered by rehabilitation institutes. As economic independence is the ultimate aim of rehabilitation, this study tries to focus on the barriers which restrict the adult women with intellectual disability in equipping themselves in required skill which can really empower them and help them in independent living. The objectives of the study are (1) To find out the barriers perceived by job coaches during training given to women with intellectual disability (2) To find out the barriers perceived by the parents of women with intellectual disability who are undergoing vocational training and (3) To find out the barriers perceived by the women with intellectual disabilities during the vocational training. The barriers have been operationalised in the present study from three perspectives such as behavioural barriers, competency related barriers and accessibility barriers. For the present study three groups of participants(N=60) have been selected through purposive nonprobability sampling procedure to generate the data. They are( 20) job coaches who are working at vocational centres, (20) parents of women with intellectual disabilities, (20) adult women with intellectual disabilities. The study followed a descriptive research design and data are generated through self developed questionnaire. Three sets of self-developed and face validated questionnaires were used as the tool to gather the data from the three categories of sample. The questionnaire has 30 close ended questions and the respondents have to answer on a three point scale (yes, no, need help). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. The major findings of the study depict that the 87% of the women with intellectual disability perceived highest barriers related to competency whereas barriers related to behaviour and accessibility are perceived lowest. 92% of job coaches perceived barriers related to competencies and accessibility are highest which hinder the effectiveness of skill development of women with intellectual disability and 74% of the parents of adult women with intellectual disability also opines that the barriers related to competencies and accessibility are highest. In conclusion, it is stressed that there is need to create awareness among the stakeholders about the training and management strategies of skill training and positive behaviour support which will surely enable the adult women with intellectual disability to utilise their residual skill and acquire training to become economically independent.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, Skill Development, economic independence, training barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
6 A Literature Review on Sexual Abuse Prevention for People with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Hanh Thi My Nguyen, Phuong Thu Dinh

Abstract:

People with intellectual disability are at high risk for sexual abuse. The reasons may originate from their communication skills deficits, lack of skills and knowledge to protect themselves from sexual abuse, or limited access to sexual abuse prevention programs. This article aims to present a systematic review about strategies for preventing sexual abuse for young people with intellectual disability. A range of articles in 10 years from 2009 to 2018 are searched by using online database. 5 papers are included for the final review. The results of this comprehensive literature review showed that there are two main strategies used: programs designed for people with intellectual, including evaluation on sex education programs; and sexual education program for parents of children with intellectual disability. However, none of the papers were conducted in low-and middle-income countries. Therefore, cautions should be taken when it comes to interpret these findings. The findings of studies showed that participants increased their awareness and skills for protecting themselves from sexual abuse after participating in the programs. It is also recommended that more effective evidence-based programs should be developed.

Keywords: Prevention, Sexual Abuse, Intellectual Disability, sexual education program

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
5 Library Support for the Intellectually Disabled: Book Clubs and Universal Design

Authors: Matthew Conner, Leah Plocharczyk

Abstract:

This study examines the role of academic libraries in support of the intellectually disabled (ID) in post-secondary education. With the growing public awareness of the ID, there has been recognition of their need for post-secondary educational opportunities. This was an unforeseen result for a population that has been associated with elementary levels of education, yet the reasons are compelling. After aging out of the school system, the ID need and deserve educational and social support as much as anyone. Moreover, the commitment to diversity in higher education rings hollow if this group is excluded. Yet, challenges remain to integrating the ID into a college curriculum. This presentation focuses on the role of academic libraries. Neglecting this vital resource for the support of the ID is not to be thought of, yet the library’s contribution is not clear. Library collections presume reading ability and libraries already struggle to meet their traditional goals with the resources available. This presentation examines how academic libraries can support post-secondary ID. For context, the presentation first examines the state of post-secondary education for the ID with an analysis of data on the United States compiled by the ThinkCollege! Project. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical analysis will show regional and methodological trends in post-secondary support of the ID which currently lack any significant involvement by college libraries. Then, the presentation analyzes a case study of a book club at the Florida Atlantic University (FAU) libraries which has run for several years. Issues such as the selection of books, effective pedagogies, and evaluation procedures will be examined. The study has found that the instruction pedagogies used by libraries can be extended through concepts of Universal Learning Design (ULD) to effectively engage the ID. In particular, student-centered, participatory methodologies that accommodate different learning styles have proven to be especially useful. The choice of text is complex and determined not only by reading ability but familiarity of subject and features of the ID’s developmental trajectory. The selection of text is not only a necessity but also promises to give insight into the ID. Assessment remains a complex and unresolved subject, but the voluntary, sustained, and enthusiastic attendance of the ID is an undeniable indicator. The study finds that, through the traditional library vehicle of the book club, academic libraries can support ID students through training in both reading and socialization, two major goals of their post-secondary education.

Keywords: Literacy, Academic Libraries, Post-Secondary Education, Intellectual Disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
4 Challenges Faced by Teachers during Teaching with Developmental Disable Students at Primary Level in Lahore

Authors: Muhammad Waqas, Zikra Faiz, Nisar Abid

Abstract:

This study aim to examine the challenges faced by teachers during teaching to those students who are intellectually disable, suffering from autism spectrum disorder, learning disability, and ADHD at the primary level. The descriptive research design of quantitative approach was adopted to conduct this study; a cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data. The sample was comprised of 258 (43 male and 215 female) teachers who teach at special education institutes of Lahore district selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Self-developed questionnaire was used which was comprised of 22 closed-ended items. Collected data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistical techniques by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results show that teachers faced problems during group activities, to handle bad behavior and different disabilities of students. It is concluded that there was a significant difference between male and female teachers perceptions about challenges faced during teaching with developmental disable students. Furthermore, there was a significant difference exist in the perceptions of teachers regarding challenges faced during teaching to students with developmental disabilities in term of teachers’ age and area of specialization. It is recommended that developmentally disable student require extra attention so that, teacher should trained through pre-service and in-service training to teach developmentally disabled students.

Keywords: ADHD, Intellectual Disability, Autism spectrum disorder, Learning disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
3 The Effects of Big 6+6 Skill Training on Daily Living Skills for an Adolescent with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Carlo Cavallini, Francesca Cavallini, Luca Vascelli, Silvia Iacomini, Giada Gueli, Federica Berardo

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of training on Big 6 + 6 motor skills to promote daily living skills. Precision teaching (PT) suggests that improved speed of the component behaviors can lead to better performance of composite skills. This study assessed the effects of the repeated timed practice of component motor skills on speed and accuracy of composite skills related to daily living skills. An 18 years old adolescent with intellectual disability participated. A pre post probe single-subject design was used. The results suggest that the participant was able to perform the component skills at his individual aims (endurance was assessed). The speed and accuracy of composite skills were increased; stability and retention were also measured for the composite skill after the training.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, Precision Teaching, big 6+6, daily living skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2 Siblings of People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Influence of Culture on Their Identity and Quality of Life

Authors: Olga Muries-Cantan, Alice Schippers, Climent Gine, Noelle van den Heuvel

Abstract:

A systematic review of the literature about the quality of life perceptions of siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) has shown differences and similarities among siblings’ perceptions around the world. Some of these differences might be explained by the influence of cultural and religious backgrounds on siblings’ quality of life through values, beliefs, and perceptions of ‘normalcy’ and stigma. The main goal of the multiple case study that we present, is to explore the quality of life perceptions of two adolescent siblings of individuals with ID/DD in order to identify the role cultural influence has played in their perceptions of quality of life. Two siblings from different European regions will participate in the study: one from a Southern European country (Spain) and the other one from a Western European country (The Netherlands). Taking a cross-cultural perspective, concepts such as values, cultural beliefs regarding disability, expectations, identity, supports, desires, and sibling relationships, will be discussed in a semi-structured interview with each sibling. Data will be analysed following an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). It is expected that findings will show the particularities of the experience of having a brother or a sister with ID/DD and the singular influence of the culture on siblings’ perceptions of quality of life. The results of this study will help to spread awareness around the necessity that researchers, practitioners, and policymakers take into account the cultural background of the individuals in order to provide them with better services and support. In this line, more culturally situated research is required to enlarge the knowledge in this field.

Keywords: Culture, Quality of Life, Intellectual Disability, Siblings

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 Challenges Faced by the Parents of Mentally Challenged Children in India

Authors: Chamaraja Parulli

Abstract:

Family is an important social institution devoted to the growth of a child, and parents are the important agents of socialization. Mentally challenged children are those who are affected by intellectual disability, which is manifested by limitation in intellectual functioning and adoptive behavior. Intellectual disability affects about 3-4 percentage of the general population. Intellectual disability is caused by genetic condition, problems during pregnancy, problems during childbirth, or illness. Mental retardation is the world’s most complex and challenging issue. The stigmatization of disability results in social and economic marginalization. Parents of the mentally challenged children will have a very high level of parenting stress, which is significantly more than the stress perceived by the parents of the children without disability. The prevalence of severe mental disorder called Schizophrenia is among 1.1 percent of the total population in India. On the other hand, 11 to 12 percent is the overall lifetime occurrence rate of mental disorders. While the government has a separate program for mental health, the segment is marred by lack of adequate doctors and infrastructure. Mentally retarded children have certain limitations in mental functioning and skills, which makes them slow learners in speaking, walking, and taking care of their personal needs such as dressing and eating. Accepting a child with mental handicap becomes difficult for parents and to the whole family, as they have to face many problems, including those of management, finance, deprivation of rest, and leisure. Also, the problems faced by the parents can be seen in different areas like – educational, psychological, social, emotional, financial and family related issues. The study brought out various difficulties and problems faced by the parents as well as family members. The findings revealed that the mental retardation is not only a medico-psychological problem but also a socio-cultural problem. The study results, however, indicate that the quality of life of the family having children with mental retardation can be improved to a greater extent by building up a child-friendly ambience at home. The main aim of the present study is to assess the problems faced by the parents of mentally challenged children, with the help of personal interview data collected from the parents of mentally challenged children, residing in Shimoga District of Karnataka State, India. These individuals were selected using stratified random sampling method. Organizing effective intervention programs for parents, family, society, and educational institutions towards reduction of family stress, augmenting the family’s strengths, increasing child’s competence and enhancing the positive attitudes and values of the society will go a long way for the peaceful existence of the mentally challenged children.

Keywords: Social Infrastructure, Marginalization, Intellectual Disability, Psychological Stress, differently abled, mentally challenged children, special children

Procedia PDF Downloads 1