Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Intellectual Capital Related Abstracts

25 Enterprise Infrastructure Related to the Product Value Transferred from Intellectual Capital

Authors: Chih Chin Yang

Abstract:

The paper proposed a new theory of intellectual capital (so called IC) and a value approach in associated with production and market. After an in-depth review and research analysis of leading firms in this field, a holistic intellectual capital model is discussed, which involves transport, delivery supporting, and interface and systems of on intellectual capital. Through a quantity study, it is found that there is a significant relationship between the product value and infrastructure in a company. The product values are transferred from intellectual capital elements which includes three elements of content and the enterprise includes three elements of infrastructure in its market and product values of enterprise.

Keywords: Enterprise, Intellectual Capital, product value, market and product values

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24 Studying the Influence of the Intellectual Assets on Strategy Implementation: Case Study, Modiran Ideh Pardaz Company

Authors: Farzam Chakherlouy, Amirmehdi Dokhanchi

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Nowadays organizations have to identify, evaluate and manage intangible assets which enable them to provide maximum requirements to achieve their goals and strategies. Organizations also have to try to promote and improve these kinds of assets continuously. It seems necessary to implement developed strategies in today’s competitive world where all the organizations and companies spend great amounts of expenses for developing their own strategies. In fact, after determining strategies to be implemented, the management process is not completed and it will not have any effect on the success and existence of the organization until these strategies are implemented. The objective of this article is to define the intellectual capital and it components and studying the impact of intellectual capital on the implementation of strategy based upon the Bozbura model. Three dimensions of human capital, relational capital, and the structural capital. According to the test’s results, the correlation between the intellectual capital and three components of strategic implementation (leadership, human resource management, and culture) has not been approved yet. According to results of Friedman’s test in relation with the intellectual capital, the maximum inadequacy of this company is in the field of human capital (with an average of 3.59) and the minimum inadequacy is in the field of the relational capital (customer) with an average of 2.83. Besides, according to Friedman test in relation with implementation of the strategy, the maximum inadequacy relates to the culture of the organization and the corporate control with averages of 2.60 and 3.45 respectively. In addition, they demonstrate a good performance in scopes of human resources management and financial resources management strategies.

Keywords: Strategic Management, Intellectual Capital, Bozbura model, implementation of strategy, Modiran Ideh Pardaz company

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23 The Significance of Intellectual Capital and Strategic Orientations on Innovation Capability in Malaysian ICTSMEs

Authors: Juliana Osman, David Gilbert, Caroline Tan

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Innovation capability is recognized as a critical factor that contributes to promoting firm growth and wealth creation. While studies on innovation are in abundance, few empirical studies have been undertaken to examine the relationships of intellectual capital with innovation capability, and research investigating the combinations of strategic orientation dimensions is limited and virtually nothing in regard to the Malaysian context. This research investigates the impact of intellectual capital and three strategic orientations on the innovation capability and firm performance of Malaysian ICT SMEs. Data was collected from 213 firms relating to intellectual capital and the three strategic orientations; market orientation, learning orientation and technology orientation. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyse the data, results indicate that while market orientation has a direct negative relationship to firm performance, it is positively related to performance through the mediating effect of innovation capability. Learning orientation and technology orientation are mediated by innovation capability, while intellectual capital was found to be partially mediated by innovation capability. Findings indicate that firm performance is positively and significantly related to innovation capability and that market orientation, learning orientation, technology orientation and intellectual capital are all significant and positively related to innovation capability. The developed model indicates that Malaysian ICT SMEs would perform better with greater emphasis on developing innovation capability through enhancement of intellectual capital and the strategic orientations measured in this study.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, PLS-SEM, innovation capability, strategic orientations

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22 The Relevance of Intellectual Capital: An Analysis of Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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In recent years, the intellectual capital reporting in higher education institutions has been acquiring progressive importance worldwide. Intellectual capital approaches becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. Universities produce knowledge, either through scientific and technical research (the results of investigation, publications, etc.) or through teaching (students trained and productive relationships with their stakeholders). The purpose of the present paper is to identify the intangible elements about which university stakeholders demand most information. The results of a study done at Spanish universities are used to see which groups of universities have stakeholders who are more proactive to the disclosure of intellectual capital.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, Cluster Analysis, Spain

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21 Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management, and the Leader Role in the Construction of Sustainability

Authors: Leandro da S. Nascimento, Maristela J. Melo

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The increased competition in the globalization drives organizations to innovate in their products and services to remain competitive. Innovation and creativity are incorporated as key aspects to creating value for consumers and for the creation of competitive advantage in organizations. However, there are factors that contribute strong with development of innovation and creation in organizations. These factors are the intellectual capital and knowledge management, which together with sustainability, ensure the development of competitive strategies. However, it is understood that the role of the leader is essential to stimulate the development of human capital, because the human capital is essential for organizations of knowledge. It is the leader who drives the dissemination and sharing of knowledge, an essential aspect for the formation of intellectual capital and therefore should be managed. And it turns out that the management of knowledge through intellectual capital allows the development of environmental initiatives efficiently and effectively. Thus, the research demonstrates the importance of the role of leader / manager in organizations and seeks to analyze how managers can contribute to the adoption of sustainability through intellectual capital and knowledge management.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Sustainability, Intellectual Capital, leadership role

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20 Contribution Spending on Intellectual Capital in the Performance of Industrial Enterprise Case study: Sonatrach

Authors: Dahmani Aziz, Mekdad Yousra

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The intellectual capital is an important source of profitability and the main supporter of the competitive where this study examines the contribution of expenditure on intellectual capital in the performance of industrial enterprises Algerian, and through a case study Sonatrach as the most important industrial enterprises in Algeria and the driving force of the Algerian economy. It has been the use of value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) in measuring the contribution of intellectual capital and analyzing data Sonatrach during the period from the year 2001 until the year 2012, and test the validity of hypotheses using Stepwise Regression model through the SPSS statistical software, and the study has proved the existence of a positive relationship between spending on human capital and financial performance and a stronger degree relationship between the structural capital and economic performance.

Keywords: Performance, Intellectual Capital, industrial enterprise, economy of Algeria, spending

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19 Features Valuation of Intellectual Capital in the Organization

Authors: H. M. Avanesyan

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Economists have been discussing the importance of intangible assets for the success of organization for many years. The term intellectual capital was popularized in the 1990s by Thomas Stewart. “Intellectual capital is the knowledge, applied experience, enterprise processes and technology customer relationship and professional skills which are valuable assets to an organization.” Human capital – includes employee brainpower, competence, skills, experience and knowledge. Customer capital – includes relations and networks with partners, suppliers, distributors, and customers. The objective of the article is to assess one of the key components of organizational culture – organizational values. The focus of the survey was on assessing how intellectual capital presented in these values of the organization. In the conclusion section the article refers to underestimation of intellectual capital by the organization management and the various possible negative effects of the latter.

Keywords: Management, Organization, Intellectual Capital, Organizational Culture, Human Capital, Social identity

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18 The Moderating Effect of Intellectual Capital on the Relationship of Innovation Practices in SME’s Performance

Authors: Hussen Nasir, Mohd Fitri Mansor, Noor Hidayah Abu

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Liberation of the SME market led to a dynamic competitive business environment. SMEs are considered as an engine for economic growth of most nations. SMEs must be willing to adopt the latest technology and incorporate innovation as part of their business strategies. The aim of this study is to examine the innovation practices (innovation strategy and innovation culture) towards sustaining SME’s performance and the moderating effect of intellectual capital on the relationship of innovation practices on SME’s performance. The study will identify the strongest variables that influence the SMEs performance and proposed several hypothesis toward innovation and intellectual capital. Finally, the study will propose a theoretical framework. The current study will contribute to the knowledge of important on the element of intellectual capital as well as innovation practices in the SMEs performance.

Keywords: Performance, Intellectual Capital, SMEs, innovation practices, innovation strategy, innovation culture

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17 Analysing Industry Clustering to Develop Competitive Advantage for Wualai Silver Handicraft

Authors: Khanita Tumphasuwan

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The Wualai community of Northern Thailand represents important intellectual and social capital and their silver handicraft products are desirable tourist souvenirs within Chiang Mai Province. This community has been in danger of losing this social and intellectual capital due to the application of an improper tool, the Scottish Enterprise model of clustering. This research aims to analyze and increase its competitive advantages for preventing the loss of social and intellectual capital. To improve the Wualai’s competitive advantage, analysis is undertaken using a Porterian cluster approach, including the diamond model, five forces model and cluster mapping. Research results suggest that utilizing the community’s Buddhist beliefs can foster collaboration between community members and is the only way to improve cluster effectiveness, increase competitive advantage, and in turn conserve the Wualai community.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Social Capital, competitive advantage, industry clustering, silver handicraft

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16 Corporate Governance of Intellectual Capital: The Impact of Intellectual Capital Reporting

Authors: Cesar Julio Recalde

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Background: The role of intangible assets in today´s society is undeniable and continuously growing. More than 80% of corporate market is related to intellectual capital(IC). However, corporate governance principles and practices seem strongly based and oriented towards tangible assets. The impact of intangible assets on corporate governance might require prevention and adaptative actions. Adherence to voluntary mechanisms of intellectual capital reporting (ICR) seems to be a gateway towards adapting corporate governance to intangible assets influence and a conceptual cornerstone. The impact of adherence to intellectual capital reporting on corporate governance and performance needs to be evaluated. Purposes: This work has a sequential two folded purpose: (1) exploring the influences exerted by IC on corporate governance theory and practice, and within that context (2) analyzing the impact of adherence to voluntary mechanisms of ICR on corporate governance. Design and summary: This work employs the theory of the firm and agency theory in order to conceptually explore the effects of each dimension of IC on key corporate governance issues, namely property rights and control by shareholders and residual claims by stakeholders, fiduciary duties of management and the board, opportunistic behavior and transparency. A comprehensive IC taxonomy and map is presented. Within the resulting context, internal and external impact of ICR on corporate governance and performance is conceptually analyzed. IRC constraint and barriers are identified. Intellectual liabilities are presented within the context of IRC. Finally, IRC regulatory framework is surveyed. Findings: Relevant conclusions were rendered on the influence of intellectual capital on corporate governance. Sufficient evidence of a positive impact of IRC on corporate governance and performance was found. Additionally, it was found that IRC exerts a leveraging effect on IC itself. Intellectual liabilities are insufficiently researched and seem to have a relevant importance on IC measuring. IRC regulatory framework was found to be insufficiently developed to capture the essence of intangible assets and to meet corporate governance challenges facing IC. Originality: This work develops a progressive approach to conceptually analyze the mutual influences between IC and corporate governance. An epistemic ideogram represents the intersection of analyzed theories. An IC map is presented. The relatively new topic of intellectual liabilities is conceptually analyzed in the context of IRC. Social liabilities and client liabilities are presented.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Intellectual Capital, Regulatory Framework, intellectual capital reporting, intellectual assets, intellectual liabilities, voluntary mechanisms

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15 An Intellectual Capital as a Driver for Branding

Authors: Shyam Shukla

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A brand is the identity of a specific product, service or business. A brand can take many forms, including a name, sign, symbol, color, combination or slogan. The word brand began simply as a way to tell one person's identity from another by means of a hot iron stamp. A legally protected brand name is called a trademark. The word brand has continued to evolve to encompass identity - it affects the personality of a product, company or service. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like AIDS awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity1. In this paper, it is tried to explore the significance of an intellectual capital for the branding of an Institution.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Consumer, cultural values, Brand, commodity, zonal cluster

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14 Intellectual Capital and Transparency in Universities: An Empirical Study

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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This paper shows the general perceptions of Spanish university stakeholders in relation to the university’s annual reports and the adequacy and potential of intellectual capital reporting. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. It was thought that these participants would provide a good example of the attitude of university stakeholders since they represent the different social groups connected with universities. From the results of this study we are in the position of confirming the need for universities to offer information on intellectual capital in their accounting information model.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, disclosure, Stakeholders, annual report

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13 Intellectual Capital Reporting: Case Study of Indonesian Corporations

Authors: Martin Surya Mulyadi, Rosinta Ria Panggabean

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The terms of intellectual capital emerge as the economic activity shift from the agricultural economy to knowledge economy and it will allow corporations to earn competitive advantage to its competitors. Considering its importance, many researches have a focus on how corporations disclose its intellectual capital. This intellectual capital research mainly focuses on developed country with only several researchers conducted this research in developing the country. While there are several intellectual capital researches in developing country, to authors’ best knowledge, there is no intellectual capital reporting research in Indonesia published internationally. This research will focus on two industries that acknowledge having a high reliance on intellectual capital: finance industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Our research found that Indonesian corporations in these industries are aware of the importance of intellectual capital, and variations of this disclosure exist within the industry.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Indonesia, intellectual capital reporting, Developed country

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12 The Influence of the Intellectual Capital on the Firms’ Market Value: A Study of Listed Firms in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Seyed Meisam Tabatabaie Nasab

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Intellectual capital is one of the most valuable and important parts of the intangible assets of enterprises especially in knowledge-based enterprises. With respect to increasing gap between the market value and the book value of the companies, intellectual capital is one of the components that can be placed in this gap. This paper uses the value added efficiency of the three components, capital employed, human capital and structural capital, to measure the intellectual capital efficiency of Iranian industries groups, listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE), using a 8 years period data set from 2005 to 2012. In order to analyze the effect of intellectual capital on the market-to-book value ratio of the companies, the data set was divided into 10 industries, Banking, Pharmaceutical, Metals & Mineral Nonmetallic, Food, Computer, Building, Investments, Chemical, Cement and Automotive, and the panel data method was applied to estimating pooled OLS. The results exhibited that value added of capital employed has a positive significant relation with increasing market value in the industries, Banking, Metals & Mineral Nonmetallic, Food, Computer, Chemical and Cement, and also, showed that value added efficiency of structural capital has a positive significant relation with increasing market value in the Banking, Pharmaceutical and Computer industries groups. The results of the value added showed a negative relation with the Banking and Pharmaceutical industries groups and a positive relation with computer and Automotive industries groups. Among the studied industries, computer industry has placed the widest gap between the market value and book value in its intellectual capital.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Human Capital, capital employed, market-to-book value, structural capital, value added efficiency

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11 Entrepreneurship under the Effect of Information Technology

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Khorashadi Zadeh

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An entrepreneur is a manager or the owner of the commercial company that creates resources and money by risking and initiative. The Netpreneur is the capability to run an online business. It needs only the Connectivity. An Entrepreneur, as long as he has a service which the market demands can set up a feasible and viable trade with his Intellectual Capital as the principle input and the Connectivity Infrastructure as the only physical input. The internet is possibly the most significant revolution in science and technology that our generation could fantasize or imagine. It has introduced in various benefits to the society, culture, economics and politics. The entrepreneur is a premium member in the community. She/he provides services to the society and community including employment.

Keywords: Infrastructure, Intellectual Capital, entrepreneur, Netpreneur

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10 Measurement of Intellectual Capital in an Algerian Company

Authors: M. D. Mouss, S. Brahmi, S. Aitouche

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Every modern company should measure the value of its intellectual capital and to report to complement the traditional annual balance sheets. The purpose of this work is to measure the intellectual capital in an Algerian company (or production system) using the Weightless Wealth Tool Kit (WWTK). The results of the measurement of intellectual capital are supplemented by traditional financial ratios. The measurement was applied to the National Company of Wells Services (ENSP) in Hassi Messaoud city, in the south of Algeria. We calculated the intellectual capital (intangible resources) of the ENSP to help the organization to better capitalize on its potential of workers and their know-how. The intangible value of the ENSP is evaluated at 16,936,173,345 DA in 2015.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, intangible capital, financial valuation, intellectual capital measurement

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9 Sentence vs. Keyword Content Analysis in Intellectual Capital Disclosures Study

Authors: Martin Surya Mulyadi, Rosinta Ria Panggabean, Yunita Anwar

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Major transformations in economic activity from an agricultural economy to knowledge economy have led to an increasing focus on intellectual capital (IC) that has been characterized by continuous innovation, the spread of digital and communication technologies, intangible and human factors. IC is defined as the possession of knowledge and experience, professional knowledge and skill, proper relationships and technological capacities, which when applied will give organizations a competitive advantage. All of IC report/disclosure could be captured from the corporate annual report as it is a communication device that allows a corporation to connect with various external and internal stakeholders. This study was conducted using sentence-content analysis of IC disclosure in the annual report. This research aims to analyze whether the keyword-content analysis is reliable research methodology for IC disclosure related research.

Keywords: Content Analysis, Intellectual Capital, annual report, intellectual capital disclosure, sentence analysis, keyword analysis

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8 Towards a Measuring Tool to Encourage Knowledge Sharing in Emerging Knowledge Organizations: The Who, the What and the How

Authors: Rachel Barker

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The exponential velocity in the truly knowledge-intensive world today has increasingly bombarded organizations with unfathomable challenges. Hence organizations are introduced to strange lexicons of descriptors belonging to a new paradigm of who, what and how knowledge at individual and organizational levels should be managed. Although organizational knowledge has been recognized as a valuable intangible resource that holds the key to competitive advantage, little progress has been made in understanding how knowledge sharing at individual level could benefit knowledge use at collective level to ensure added value. The research problem is that a lack of research exists to measure knowledge sharing through a multi-layered structure of ideas with at its foundation, philosophical assumptions to support presuppositions and commitment which requires actual findings from measured variables to confirm observed and expected events. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem by presenting a theoretical approach to measure knowledge sharing in emerging knowledge organizations. The research question is that despite the competitive necessity of becoming a knowledge-based organization, leaders have found it difficult to transform their organizations due to a lack of knowledge on who, what and how it should be done. The main premise of this research is based on the challenge for knowledge leaders to develop an organizational culture conducive to the sharing of knowledge and where learning becomes the norm. The theoretical constructs were derived and based on the three components of the knowledge management theory, namely technical, communication and human components where it is suggested that this knowledge infrastructure could ensure effective management. While it is realised that it might be a little problematic to implement and measure all relevant concepts, this paper presents effect of eight critical success factors (CSFs) namely: organizational strategy, organizational culture, systems and infrastructure, intellectual capital, knowledge integration, organizational learning, motivation/performance measures and innovation. These CSFs have been identified based on a comprehensive literature review of existing research and tested in a new framework adapted from four perspectives of the balanced score card (BSC). Based on these CSFs and their items, an instrument was designed and tested among managers and employees of a purposefully selected engineering company in South Africa who relies on knowledge sharing to ensure their competitive advantage. Rigorous pretesting through personal interviews with executives and a number of academics took place to validate the instrument and to improve the quality of items and correct wording of issues. Through analysis of surveys collected, this research empirically models and uncovers key aspects of these dimensions based on the CSFs. Reliability of the instrument was calculated by Cronbach’s a for the two sections of the instrument on organizational and individual levels.The construct validity was confirmed by using factor analysis. The impact of the results was tested using structural equation modelling and proved to be a basis for implementing and understanding the competitive predisposition of the organization as it enters the process of knowledge management. In addition, they realised the importance to consolidate their knowledge assets to create value that is sustainable over time.

Keywords: Innovation, Knowledge sharing, Intellectual Capital, performance measures

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7 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

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Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Intellectual Capital, financial inclusion, Qard-al-Hassanah

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6 An Empirical Study of the Impacts of Big Data on Firm Performance

Authors: Thuan Nguyen

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In the present time, data to a data-driven knowledge-based economy is the same as oil to the industrial age hundreds of years ago. Data is everywhere in vast volumes! Big data analytics is expected to help firms not only efficiently improve performance but also completely transform how they should run their business. However, employing the emergent technology successfully is not easy, and assessing the roles of big data in improving firm performance is even much harder. There was a lack of studies that have examined the impacts of big data analytics on organizational performance. This study aimed to fill the gap. The present study suggested using firms’ intellectual capital as a proxy for big data in evaluating its impact on organizational performance. The present study employed the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient method to measure firm intellectual capital, via its three main components: human capital efficiency, structural capital efficiency, and capital employed efficiency, and then used the structural equation modeling technique to model the data and test the models. The financial fundamental and market data of 100 randomly selected publicly listed firms were collected. The results of the tests showed that only human capital efficiency had a significant positive impact on firm profitability, which highlighted the prominent human role in the impact of big data technology.

Keywords: Big Data, Intellectual Capital, Big data analytics, organizational performance, value added intellectual coefficient

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5 Voluntary Information of Intellectual Capital Disclosed Online by Public Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites. To this end, a content analysis was used to analyze the websites of 50 public Spanish universities i 2016. The results of this study show that human capital was the most disclosed category with relational capital being the least frequently disclosed in Spain. However, the quality of structural capital disclosures was higher than relational and human capital. Finally, most IC disclosures were narrative in nature.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, Spain, websites, quality disclosure

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4 The Sustainable Blue Economy Innovation and Growth: Data Based on China for 2006-2015 Years

Authors: Mingbao Chen

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The blue economy is a new comprehensive marine economy integrated with resources, industries, and regions, and is an upgraded version of the marine economy. The blue economy attaches great importance to the coordinated development of the ecological environment and the economy, which is an emerging economic form advocated by all countries in the world. This paper constructs the model including four variables:natural capital, economic capital, intellectual capital, cultural capital. Theoretically, this paper deduces the function mechanism of variables on economic growth, and empirically calculates the driving force and influence of the blue economy on the national economy by using data of China's 2006-2015 year. The results show that natural capital and economic capital remain the main factors of blue growth in the blue economy. And with the development of economic society and technological progress, the role of intellectual capital and cultural capital is bigger and bigger. Therefore, promoting the development of marine science and technology and culture is the focus of the future blue economic development.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Cultural Capital, blue growth, natural capital

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3 The Level of Disclosure of Intellectual Capital at Jordanian Development Banks

Authors: Firas A. N. Al-Dalabih

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This study aims at identifying the level of disclosure of intellectual capital at the Jordanian development banks. The study sample composed of (100) individuals working at the National Bank to Finance Small Projects around the different governorates of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed over the study sample. (95) Questionnaires have been retrieved; valid for the statistical analysis purposes with a percentage of (95%). The study results showed that the level of disclosure of intellectual capital with all its dimensions (human capital, customer capital and structural capital) at the Jordanian development banks was of a high level. The results also showed that there is a high level of awareness performed by the Jordanian development banks’ employees in regard to the necessity and importance of the intellectual capital’s disclosure. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations among which were that the Jordanian development banks shall take notice toward increasing their workers’ awareness regarding the importance of intellectual capital’s disclosure, as well as applying this study over commercial and Islamic banks for the purposes of carrying out a comparison between them and the development banks.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Jordanian development banks, the level of disclosure

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2 Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Profiles of Spanish Public Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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In the higher education setting, there is a current trend in society toward greater openness and transparency. The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in recent years in public sector universities (particularly the New Public Management, the Bologna Process and the emergence of the “third mission”) call for a wider disclosure of value created by universities to support fundraising activities, to ensure accountability in the use of public funds and the outcomes of research and teaching, as well as close relationships with industries and territories. The paper has two purposes: 1) to explore the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure in Spanish universities through their websites, and 2) to identify university profiles. This study applies a content analysis to analyze the institutional websites of Spanish public universities and a cluster analysis. The analysis reveals that Spanish universities’ website content usually relates to human capital, while structural and relational capitals are less widely disclosed. Our research identifies three behavioral profiles of Spanish universities with regard to the online disclosure of IC (universities more proactive, universities less proactive and universities adopt a middle position in this regard. The results can serve as encouragement to university managers to enhance online IC disclosure to meet the information needs of university stakeholders.

Keywords: Internet, Universities, Intellectual Capital, disclosure

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1 Human Capital in Interaction with Structural Capital: Conditions for Adding Human Value to the Business

Authors: Bárbara P. Ewerling, Alexandre J. Miziara, Bernadete M. Voichcoski

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Highly skilled and motivated employees, supported by the leadership through investments in development and by a healthy organizational environment, while performing their duties, produce a considerable amount of intellectual capital, which constitutes part of the intangible wealth that is not explicitly mentioned in accounting reports. The customer relationship is built subtly through three components of intellectual capital: human, structural, and relational capital. The indispensable skill is to understand what employees need in order to shape a favorable environment to the creation and gathering of this capital, given that a dissatisfied employee may intoxicate the environments he or she is part of. This research aims at instigating the reader to understand how the development of intellectual capital occurs within organizations; what are the near-ideal conditions for the process to be as rich and enjoyable as possible, where employees can feel belonging to a group and be motivated to evolve, which supports the idea that the recompense for work goes beyond financial rewards. The study explains how human capital and structural capital — comprised by management philosophy, corporate culture, and management processes — when combined with each other aiming at becoming a robust ecosystem, and how that ecosystem becomes the basis for a competitive advantage when viewed as a principle value-generating principle for the company. Psychometrics proved to be a great method for evaluating potential; however, during the studies, it was observed that due to the complexity of human capital and its relationships with the environment, it is also necessary to consider a set of intrinsic characteristics of each individual which is difficult to measure. Structural capital, shaped by innovation, process, and organizational capital, reflects a company's ability to reinvent itself for longevity, making room for new ideas, organize itself for better profits, and optimize its processes to prevent wasting of time. Considering the findings during the study, it is understood that investing in organizational health and quality of life at work to create a healthy environment encourages good actions from both sides, the company, and the employees, and both are equally responsible for establishing this healthy environment.

Keywords: Intellectual Capital, organizational health, structural capital, human value development

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