Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

insulation Related Abstracts

15 An Analysis of Insulation Defects in TRNC: The Case of Toros Dormitory of Eastern Mediterranean University

Authors: Arash Imani Fooladi

Abstract:

In recent years, with the growing population and decrease in the amount of non-renewable energy supplies, which is caused by the uncontrolled energy use, the world witnesses air pollution and destruction of the natural resources. Most of the buildings which are constructed in order to inhabit this great amount of population have minimum facilities. With the passing time researchers began to feel anxious about increase in the amount of energy which people are continuously using and they tried to find some ways to solve it. One of the methods, which human being has used all during the history, was considering the orientation, size, form and shape of the building during design process and trying to take advantage of the methods which his ancestors used in order to make buildings thermally comfortable. In the last forty years with the development of building materials a new way of conserving energy, called insulation, was invented. In North Cyprus, with its adverse weather condition (hot and dry summers and rainy winters) no method was used to make buildings thermally comfortable. This fact leads to wasting a noticeable amount of energy for heating and cooling the buildings. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the defects of insulation in North Cyprus and to introduce some suggestions to improve the current defects of insulation. Therefore, this paper focuses on the Toros dormitory and the construction firms in TRNC. Toros Dormitory is situated in North Cyprus and it is one of the dormitories of Eastern Mediterranean University. Lots of problems are observed with its insulation. Forty students who inhabit in this dormitory are selected randomly in order to study these defects. Close ended questionnaires are used to find out the level of satisfaction of these students on the subject. Furthermore, eight constructors in North Cyprus are selected to study their level of satisfaction, the most important factors for choosing an insulation type and the material they often use as insulation. The results demonstrated that most of the students in the dormitory are not satisfied with the thermal conditions. Constructors are also unsatisfied with the insulating conditions in TRNC. They claimed that polystyrene which is commonly used is not the proper material for insulation in this area. Finally ICF system is evaluated, it is a new system of construction which also works as an insulation and recently it is being used all over the world. The material is suggested as a proper insulation type for North Cyprus.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, insulation, building envelop, hot and humid climate, ICF system

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14 Development of Composite Material for Thermal and Electrical Insulation

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Rubens Maribondo do Nascimento, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

Recycling has been greatly stimulated by the market. There are already several products that are produced with recycled materials and various wastes have been studied in various forms of applications. The vast majority of insulation applications in domestic, commercial and industrial systems in the range of low and medium temperatures (up to 180 ° C), using the aggressive nature materials such as glass wool, rock wool, polyurethane, polystyrene. Such materials, while retaining the effectiveness of the heat flux, are disposed as expensive and take years too absorbed by nature. Thus, trying to adapt to a global policy on the preservation of the environment, a study in order to develop an insulating compound of natural / industrial waste and biodegradable materials conducted. Thus, this research presents the development of a composite material based zest tire and latex for thermal and electrical insulation.

Keywords: Electrical, Composite, insulation, latex, scrapes tire

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13 Architectural Design, Low Energy, and Isolation Materials to Have Sustainable Buildings in Iran

Authors: Mohammadreza Azarnoush, Ali Bayati, Jamileh Azarnoush

Abstract:

Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities shows one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considers the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities as playing a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming, and damage ozone layer. In the construction industry, we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials, and the adoption to the environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in the long term. Accordingly, in this article, we investigate the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: Sustainable Construction, building design, insulation, construction masonry

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12 Environmental Protection by Optimum Utilization of Car Air Conditioners

Authors: Sanchita Abrol, Kunal Rana, Ankit Dhir, S. K. Gupta

Abstract:

According to N.R.E.L.’s findings, 700 crore gallons of petrol is used annually to run the air conditioners of passenger vehicles (nearly 6% of total fuel consumption in the USA). Beyond fuel use, the Environmental Protection Agency reported that refrigerant leaks from auto air conditioning units add an additional 5 crore metric tons of carbon emissions to the atmosphere each year. The objective of our project is to deal with this vital issue by carefully modifying the interiors of a car thereby increasing its mileage and the efficiency of its engine. This would consequently result in a decrease in tail emission and generated pollution along with improved car performance. An automatic mechanism, deployed between the front and the rear seats, consisting of transparent thermal insulating sheet/curtain, would roll down as per the requirement of the driver in order to optimize the volume for effective air conditioning, when travelling alone or with a person. The reduction in effective volume will yield favourable results. Even on a mild sunny day, the temperature inside a parked car can quickly spike to life-threatening levels. For a stationary parked car, insulation would be provided beneath its metal body so as to reduce the rate of heat transfer and increase the transmissivity. As a result, the car would not require a large amount of air conditioning for maintaining lower temperature, which would provide us similar benefits. Authors established the feasibility studies, system engineering and primarily theoretical and experimental results confirming the idea and motivation to fabricate and test the actual product.

Keywords: Automation, insulation, car, cooling insulating curtains, heat optimization, reduction in tail emission, mileage

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11 A Novel Method to Manufacture Superhydrophobic and Insulating Polyester Nanofibers via a Meso-Porous Aerogel Powder

Authors: Z. Mazrouei-Sebdani, A. Khoddami, H. Hadadzadeh, M. Zarrebini

Abstract:

Silica aerogels are well-known meso-porous materials with high specific surface area (500–1000 m2/g), high porosity (80–99.8%), and low density (0.003–0.8 g/cm3). However, the silica aerogels generally are highly brittle due to their nanoporous nature. Physical and mechanical properties of the silica aerogels can be enhanced by compounding with the fibers. Although some reports presented incorporation of the fibers into the sol, followed by further modification and drying stages, no information regarding the aerogel powders as filler in the polymeric fibers is available. In this research, waterglass based aerogel powder was prepared in the following steps: sol–gel process to prepare a gel, followed by subsequent washing with propan-2-ol, n-Hexane, and TMCS, then ambient pressure drying, and ball milling. Inspired by limited dust releasing, aerogel powder was introduced to the PET electrospinning solution in an attempt to create required bulk and surface structure for the nano fibers to improve their hydrophobic and insulation properties. The samples evaluation was carried out by measuring density, porosity, contact angle, sliding angle, heat transfer, FTIR, BET and SEM. According to the results, porous silica aerogel powder was fabricated with mean pore diameter of 24 nm and contact angle of 145.9º. The results indicated the usefulness of the aerogel powder confined into nano fibers to control surface roughness for manipulating superhydrophobic nanowebs with sliding angle of 5˚ and water contact angle of 147º. It can be due to a multi-scale surface roughness which was created by nanowebs structure itself and nano fibers surface irregularity in presence of the aerogels while a laye of fluorocarbon created low surface energy. The wettability of a solid substrate is an important property that is controlled by both the chemical composition and geometry of the surface. Also, a decreasing trend in the heat transfer was observed from 22% for the nano fibers without any aerogel powder to 8% for the nano fibers with 4% aerogel powder. The development of thermal insulating materials has become increasingly more important than ever in view of the fossil energy depletion and global warming that call for more demanding energy-saving practices.

Keywords: Superhydrophobicity, roughness, sol-gel, insulation, Surface energy

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10 Insulation and Architectural Design to Have Sustainable Buildings in Iran

Authors: Ali Bayati, Jamileh Azarnoush

Abstract:

Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities shows one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considered about the consumption of fossil fuels and also Reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities that play a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming and damage ozone layer. In the construction industry, we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials and the adaptation with the environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in the long term. Accordingly, in this article we investigates the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: Sustainable Construction, building design, insulation, construction masonry

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9 Insulation, Sustainable Construction, and Architectural Design to Reduce Energy Consumption in Sustainable Buildings

Authors: Gholamreza Namavar, Ali Bayati

Abstract:

Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities show one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considered about the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities that play a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming and damage ozone layer. In construction industry we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials and the adaption with environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in long term. Accordingly, in this article we investigates the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Sustainable Construction, insulation, reducing energy consumption

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8 Energy System for Algerian Green Building in Tlemcen, North Africa

Authors: M. A. Boukli Hacene, N. E.Chabane Sari, A. Benzair

Abstract:

This article highlights a method for natural heating and cooling of systems in areas of moderate climate. Movement of air is generated inside a space by an underground piping system. In this paper, we discuss a feasibility study in Algeria of air-conditioning using a ground source heat pump (GSHP) with vertical mounting, coupled with a solar collector. This study consists of modeling ground temperature at different depths, for a clay soil in the city of Tlemcen. Our model is developed from the non-stationary heat equation for a homogeneous medium and takes into consideration the soil thermal diffusivity. It uses the daily ambient temperature during a typical year for the locality of Tlemcen. The study shows the feasibility of using a heating/cooling GSHP in the town of Tlemcen for the particular soil type; and indicates that the duration of air flow in the borehole has a major influence on the outgoing temperature drilling.

Keywords: Climate Change, Green Building, Heat pump, insulation

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7 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: Thermal, Vacuum, insulation, flat-plate solar collector

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6 Behavior of Epoxy Insulator with Surface Defect under HVDC Stress

Authors: Qingying Liu, S. Liu, L. Hao, B. Zhang, J. D. Yan

Abstract:

HVDC technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its simplicity in topology and less power loss over long distance of power transmission, in comparison with HVAC technology. However, the dielectric behavior of insulators in the long term under HVDC stress is completely different from that under HVAC stress as a result of charge accumulation in a constant electric field. Insulators used in practical systems are never perfect in their structural conditions. Over time shallow cracks may develop on their surface. The presence of defects can lead to drastic change in their dielectric behaviour and thus increase the probability of surface flashover. In this contribution, experimental investigations have been carried out on the charge accumulation phenomenon on the surface of a rod insulator made of epoxy that is placed between two disk shaped electrodes at different voltage levels and in different gases (SF6, CO2 and N2). Many results obtained, such as, the two-dimensional electrostatic potential distribution along the insulator surface after the removal of the power source following a pre-defined period of application. The probe has been carefully calibrated before each test. Results show that surface charge distribution near the two disk shaped electrodes is not uniform in the circumferential direction, possibly due to the imperfect electrical connections between the embeded conductor in the insulator and the disk shaped electrodes. The axial length of this non-uniform region is experimentally determined, which provides useful information for shielding design. A charge transport model is also used to explain the formation of the long term electrostatic potential distribution under a constant applied voltage.

Keywords: Power Systems, HVDC, insulation, dielectric behavior, charge accumulation

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5 Comprehensive Multilevel Practical Condition Monitoring Guidelines for Power Cables in Industries: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran

Authors: S. Mani, M. Kafil, E. Asadi

Abstract:

Condition Monitoring (CM) of electrical equipment has gained remarkable importance during the recent years; due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk and uncertainty levels. Power cables feed numerous electrical equipment such as transformers, motors, and electric furnaces; thus their condition assessment is of a very great importance. This paper investigates electrical, structural and environmental failure sources, all of which influence cables' performances and limit their uptimes; and provides a comprehensive framework entailing practical CM guidelines for maintenance of cables in industries. The multilevel CM framework presented in this study covers performance indicative features of power cables; with a focus on both online and offline diagnosis and test scenarios, and covers short-term and long-term threats to the operation and longevity of power cables. The study, after concisely overviewing the concept of CM, thoroughly investigates five major areas of power quality, Insulation Quality features of partial discharges, tan delta and voltage withstand capabilities, together with sheath faults, shield currents and environmental features of temperature and humidity; and elaborates interconnections and mutual impacts between those areas; using mathematical formulation and practical guidelines. Detection, location, and severity identification methods for every threat or fault source are also elaborated. Finally, the comprehensive, practical guidelines presented in the study are presented for the specific case of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) feeder MV power cables in Mobarakeh Steel Company (MSC), the largest steel company in MENA region, in Iran. Specific technical and industrial characteristics and limitations of a harsh industrial environment like MSC EAF feeder cable tunnels are imposed on the presented framework; making the suggested package more practical and tangible.

Keywords: Power Quality, Maintenance, Diagnostics, Condition Monitoring, partial discharge, insulation, power cables

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4 Influence of Insulation System Methods on Dissipation Factor and Voltage Endurance

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Hamid Chegini, Saeed Lotfi

Abstract:

This paper reviews the comparison of Resin Rich (RR) and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) insulation system qualities for stator bar of rotating electrical machines. Voltage endurance and tangent delta are two diagnostic tests to determine the quality of insulation systems. The paper describes the trend of dissipation factor while performing voltage endurance test for different stator bar samples made with RR and VPI insulation system methods. Some samples were made with the same strands and insulation thickness but with different main wall material to prove the influence of insulation system methods on stator bar quality. Also, some of the samples were subjected to voltage at the temperature of their insulation class, and their dissipation factor changes were measured and studied.

Keywords: insulation, dissipation factor, resin rich, VPI, stator bar, voltage endurance

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3 Retrofitting Insulation to Historic Masonry Buildings: Improving Thermal Performance and Maintaining Moisture Movement to Minimize Condensation Risk

Authors: Moses Jenkins

Abstract:

Much of the focus when improving energy efficiency in buildings fall on the raising of standards within new build dwellings. However, as a significant proportion of the building stock across Europe is of historic or traditional construction, there is also a pressing need to improve the thermal performance of structures of this sort. On average, around twenty percent of buildings across Europe are built of historic masonry construction. In order to meet carbon reduction targets, these buildings will require to be retrofitted with insulation to improve their thermal performance. At the same time, there is also a need to balance this with maintaining the ability of historic masonry construction to allow moisture movement through building fabric to take place. This moisture transfer, often referred to as 'breathable construction', is critical to the success, or otherwise, of retrofit projects. The significance of this paper is to demonstrate that substantial thermal improvements can be made to historic buildings whilst avoiding damage to building fabric through surface or interstitial condensation. The paper will analyze the results of a wide range of retrofit measures installed to twenty buildings as part of Historic Environment Scotland's technical research program. This program has been active for fourteen years and has seen interventions across a wide range of building types, using over thirty different methods and materials to improve the thermal performance of historic buildings. The first part of the paper will present the range of interventions which have been made. This includes insulating mass masonry walls both internally and externally, warm and cold roof insulation and improvements to floors. The second part of the paper will present the results of monitoring work which has taken place to these buildings after being retrofitted. This will be in terms of both thermal improvement, expressed as a U-value as defined in BS EN ISO 7345:1987, and also, crucially, will present the results of moisture monitoring both on the surface of masonry walls the following retrofit and also within the masonry itself. The aim of this moisture monitoring is to establish if there are any problems with interstitial condensation. This monitoring utilizes Interstitial Hygrothermal Gradient Monitoring (IHGM) and similar methods to establish relative humidity on the surface of and within the masonry. The results of the testing are clear and significant for retrofit projects across Europe. Where a building is of historic construction the use of materials for wall, roof and floor insulation which are permeable to moisture vapor provides both significant thermal improvements (achieving a u-value as low as 0.2 Wm²K) whilst avoiding problems of both surface and intestinal condensation. As the evidence which will be presented in the paper comes from monitoring work in buildings rather than theoretical modeling, there are many important lessons which can be learned and which can inform retrofit projects to historic buildings throughout Europe.

Keywords: Masonry, Historic, Condensation, insulation

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2 Determination of the Thermophysical Characteristics of the Composite Material Clay Cement Paper

Authors: A. Ouargui, N. Belouaggadia, M. Ezzine

Abstract:

In Morocco, the building sector is largely responsible for the evolution of energy consumption. The control of energy in this sector remains a major issue despite the rise of renewable energies. The design of an environmentally friendly building requires mastery and knowledge of energy and bioclimatic aspects. This implies taking into consideration of all the elements making up the building and the way in which energy exchanges take place between these elements. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work is to provide some solutions to reduce energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort in the building. The objective of our work is to present an experimental study on the characterization of local materials used in the thermal insulation of buildings. These are paper recycling stabilized with cement and clay. The thermal conductivity of these materials, which were constituted based on sand, clay, cement; water, as well as treated paper, was determined by the guarded-hot-plate method. It involves the design of two materials that will subsequently be subjected to thermal and mechanical tests to determine their thermophysical properties. The results show that the thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. Measurements of mechanical properties such as flexural strength have shown that the enrichment of the studied material with paper makes it possible to reduce the flexural strength by 20% while optimizing the conductivity.

Keywords: Building, Thermal Conductivity, Composite Material, insulation, paper residue

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1 Improvement of the 3D Finite Element Analysis of High Voltage Power Transformer Defects in Time Domain

Authors: M. Rashid Hussain, Shady S. Refaat

Abstract:

The high voltage power transformer is the most essential part of the electrical power utilities. Reliability on the transformers is the utmost concern, and any failure of the transformers can lead to catastrophic losses in electric power utility. The causes of transformer failure include insulation failure by partial discharge, core and tank failure, cooling unit failure, current transformer failure, etc. For the study of power transformer defects, finite element analysis (FEA) can provide valuable information on the severity of defects. FEA provides a more accurate representation of complex geometries because they consider thermal, electrical, and environmental influences on the insulation models to obtain basic characteristics of the insulation system during normal and partial discharge conditions. The purpose of this paper is the time domain analysis of defects 3D model of high voltage power transformer using FEA to study the electric field distribution at different points on the defects.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, power transformer, partial discharge, insulation, dielectric response

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