Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Instrumentation Related Abstracts

4 Study of the Behavior and Similarities of Flow and Level Transmitters in the Industries

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale


In view of the requirements of the current industrial processes, the instrumentation plays a critical role. In this context, this work aims to raise some the operating characteristics of the level and flow transmitters, in addition to observing their similarities and possible limitations for certain configurations.

Keywords: Instrumentation, Flow, level, configurations of meters, method of choice of the meters, instrumentation in the industrial processes

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3 Behavior Evaluation of an Anchored Wall

Authors: Polo G. Yohn Edison, Rocha F. Pedricto


This work presents a study about a retaining structure designed for the duplication of the rail FEPASA on the 74th km between Santos and São Paulo. This structure, an anchored retaining wall, was instrumented in the anchors heads with strain gauges in order to monitor its loads. The load measurements occurred during the performance test, locking and also after the works were concluded. A decrease on anchors loads is noticed at the moment immediately after the locking, during construction and after the works finished. It was observed that a loss of load in the anchors occurred to a maximum of 54%.

Keywords: Instrumentation, Retaining Wall, anchors, strain gauges

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2 Procedure for Monitoring the Process of Behavior of Thermal Cracking in Concrete Gravity Dams: A Case Study

Authors: Adriana de Paula Lacerda Santos, Mauro Lacerda Santos Filho, Bruna Godke


Several dams in the world have already collapsed, causing environmental, social and economic damage. The concern to avoid future disasters has stimulated the creation of a great number of laws and rules in many countries. In Brazil, Law 12.334/2010 was created, which establishes the National Policy on Dam Safety. Overall, this policy requires the dam owners to invest in the maintenance of their structures and to improve its monitoring systems in order to provide faster and straightforward responses in the case of an increase of risks. As monitoring tools, visual inspections has provides comprehensive assessment of the structures performance, while auscultation’s instrumentation has added specific information on operational or behavioral changes, providing an alarm when a performance indicator exceeds the acceptable limits. These limits can be set using statistical methods based on the relationship between instruments measures and other variables, such as reservoir level, time of the year or others instruments measuring. Besides the design parameters (uplift of the foundation, displacements, etc.) the dam instrumentation can also be used to monitor the behavior of defects and damage manifestations. Specifically in concrete gravity dams, one of the main causes for the appearance of cracks, are the concrete volumetric changes generated by the thermal origin phenomena, which are associated with the construction process of these structures. Based on this, the goal of this research is to propose a monitoring process of the thermal cracking behavior in concrete gravity dams, through the instrumentation data analysis and the establishment of control values. Therefore, as a case study was selected the Block B-11 of José Richa Governor Dam Power Plant, that presents a cracking process, which was identified even before filling the reservoir in August’ 1998, and where crack meters and surface thermometers were installed for its monitoring. Although these instruments were installed in May 2004, the research was restricted to study the last 4.5 years (June 2010 to November 2014), when all the instruments were calibrated and producing reliable data. The adopted method is based on simple linear correlations procedures to understand the interactions among the instruments time series, verifying the response times between them. The scatter plots were drafted from the best correlations, which supported the definition of the limit control values. Among the conclusions, it is shown that there is a strong or very strong correlation between ambient temperature and the crack meters and flowmeters measurements. Based on the results of the statistical analysis, it was possible to develop a tool for monitoring the behavior of the case study cracks. Thus it was fulfilled the goal of the research to develop a proposal for a monitoring process of the behavior of thermal cracking in concrete gravity dams.

Keywords: Instrumentation, concrete gravity dam, dams safety, simple linear correlation

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1 Portable, Noninvasive and Wireless Near Infrared Spectroscopy Device to Monitor Skeletal Muscle Metabolism during Exercise

Authors: Adkham Paiziev, Fikrat Kerimov


Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the biophotonic techniques which can be used to monitor oxygenation and hemodynamics in a variety of human tissues, including skeletal muscle. In the present work, we are offering tissue oximetry (OxyPrem) to measure hemodynamic parameters of skeletal muscles in rest and exercise. Purpose: - To elaborate the new wireless, portable, noninvasive, wearable NIRS device to measure skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise. - To test this device on brachioradialis muscle of wrestler volunteers by using combined method of arterial occlusion (AO) and NIRS (AO+NIRS). Methods: Oxyprem NIRS device has been used together with AO test. AO test and Isometric brachioradialis muscle contraction experiments have been performed on one group of wrestler volunteers. ‘Accu- Measure’ caliper (USA) to measure skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used. Results: Elaborated device consists on power supply box, a sensor head and installed ‘Tubis’ software for data acquisition and to compute deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation (StO2) and muscle tissue oxygen consumption (mVO2). Sensor head consists on four light sources with three light emitting diodes with nominal wavelengths of 760 nm, 805 nm, and 870 nm, and two detectors. AO and isometric voluntary forearm muscle contraction (IVFMC) on five healthy male subjects (23,2±0.84 in age, 0.43±0.05cm of SFT ) and four female subjects (22.0±1.0 in age and 0.24±0.04 cm SFT) has been measured. mVO2 for control group has been calculated (-0.65%/sec±0.07) for male and -0.69%/±0.19 for female subjects). Tissue oxygenation index for wrestlers in average about 75% whereas for control group StO2 =63%. Second experiment was connected with quality monitoring muscle activity during IVFMC at 10%,30% and 50% of MVC. It has been shown, that the concentration changes of HbO2 and HHb positively correlated to the contraction intensity. Conclusion: We have presented a portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for real-time monitoring of muscle activity. The miniaturized NIRS sensor and the usage of wireless communication make the whole device have a compact-size, thus can be used in muscle monitoring.

Keywords: Instrumentation, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, skeletal muscle, oxygenation

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