Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Instability Related Abstracts

15 Instability of H2-O2-CO2 Premixed Flames on Flat Burner

Authors: Kaewpradap Amornrat, Endo Takahiro, Kadowaki Satoshi


The combustion of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) mixtures was investigated to consider the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) as the greenhouse emission. Normally, the flame speed of combustion H2-O2 mixtures are very fast thus it is necessary to control the limit of mixtures with CO2 addition as H2-O2-CO2 combustion. The limit of hydrogen was set and replaced by CO2 with O2:CO2 ratio as 1:3.76, 1:4 and 1:5 for this study. In this study, the combustion of H2-O2 -CO2 on flat burner at equivalence ratio =0.5 was investigated for 10, 15 and 20 L/min of flow rate mixtures. When the ratio of CO2 increases, the power spectral density is lower, the size of attractor and cellular flame become larger because the decrease of hydrogen replaced by CO2 affects the diffusive-thermal instability. Moreover, the flow rate mixtures increases, the power spectral density increases, the size of reconstructed attractor and cell size become smaller due to decreasing of instability. The results show that the variation of CO2 and mixture flow rate affects the instability of cellular premixed flames on flat burner.

Keywords: Instability, H2-O2-CO2 combustion, flat burner, diffusive-thermal instability

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14 Central American Security Issue: Civil Wars Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets


The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Instability, Violence, central america, insecurity

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13 Central American Security Issue: Civil War Legacy and Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Olga Andrianova, Lazar Jeifets


The security issue has always been one of the most sensitive and significant in Latin American context, especially focused on Central American region. Despite the fact that the time of the civil wars has ended, violence, delinquency, insecurity, discrimination still exist and keep relevance in the 21st century. This article is dedicated to consider this kind of problems, to find out the main causes and to propose solution approaches.

Keywords: Instability, Violence, central america, insecurity, post-war countries

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12 Journal Bearing with Controllable Radial Clearance, Design and Analysis

Authors: Majid Rashidi, Shahrbanoo Farkhondeh Biabnavi


The hydrodynamic instability phenomenon in a journal bearing may occur by either a reduction in the load carried by journal bearing, by an increase in the journal speed, by change in the lubricant viscosity, or a combination of these factors. The previous research and development work done to overcome the instability issue of journal bearings, operating in hydrodynamic lubricate regime, can be categorized as follows: A) Actively controlling the bearing sleeve by using piezo actuator, b) Inclusion of strategically located and shaped internal grooves within inner surface of the bearing sleeve, c) Actively controlling the bearing sleeve using an electromagnetic actuator, d)Actively and externally pressurizing the lubricant within a journal bearing set, and e)Incorporating tilting pads within the inner surface of the bearing sleeve that assume different equilibrium angular position in response to changes in the bearing design parameter such as speed and load. This work presents an innovative design concept for a 'smart journal bearing' set to operate in a stable hydrodynamic lubrication regime, despite variations in bearing speed, load, and its lubricant viscosity. The proposed bearing design allows adjusting its radial clearance for an attempt to maintain a stable bearing operation under those conditions that may cause instability for a bearing with a fixed radial clearance. The design concept allows adjusting the radial clearance at small increments in the order of 0.00254 mm. This is achieved by axially moving two symmetric conical rigid cavities that are in close contact with the conically shaped outer shell of a sleeve bearing. The proposed work includes a 3D model of the bearing that depicts the structural interactions of the bearing components. The 3D model is employed to conduct finite element Analyses to simulate the mechanical behavior of the bearing from a structural point of view. The concept of controlling of the radial clearance, as presented in this work, is original and has not been proposed and discuss in previous research. A typical journal bearing was analyzed under a set of design parameters, namely r =1.27 cm (journal radius), c = 0.0254 mm (radial clearance), L=1.27 cm (bearing length), w = 445N (bearing load), μ = 0.028 Pascale (lubricant viscosity). A shaft speed as 3600 r.p.m was considered, and the mass supported by the bearing, m, is set to be 4.38kg. The Summerfield Number associated with the above bearing design parameters turn to be, S=0.3. These combinations resulted in stable bearing operation. Subsequently, the speed was postulated to increase from 3600 r.p.mto 7200 r.p.m; the bearing was found to be unstable under the new increased speed. In order to regain stability, the radial clearance was increased from c = 0.0254 mm to0.0358mm. The change in the radial clearance was shown to bring the bearing back to stable an operating condition.

Keywords: Instability, journal, hydrodynamic, bearing, adjustable clearance

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11 Investigation of Flexural – Torsion Instability of Struts Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


Differential equations are of fundamental importance in engineering and applied mathematics, since many physical laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of such equations. The equilibrium state of structures consisting of one-dimensional elements can be described by an ordinary differential equation. The response of these kinds of structures under the loading, namely relationship between the displacement field and loading field, can be predicted by the solution of these differential equations and on satisfying the given boundary conditions. When the effect of change of geometry under loading is taken into account in modeling of equilibrium state, then these differential equations are partially integrable in quartered. They also exhibit instability characteristics when the structures are loaded compressively. The purpose of this paper is to represent the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in analyzing flexural-torsional instability of struts for both bifurcation and non-bifurcation structural systems. The results are shown to be very accurate with only a small number of iterations. The method is easily programmed, and has the advantages of simplicity and speeds of convergence and easily is extended to treat material and geometric nonlinearity including no prismatic members and linear and nonlinear spring restraints that would be encountered in frames. In this paper, these abilities of the method will be extended to the system of linear differential equations that govern strut flexural torsional stability.

Keywords: Instability, buckling, torsion, flexural, modified newmark method stability

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10 Effect of Viscosity on Propagation of MHD Waves in Astrophysical Plasma

Authors: Alemayehu Mengesha, Solomon Belay


We determine the general dispersion relation for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in an astrophysical plasma by considering the effect of viscosity with an anisotropic pressure tensor. Basic MHD equations have been derived and linearized by the method of perturbation to develop the general form of the dispersion relation equation. Our result indicates that an astrophysical plasma with an anisotropic pressure tensor is stable in the presence of viscosity and a strong magnetic field at considerable wavelength. Currently, we are doing the numerical analysis of this work.

Keywords: Instability, viscosity, MHD, Magnetic Field, wavelength, astrophysical

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9 An Advanced Method of Minimizing Unforeseen Disruptions within a Manufacturing System: A Case Study of Amico, South Africa

Authors: Max Moleke


Manufacturing industries are faced with different types of problems. One of the most important role of controlling and monitoring a production process is to actually determine how to deal with unforeseen disruption when they arise. A majority of manufacturing tern to spend huge amount of money in order to meet up with their customers requirements and demand but due to instabilities within the manufacturing process, this objectives and goals are difficult to be achieved. In this research, we have developed a feedback control system that can minimize instability within the manufacturing system in order to boost the system output and productivity.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Instability, Scheduling, disruption

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8 Magneto-Convective Instability in a Horizontal Power-Law Nanofluid Saturated Porous Layer

Authors: Norazuwin Najihah Mat Tahir, Fuziyah Ishak, Seripah Awang Kechil


The onset of the convective instability in the horizontal through flow of a power-law nanofluid saturated by porous layer heated from below under the influences of magnetic field are investigated in this study. The linear stability theory is used for the transformation of the partial differential equations to system of ordinary differential equations through infinitesimal perturbations, scaling, linearization and method of normal modes with two-dimensional periodic waves. The system is solved analytically for the closed form solution of the Rayleigh number by using the Galerkin-type weighted residuals method to investigate the onset of both traveling wave and oscillatory convection. The effects of the power-law index, Lewis number and Peclet number on the stability of the system were investigated. The Lewis number stabilizes while the power-law index and Peclet number destabilize the nanofluid system. The system in the presence of magnetic field is more stable than the system in the absence of magnetic field.

Keywords: Instability, Nanofluid, Convection, Magnetic Field, power-law

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7 Simulation of Ammonia-Water Two Phase Flow in Bubble Pump

Authors: Jemai Rabeb, Benhmidene Ali, Hidouri Khaoula, Chaouachi Bechir


The diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle consists of a generator bubble pump, an absorber, an evaporator and a condenser, and usually operates with ammonia/water/ hydrogen or helium as the working fluid. The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem a bubble pump. In fact instability can caused a reduction of bubble pump efficiency. To achieve this goal, we have simulated the behaviour of two-phase flow in a bubble pump by using a drift flow model. Equations of a drift flow model are formulated in the transitional regime, non-adiabatic condition and thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. Equations resolution allowed to define void fraction, and liquid and vapour velocities, as well as pressure and mixing enthalpy. Ammonia-water mixing is used as working fluid, where ammonia mass fraction in the inlet is 0.6. Present simulation is conducted out for a heating flux of 2 kW/m² to 5 kW/m² and bubble pump tube length of 1 m and 2.5 mm of inner diameter. Simulation results reveal oscillations of vapour and liquid velocities along time. Oscillations decrease with time and with heat flux. For sufficient time the steady state is established, it is characterised by constant liquid velocity and void fraction values. However, vapour velocity does not have the same behaviour, it increases for steady state too. On the other hand, pressure drop oscillations are studied.

Keywords: Instability, Simulation, bubble pump, drift flow model

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6 Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Stability Analyses in Mixed Convection of a Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Medium

Authors: P. Naderi, M. N. Ouarzazi, S. C. Hirata, H. Ben Hamed, H. Beji


The stability of mixed convection in a Newtonian fluid medium heated from below and cooled from above, also known as the Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard problem, has been extensively investigated in the past decades. To our knowledge, mixed convection in porous media has received much less attention in the published literature. The present paper extends the mixed convection problem in porous media for the case of a viscoelastic fluid flow owing to its numerous environmental and industrial applications such as the extrusion of polymer fluids, solidification of liquid crystals, suspension solutions and petroleum activities. Without a superimposed through-flow, the natural convection problem of a viscoelastic fluid in a saturated porous medium has already been treated. The effects of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of the thermoconvective instabilities have also been treated in this work. Consequently, the elasticity of the fluid can lead either to a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to oscillatory structures in the strongly elastic regime, or to a stationary bifurcation in the weakly elastic regime. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the main horizontal flow on the linear and characteristics of these two types of instabilities. Under the Boussinesq approximation and Darcy's law extended to a viscoelastic fluid, a temporal stability approach shows that the conditions for the appearance of longitudinal rolls are identical to those found in the absence of through-flow. For the general three-dimensional (3D) perturbations, a Squire transformation allows the deduction of the complex frequencies associated with the 3D problem using those obtained by solving the two-dimensional one. The numerical resolution of the eigenvalue problem concludes that the through-flow has a destabilizing effect and selects a convective configuration organized in purely transversal rolls which oscillate in time and propagate in the direction of the main flow. In addition, by using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities, we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances. It is shown that for a non-vanishing through-flow, general three-dimensional instabilities are convectively unstable which means that in the absence of a continuous noise source these instabilities are drifted outside the porous medium, and no long-term pattern is observed. In contrast, purely transversal rolls may exhibit a transition to absolute instability regime and therefore affect the porous medium everywhere including in the absence of a noise source. The absolute instability threshold, the frequency and the wave number associated with purely transversal rolls are determined as a function of the Péclet number and the viscoelastic parameters. Results are discussed and compared to those obtained from laboratory experiments in the case of Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: Instability, Porous Media, mixed convection, and viscoelastic fluid

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5 Instability by Weak Precession of the Flow in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

Authors: S. Kida


We consider the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a precessing sphere whose spin and precession axes are orthogonal to each other. The flow is characterized by two non-dimensional parameters, the Reynolds number Re and the Poincare number Po. For which values of (Re, Po) will the flow approach a steady state from an arbitrary initial condition? To answer it we are searching the instability boundary of the steady states in the whole (Re, Po) plane. Here, we focus the rapidly rotating and weakly precessing limit, i.e., Re >> 1 and Po << 1. The steady flow was obtained by the asymptotic expansion for small ε=Po Re¹/² << 1. The flow exhibits nearly a solid-body rotation in the whole sphere except for a thin boundary layer which develops over the sphere surface. The thickness of this boundary layer is of O(δ), where δ=Re⁻¹/², except where two circular critical bands of thickness of O(δ⁴/⁵) and of width of O(δ²/⁵) which are located away from the spin axis by about 60°. We perform the linear stability analysis of the steady flow. We assume that the disturbances are localized in the critical bands and make an expansion analysis in terms of ε to derive the eigenvalue problem for the growth rate of the disturbance, which is solved numerically. As the solution, we obtain an asymptote of the stability boundary as Po=28.36Re⁻⁰.⁸. This agrees excellently with the corresponding laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. One of the most popular instability mechanisms so far is the parametric instability, which turns out, however, not to give the correct stability boundary. The present instability is different from the parametric instability.

Keywords: Instability, boundary layer, critical band, precessing sphere

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4 Resistive Instability in a Multi Ions Hall Thrusters Plasma

Authors: Sukhmander Singh


Hall thrusters are preferred over chemical thrusters because of its high exhaust velocity (around 10 times higher) and high specific impulse. The propellant Xenon is ionized inside the channel and controlled by the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is such that only electrons get magnetized and ions remain unmagnetized because of larger Larmor radius as compared with the length of the channel of the device. There is quite a possibility of the existence of multi ions in a Hall thruster plasma because of dust contribution or another process which take place in the chamber. In this paper, we have derived the dispersion relation for multi ions resistive instability in a hall plasma. The analytical approach is also used to find out the propagating speed and the growth rate of the instability. In addition, some growing waves are also found to exist in the plasma. The dispersion relation is solved numerically to see the behavior of the instability with the plasma parameters viz, the temperature of plasma species, wave number, drift velocity, collision frequency, magnetic field.

Keywords: Instability, waves, Thrusters, resisitive

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3 Insecurity, Instability and Lack of Benefits: Factors Reasonable for Poor Performance among “Contract Workers” in South Africa

Authors: Charmaine Devinee Pillay


Employees in both public and private sectors are expected to contribute significantly to the growth and development of the organization that employs them. Good working conditions are directly linked to the optimum output emanating from the workforce’s excellent performance. Insecurity, instability and lack of benefits negatively impact on the employees’ commitment to their job. This is a qualitative case study that comprised 40 “Contract Employees” (Academic and Supporting staff) in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Questionnaire, as instrument of data collection, was used to obtain qualitative data. Data collected were categorized in themes and sub-themes for analyses and discussion. Findings showed that “contract Employees” are highly demoralized due to job insecurity and non-benefits, among other factors, which directly affect their overall output in discharging their duties. The case study at Walter Sisulu University typifies the generalized challenges faced by workers on contract basis in South Africa. It is therefore, recommended that employers hire their workforce on permanent basis or, where “Contract Employment “is inevitable, similar conditions that go with permanent employment should be incorporated in the contract terms of “Contract Employees”. This serves as impetus for optimum performance.

Keywords: Instability, Risk Factors, insecurity, contract employee

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2 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh


Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: Instability, baffle, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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1 Between Order and Chaos: Politics and the Challenge of Peace in Mozambique

Authors: Edmilson Nhambe, Belisario Machaieie


Since the signing of the General Peace Agreement-GPA in 1992, Mozambique has seen successive setbacks in the search for effective peace, civil war, social conflicts, terrorism, and armed conflicts mix the reality of Mozambican democracy. The article seeks to understand the dynamics of conflict and peace in Mozambique. Specifically, it seeks to analyze the structural factors that lead to (violent) conflict situations and the factors that favor or promote peace. For this purpose, desk research was chosen to analyze studies of peace and conflict. This article develops the argument that the non-violation of the peace agreement, in particular the GPA in Rome, as it had a structuring effect on the Mozambican political system, no longer guarantees in itself the irreversibility of the pacification process. In fact, the country is currently stagnating in the category of a fragile peace process with the risk of slipping into a situation of war or open armed conflict.

Keywords: Instability, Peace, Conflict, GPA

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