Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

insomnia Related Abstracts

7 Audio-Visual Entrainment and Acupressure Therapy for Insomnia

Authors: Mariya Yeldhos, G. Hema, Sowmya Narayanan, L. Dhiviyalakshmi


Insomnia is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders worldwide. Some of the deficiencies of the current treatments of insomnia are: side effects in the case of sleeping pills and high costs in the case of psychotherapeutic treatment. In this paper, we propose a device which provides a combination of audio visual entrainment and acupressure based compression therapy for insomnia. This device provides drug-free treatment of insomnia through a user friendly and portable device that enables relaxation of brain and muscles, with certain advantages such as low cost, and wide accessibility to a large number of people. Tools adapted towards the treatment of insomnia: -Audio -Continuous exposure to binaural beats of a particular frequency of audible range -Visual -Flash of LED light -Acupressure points -GB-20 -GV-16 -B-10

Keywords: insomnia, acupressure, entrainment, audio-visual entrainment

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6 The Non-Motor Symptoms of Filipino Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul, Noel J. Belonguel, Cherrie Mae S. Sia


Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive, neurodegenerative disorder known for its motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscle rigidity, and postural instability. Patients with PD also experience non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances that are most of the time unrecognized by clinicians. This may be due to the lack of spontaneous reports from the patients or partly because of the lack of systematic questioning from the healthcare professional. There is limited data with regards to these NMS especially that of Filipino patients with PD. Objectives: This study aims to determine the non-motor symptoms of Filipino patients with Parkinson’s disease. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, cohort study involving thirty-four patients of Filipino-descent diagnosed with PD in three out-patient clinics in Cebu City from April to September 2014. Each patient was interviewed using the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS). A Cebuano version of the NMSS was also provided for the non-English speaking patients. Interview time was approximately ten to fifteen minutes for each respondent. Results: Of the thirty-four patients with Parkinson’s disease, majority was noted to be males (N=19) and the disease was noted to be more prevalent in patients with a mean age of 62 (SD±9) years old. Hypertension (59%) and diabetes mellitus (29%) were the common co-morbidities in the study population. All patients presented more than one NMS, with insomnia (41.2%), poor memory (23.5%) and depression (14.7%) being the first non-motor symptoms to occur. Symptoms involving mood/cognition (mean=2.21), and attention/memory (mean=2.05) were noted to be the most frequent and of moderate severity. Based on the NMSS, the symptoms that were noted to be mild and often to occur were those that involved the mood/cognition (score=3.84), attention/memory (score=3.50), and sleep/fatigue (score=3.00) domains. Levodopa-Carbidopa, Ropinirole, and Pramipexole were the most frequently used medications in the study population. Conclusion: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). They appear at the time of diagnosis of PD or even before the motor symptoms manifest. The earliest non-motor symptoms to occur are insomnia, poor memory, and depression. Those pertaining to mood/cognition and attention/memory are the most frequent NMS and they are of moderate severity. Identifying these NMS by doing a questionnaire-guided interview such as the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS) before they can become more severe and affect the patient’s quality of life is a must for every clinician caring for a PD patient. Early treatment and control of these NMS can then be given, hence, improving the patient’s outcome and prognosis.

Keywords: Depression, insomnia, parkinson's disease, non motor symptoms

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5 Correlation between Sleeping Disturbance and Academic Achievement in University Female Students

Authors: Amel Fayed, Shaden AlSubaih, Nouf Al-Qahtani, Asmaa Gosty, Asma Aljuhaimi


Introduction: Sleep difficulties are vastly predominant among adults and affect different aspects of their life. Many literatures found out that females are more liable to suffer from sleeping problems. College students are typical example of people dealing with daily pressure and stress to fulfill the daily tasks and responsibilities. In addition to their ultimate goal of achieving excellent academic records which require their full concentration and effort. Consequently, many of them start complaining of sleep deprivations which can undesirably affect their academic achievements. This study was aiming to investigate how prevalent is sleeping disorders among different colleges in the university and its relation their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study of female university students at Princess Norah Bint Abdulrahman University using self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess different grades of insomnia. Students were requested to answer the questions evaluating their sleeping habits over the last two weeks. Participants reported their latest Grade Point Average (GPA). According to ISI, insomnia severity is reported as ‘No clinically significant’, ‘Subthreshold ‘,’ Clinical moderate insomnia’ and ‘Clinical severe’. Results: In the current study, 228 students participated; 172(75.4%) from medical colleges and 56 (24.6%) from non-medical colleges. About 80% of them claimed to have never taken any medications to help them sleep while only three students confirmed their regular use of sleep-inducing medications. About 16% of the students drink milk or other hot drinks to help them fall asleep. None of the students was suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea or apparent psychiatric disorder. According to ISI, 182 (79.8%) students suffered from subthreshold insomnia, 37 (16.2%) had clinical insomnia (moderate severity) and 9 (3.9%) of students had sleeping problems of non-clinically significance level. However, none of students was found to have severe clinical insomnia. Clinical moderate insomnia was reported in 15.1% of medical students and 19.6% of non-medical students. Moreover, about 82% of medical students suffered from subthreshold insomnia compared to 73.2% of non-medical students. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.24). About 63% of medical students and 48% of non-medical students believed that high percentage of their colleagues are suffering from insomnias (p-value 0.08) The association between GPA and insomnia revealed that; 19.5% of low GPA group compared to 9.3% of high GPA group had clinical moderate insomnia. This association was not statistically significant (p=0.15). The correlation between the GPA and the ISI score was negative but not conclusive (r=-0.08, p-value = 0.29). More than 92% of all students agreed that sleeping problems affect their academic achievement to varying degrees. Conclusion: our results suggest that insomnia is commonly prevalent among female university students and might affect the students’ achievement. This study provides preliminary data about the quality of sleep among medical and non-medical university students which may be used to promote the healthy sleeping habits among female students.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, insomnia, females, university student

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4 Prevalence of Shift Work Disorders among Mongolian Nurses

Authors: Davaakhuu Vandannyam, Amarsaikhan Dashtseren, Oyungoo Badamdorj


Background: Shift work and extended working hours are increasing in many industries and organization's in the world. Over a 24 hour period, the circadian clock regulates sleep/wake patterns, body temperature, hormone levels, digestion and many other functions. Depending on the time of day or night, the human body is programmed for periods of wakefulness and sleep, high and low body temperature, high and low digestive activity and so on. Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Method: In this cross-sectional field study, 634 shift work and day work nurses from a plant were involved, with participation rate of 100% (634 nurses). The general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and RLS, ESS, ISI, FSS were used to evaluate the level of insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue and restless legs syndrome, respectively. Results: As a result of research on some indicators of health risks caused from work shift, it was proven that prevalence of restless legs syndrome was at 5.5% and 25.9% are in risk of becoming sick, 42.3% are in fatigue, 3.5% in high stage of insomnia and 27.4% are sleepy on duty. Insomnia of nurses mainly affected from long-hour shift, dissatisfaction, workload, lose of focus and use of coffee. There is sleepiness lies in the workplace due to number of shifts, unsatisfactory performance and emergency calls between shifts. It has been determined that risk of sickness influenced by number of shifts in a month and long hour shift, dissatisfaction and use of coffee and divisions are causing restless legs syndrome. Conclusions: Among the nurses, it was found that the prevalence of insomnia is 31.6%, sleepiness 27.4%, fatigue 42.3%, restless legs syndrome 35% and stress 25.9%. These factors of shift work affecting health tend to go up as working hours increase and more common among shift work nurses.

Keywords: insomnia, sleepiness, shiftwork, restless

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3 Insomnia and Depression in Outpatients of Dementia Center

Authors: Jun Hong Lee


Background: Many dementia patients complain insomnia and depressive mood, and hypnotics and antidepressants are being prescribed. As prevalence of dementia is increasing, insomnia and depressive mood are becoming more important. Objective: We evaluated insomnia and depression in outpatients of dementia center. Patients and Methods/Material and Methods: We reviewed medical records of the patients who visited outpatients clinic of NHIS Ilsan Hospital Dementia Center during 2016. Results: Total 716 patients are included; Subjective Memory Impairment (SMI) : 143 patients (20%), non-amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): single domain 70 (10%), multiple domain 34 (5%), amnestic MCI: single domain 74 (10%), multiple domain 159 (22%), Early onset Alzheimer´s disease (AD): 9 (1%), AD 121 (17%), Vascular dementia: 62 (9%), Mixed dementia 44 (6%). Hypnotics and antidepressants are prescribed as follows; SMI : hypnotics 14 patients (10%), antidepressants 27 (19%), non-amnestic MCI: single domain hypnotics 9 (13%), antidepressants 12 (17%), multiple domain hypnotics 4 (12%), antidepressants 6 (18%), amnestic MCI: single domain hypnotics 10 (14%), antidepressants 16 (22%), multiple domain hypnotics 22 (14%), antidepressants 24 (15%), Early onset Alzheimer´s disease (AD): hypnotics 1 (11%), antidepressants 2 (22%), AD: hypnotics 10 (8%), antidepressants 36 (30%), Vascular dementia: hypnotics 8 (13%), antidepressants 20 (32%), Mixed dementia: hypnotics 4 (9%), antidepressants 17 (39%). Conclusion: Among the outpatients of Dementia Center, MCI and SMI are majorities, and the number of MCI patients are almost half. Depression is more prevalent in AD, and Vascular dementia than MCI and SMI, and about 22% of patients are being prescribed by antidepressants and 11% by hypnotics.

Keywords: Depression, Dementia, Antidepressants, insomnia, Hypnotics

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2 Convolution Neural Network Based on Hypnogram of Sleep Stages to Predict Dosages and Types of Hypnotic Drugs for Insomnia

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Shin-Mei Hsu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Chi Wu, Dean Wu, Ru-Yin Yang


Background: The results of previous studies compared the benefits and risks of receiving insomnia medication. However, the effects between hypnotic drugs used and enhancement of sleep quality were still unclear. Objective: The aim of this study is to establish a prediction model for hypnotic drugs' dosage used for insomnia subjects and associated the relationship between sleep stage ratio change and drug types. Methodologies: According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline, sleep stages were classified and transformed to hypnogram via the polysomnography (PSG) in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The subjects with diagnosis for insomnia without receiving hypnotic drugs treatment were be set as the comparison group. Conversely, hypnotic drugs dosage within the past three months was obtained from the clinical registration for each subject. Furthermore, the collecting subjects were divided into two groups for training and testing. After training convolution neuron network (CNN) to predict types of hypnotics used and dosages are taken, the test group was used to evaluate the accuracy of classification. Results: We recruited 76 subjects in this study, who had been done PSG for transforming hypnogram from their sleep stages. The accuracy of dosages obtained from confusion matrix on the test group by CNN is 81.94%, and accuracy of hypnotic drug types used is 74.22%. Moreover, the subjects with high ratio of wake stage were correctly classified as requiring medical treatment. Conclusion: CNN with hypnogram was potentially used for adjusting the dosage of hypnotic drugs and providing subjects to pre-screening the types of hypnotic drugs taken.

Keywords: insomnia, Hypnotic Drugs, convolution neuron network, polysomnography

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1 Mental Health of Female Runners - Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Katalin Gocze, Gabriella Kiss, Zsuzsanna Gurdan, Krisztian Kvell, Attila Trabert


Introduction: On a worldwide scale running has become an increasingly popular leisure time activity during the past decade. Since the participation rate of women has risen significantly the aim of our study was to analyze the mental status, sleeping habits and the prevalence of depression among female runners. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis included the use of validated and globally used surveys for the comprehensive evaluation of insomnia (AIS), depression (BDI), exercise dependence (EDS) and exercise addiction (EAI). Recreational and amateur female runners participating at half-marathon events in Hungary were asked to take part in our pilot study. Results: Participants mean age was 42.03±9.03 years. The prevalence of imsomnia was 18.87%. 60.34% has worries regarding their weight and 43.1% think that they have an actual weight problem. 77.6% stated that their body weight has an influence on their mood. 2.7% displayed borderline clinical depression, the prevalence of mild mood disorders was 10.81%. 17.2% had previously problems with disordered eating. Participants had a mean total EDS score of 46.94±15.55 and a mean total of 13.49±3.80 on EAI. Component scores were the highest for tolerance (a need for increased amounts of exercise to achieve the desired effect or a diminished effect occurs with continued use of the same amount of exercise). Conclusion: Even tough running can help improve mental health, tackle depression and overcome adversity, athletes are at risk of experiencing psychological difficulties which have an impact on their physical perfomance as well. Further research can help initiate targeted educational and screening programs to ensure that female athletes find a path to emotional well-being.

Keywords: Running, Depression, insomnia, Exercise Dependence, Exercise Addiction, Eating Disorder

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