Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Insecticides Related Abstracts

3 Baseline Data for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Cole Crops

Authors: Balwinder Singh, Prabhjot Kaur, B.K. Kang

Abstract:

The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide. In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family. However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests. Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 (ppm) of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar>Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura in Punjab state, India.

Keywords: Toxicity, Resistance, Insecticides, Spodoptera litura

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2 Cytotoxicity thiamethoxam Study on the Hepatopancreas and Its Reversibility under the Effect of Ginger in Helix aspersa

Authors: Samira Bensoltane, Smina Ait Hamlet, Samti Meriem, Semmasel Asma

Abstract:

Living organisms in the soil are subject to regular fluctuations of abiotic parameters, as well as a chemical contamination of the environment due to human activities. They are subject to multiple stressors they face. The aim of our work was to study the effects of insecticide: thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid), and the potential reversibility of the effects by an antioxidant: ginger on a bioindicator species in ecotoxicology, the land snail Helix aspersa. The effects were studied by a targeted cell approach of evaluating the effect of these molecules on tissue and cellular aspect of hepatopancreas through histological study. Treatment with thiamethoxam concentrations 10, 20, and 40 mg/l shows signs of inflammation even at low concentrations and from the 5th day of treatment. Histological examination of the hepatopancreas of snails treated with thiamethoxam showed significant changes from the lowest concentrations tested , note intertubular connective tissue enlargement, necrosis deferent types of cells (cells with calcium , digestive, excretory) , also damage acini, alteration of the apical membrane and lysis of the basement membrane in a dose- dependent manner. After 10 days of treatment and with 40 mg/l, the same changes were observed with a very advanced degeneration of the wall of the member that could be confused with the cell debris. For cons, the histological study of the hepatopancreas in Helix aspersa treated with ginger for a period of 15 days after stopping treatment with thiamethoxam has shown a partial regeneration of hepatopancreatic tissue snails treated with all concentrations of thiamethoxam and especially in the intertubular connective tissue of the wall and hepatopancreatic digestive tubules. Finally, we can conclude that monitoring the effect of the insecticide thiamethoxam showed significant alterations, however, treatment with ginger shows regeneration of damaged cells themselves much sharper at low concentration (10 mg/L).

Keywords: Insecticides, helix aspersa, thiamethoxam, ginger, hepatopancreas

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1 Imidacloprid and Acetamiprid Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environments and Their Dietary Intake Assessment

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad

Abstract:

Assessment of insecticides used for growing vegetables in comparison with their safety status was the main purpose of this study. A total of 180 samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) comprising 30 samples of each vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala. The mean value for imidacloprid residues found in brinjal (0.226 mg kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad, showing excessive application of imidacloprid in Multan. Out of total 180 samples analysed for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, (90 samples for each of okra and brinjal), 104 (58%) and 117 (65%) samples contained detectable imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues, respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their respective MRLs for imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated according to their MPI values 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively. The dietary intake assessment data revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded the MRLs in studied areas but their consumption was found within safe limit in comparison to values obtained for MPI.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Insecticides, Vegetables, Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 184