Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

innovative approaches Related Abstracts

2 Advancing Urban Sustainability through the Integration of Planning Evaluation Methodologies

Authors: Natalie Rosales


Based on an ethical vision which recognizes the vital role of human rights, shared values, social responsibility and justice, and environmental ethics, planning may be interpreted as a process aimed at reducing inequalities and overcoming marginality. Seen from this sustainability perspective, planning evaluation must utilize critical-evaluative and narrative receptive models which assist different stakeholders in their understanding of urban fabric while trigger reflexive processes that catalyze wider transformations. In this paper, this approach servers as a guide for the evaluation of Mexico´s urban planning systems, and postulates a framework to better integrate sustainability notions into planning evaluation. The paper is introduced by an overview of the current debate on evaluation in urban planning. The state of art presented includes: the different perspectives and paradigms of planning evaluation and their fundamentals and scope, which have focused on three main aspects; goal attainment (did planning instruments do what they were supposed to?); performance and effectiveness of planning (retrospective analysis of planning process and policy analysis assessment); and the effects of process-considering decision problems and contexts rather than the techniques and methods. As well as, methodological innovations and improvements in planning evaluation. This comprehensive literature review provides the background to support the authors’ proposal for a set of general principles to evaluate urban planning, grounded on a sustainability perspective. In the second part the description of the shortcomings of the approaches to evaluate urban planning in Mexico set the basis for highlighting the need of regulatory and instrumental– but also explorative- and collaborative approaches. As a response to the inability of these isolated methods to capture planning complexity and strengthen the usefulness of evaluation process to improve the coherence and internal consistency of the planning practice itself. In the third section the general proposal to evaluate planning is described in its main aspects. It presents an innovative methodology for establishing a more holistic and integrated assessment which considers the interdependence between values, levels, roles and methods, and incorporates different stakeholders in the evaluation process. By doing so, this piece of work sheds light on how to advance urban sustainability through the integration of evaluation methodologies into planning.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Sustainability, evaluation methodologies, innovative approaches

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1 Analogy to Continental Divisions: An Attention-Grabbing Approach to Teach Taxonomic Hierarchy to Students

Authors: Sagheer Ahmad


Teaching is a sacred profession whereby students are developed in their mental abilities to cope with the challenges of the remote world. Thinkers have developed plenty of interesting ways to make the learning process quick and absorbing for the students. However, third world countries are still lacking these remote facilities in the institutions, and therefore, teaching is totally dependent upon the skills of the teachers. Skillful teachers use self-devised and stimulating ideas to grab the attention of their students. Most of the time their ideas are based on local grounds with which the students are already familiar. This self-explanatory characteristic is the base of several local ideologies to disseminate scientific knowledge to new generations. Biology is such a subject which largely bases upon hypotheses, and teaching it in an interesting way is needful to create a friendly relationship between teacher and student, and to make a fantastic learning environment. Taxonomic classification if presented as it is, may not be attractive for the secondary school students who just start learning about biology at elementary levels. Presenting this hierarchy by exemplifying Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, family, genus and Species as comparatives of our division into continents, countries, cities, towns, villages, homes and finally individuals could be an attention-grabbing approach to make this concept get into bones of students. Similarly, many other interesting approaches have also been adopted to teach students in a fascinating way so that learning science subjects may not be boring for them. Discussing these appealing ways of teaching students can be a valuable stimulus to refine teaching methodologies about science, thereby promoting the concept of friendly learning.

Keywords: Teaching, Biology, innovative approaches, taxonomic classification

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