Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Injury Related Abstracts

12 Cricket Injury Surveillence by Mobile Application Technology on Smartphones

Authors: Mariam Soomro, Najeebullah Soomro, Habib Noorbhai, Ross Sanders

Abstract:

The demands on cricketers are increasing with more matches being played in a shorter period of time with a greater intensity. A ten year report on injury incidence for Australian elite cricketers between the 2000- 2011 seasons revealed an injury incidence rate of 17.4%.1. In the 2009–10 season, 24 % of Australian fast bowlers missed matches through injury. 1 Injury rates are even higher in junior cricketers with an injury incidence of 25% or 2.9 injuries per 100 player hours reported. 2 Traditionally, injury surveillance has relied on the use of paper based forms or complex computer software. 3,4 This makes injury reporting laborious for the staff involved. The purpose of this presentation is to describe a smartphone based mobile application as a means of improving injury surveillance in cricket. Methods: The researchers developed CricPredict mobile App for the Android platforms, the world’s most widely used smartphone platform. It uses Qt SDK (Software Development Kit) as IDE (Integrated Development Environment). C++ was used as the programming language with the Qt framework, which provides us with cross-platform abilities that will allow this app to be ported to other operating systems (iOS, Mac, Windows) in the future. The wireframes (graphic user interface) were developed using Justinmind Prototyper Pro Edition Version (Ver. 6.1.0). CricPredict enables recording of injury and training status conveniently and immediately. When an injury is reported automated follow-up questions include site of injury, nature of injury, mechanism of injury, initial treatment, referral and action taken after injury. Direct communication with the player then enables assessment of severity and diagnosis. CricPredict also allows the coach to maintain and track each player’s attendance at matches and training session. Workload data can also be recorded by either the player or coach by recording the number of balls bowled or played in a day. This is helpful in formulating injury rates and time lost due to injuries. All the data are stored at a secured password protected data server. Outcomes and Significance: Use of CricPredit offers a simple, user friendly tool for the coaching or medical staff associated with teams to predict, record and report injuries. This system will assist teams to capture injury data with ease thus allowing better understanding of injuries associated with cricket and potentially optimize the performance of such cricketers.

Keywords: Mobile, Surveillance, smartphones, Injury, cricket

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11 Health Seeking Manners of Road Traffic Accident Victims: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Mohammad Mahbub Alam Talukder, Shahnewaz, Hasanat-E-Rabbi, Mohammed Nazrul Islam

Abstract:

Road traffic accident is a global problem which is severe in the developing countries like Bangladesh. In consequence, in developing countries road trauma has now been recognized as an increasing public health hazards and economic burning issue. And after road traffic accidents the lack of management and economic costs related with health seeking behavior have a disproportionate impact on lower income groups, thus contributing to the persistence of poverty in conjunction with disability. This cross sectional study, carried out during July 2012 to June 2013, aimed to explore health seeking decision and culture of handling the road traffic accident related victims, as taken from experiences of the poor disabled people of slum dwellers of Dhaka city. The present study has been designed based on qualitative techniques such as in-depth interview and case studies. Additionally, a survey questionnaire was used to collect the demographic characteristics of the study population (n=150) and to select participants purposely for in-depth interview (n=50) and case study (n=30). Content analysis of qualitative data was done through theme coding and matrix analysis of case study was done to use relevant verbatim. Most of the time the health seeking decision totally depended on the surrounded people of the accidental place, their knowledge, awareness and remaining facility and capacity regarding proper management of the victims. However, most of the cases the victims did not get any early treatment and it took 2-12 hours to get even the first aid because of distance, shortage of money, lack of availability of getting the aid, lack of mass awareness etc. Under the reality of discriminated and unaffordable health service provision better treatment could not turn out due to economic inability of the poor victims. To avoid the severe trauma, treatment delay must be reduced by providing first aid within very short time and to do so, mass awareness campaign is necessary for handing the victims. Moreover, necessary measures should be taken to ensure cost free health service provision to treat the chronic disabled condition of the road traffic accident related poor victims.

Keywords: Qualitative, Injury, slum, accident, disabled

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10 Attitude, Practice, and Prevalence of Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Lagos State

Authors: O. J. Makinde, O. A. Abiola

Abstract:

Background: Hazards and injuries are two common phenomena that have been associated with the building construction profession. Apart from injuries, deaths from injuries sustained at work have been high in this profession. This study, therefore, attempts to determine the attitude, practice, and prevalence of injuries among this group of workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 285 respondents. The sampling was multi-staged. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit information such as socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, attitude and practice of occupational safety and prevalence of injuries among the workers. The data were analyzed using epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software. Result: The modal age group is 25-34yrs which made up 40% of the respondents. Most of the respondents were male (86.3%). Most of the respondent (52.3%) have their highest educational level as the secondary school. Most of the respondents (64.9%) had a poor attitude to occupational safety while 91.6% had poor occupational safety practices. The prevalence of occupational injury was very high (64.9%). Particles in the eyes have the highest prevalence (52.3%) while electric shock has the least prevalence (19.6%).None of the respondent working at a height used safety belt while working. Conclusion: Attitude and practice of occupational safety are poor among this group of workers and prevalence of injuries was high.

Keywords: Construction, Building, Injury, Workers, Hazard

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9 Accidents Involving Pedestrians Walking along with/against Traffic: An Evaluation of Crash Characteristics and Injuries

Authors: Chih-Wei Pai, Rong-Chang Jou

Abstract:

Using A1 A2 police-reported accident data for years 2003–2010 in Taiwan, the paper examines anatomic injuries and crash characteristics specific to pedestrians in “facing traffic” and “back to traffic” crashes. There were 2768 and 7558 accidents involving pedestrians walking along with/against traffic respectively. Injuries sustained by pedestrians and crash characteristics in these two crash types were compared with those in other crash types (nearside crash, nearside dart-out crash, offside crash, offside dart-out crash). Main findings include that “back to traffic” crashes resulted in more severe injuries, and pedestrians in “back to traffic” crashes had increased head, neck, and spine injuries than those in other crash types; and there was an elevated risk of head injuries in unlit darkness and NBU (non-built-up) roadways. Several crash features (e.g. unlit darkness, overtaking maneuvers, phone use by pedestrians and drivers, intoxicated drivers) appear to be over-involved in “back to traffic” crashes. The implications of the research findings regarding pedestrian/driver education, enforcement, and remedial engineering design are discussed.

Keywords: Injury, pedestrian accident, crash characteristics, facing traffic, back to traffic

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8 Illness Representations of Injury: A Comparison of Patients and Their Primary Caregivers

Authors: Bih-O Lee, Hsiu-Wan Hsieh, Hsiu-Chen Liu, Mer Yu Pan

Abstract:

Background: Illness perceptions are developed when people face health-threatening situations. Previous research suggests that understanding discrepancies between illness perceptions of patients and caregivers may need to improve quality of health care. Objective: This study examined the differences between illness perceptions of injured patients and those of their caregivers. Methods: Comparative study design was used. The study setting was the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Participants were 127 pairs of injured patients and their caregivers. The participants completed socio-demographic data and completed the Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised-Trauma, which comprises eight subscales. Clinical data of the injured patients was obtained from medical records. Results: This study found that injured patients were more pessimistic than their caregivers about the injury. There were significant differences between patients and caregivers insofar as patients perceived more physical symptoms, scored higher in terms of reasons for their injury, had more negative emotions and experienced more consequences than caregivers. Elderly caregivers and caregivers for patients who were over 65, severely injured and admitted to an ICU perceived more negative perceptions about the injury. Conclusions: This study indicated that patients and caregivers had negative illness representations several months after injury although the intensity of their perceptions was different. The interventions should highlight the need to assist patients and caregivers after injury.

Keywords: Injury, comparative study, illness representations, caregivers

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7 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

Abstract:

The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: Injury, pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance

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6 The Extent of Proliferation, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis at the Site of Injury Determine the Course of Healing Either as Scar Free or as Scarred One in the Appendages of Lizard

Authors: Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Suresh Balakrishnan

Abstract:

It has been observed that in lizards wound can be healed by either a scar free mechanism or by scarring. The animal model used to study both these healing processes was Northern House Gecko. In lizard, the tail when amputated heals by scar free mechanism which allows it to regenerate, the same is not seen when the limb is amputated. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis are the main events which succeed an injury. We observed that proliferation of the cells beneath the wound epidermis was much higher in case of wound healing in tail. This could be because after the wound gets covered by the epithelium, it enters in to a cross-talk with the underlying mesenchyme to recruit a pool of blastemal cells which proliferate and later differentiate to form the lost part through epimorphic regeneration. This was substantiated by mRNA expression levels of various FGFs which facilitate the cross-talk and also by PCNA which is a marker for proliferation. Western blot result reaffirms the same notion. However, in case of the limb, the rate of apoptosis was more than proliferation as there are a lot of debris that needs to be removed. We came to this conclusion as we observed that p53 the apoptotic gene was highly upregulated in case of the scarred tissue. Further, we confirmed this result by checking the anti-apoptotic gene bcl2 and found it to be significantly down-regulated. As we noticed heightened proliferation in the case of scar-free wound healing in tail, angiogenesis was targeted for the study. This is because, when the cells are proliferating they require constant supply of blood and hence neo-vascularization is inevitable. It was observed that the marker of angiogenesis, VEGF, was expressed more during wound healing as compared to the resting stage of tail. Moreover, a high up-regulation was seen in KDR, a receptor of VEGF. Thus, this study reveals how proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a key role in the scar-free as well as scarred wound healing.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Injury, epimorphic regeneration, northern house gecko

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5 Visual and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Corneal Lacerations

Authors: Avantika Verma

Abstract:

In industrialized nations, corneal lacerations are one of the most common reason for hospitalization. This study was designed to study visual and clinical outcome in patients presenting with full thickness corneal lacerations in Indian population and to ascertain the impact of various preoperative and operative factors influencing prognosis after repair of corneal lacerations. Males in third decade with injuries at work with metallic objects were common. Lens damage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis were seen. All the patients underwent primary repair within first 24 hours of presentation. At 3 months, 74.3% had a good visual outcome. About 5.7% of patients had no perception of light.In conclusion, various demographic and preoperative factors like age, time of presentation, vision at presentation, length of corneal wound, involvement of visual axis, associated ocular features like hyphaema, lenticular changes, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment are significant prognostic indicators for final visual outcome.

Keywords: Injury, corneal laceration, corneal wound repair, visual outcome

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4 Sensitivity and Specificity of Clinical Testing for Digital Nerve Injury

Authors: Guy Rubin, Ravit Shay, Nimrod Rozen

Abstract:

The accuracy of a diagnostic test used to classify a patient as having disease or being disease-free is a valuable piece of information to be used by the physician when making treatment decisions. Finger laceration, suspected to have nerve injury is a challenging decision for the treating surgeon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of six clinical tests in the diagnosis of digital nerve injury. The six clinical tests included light touch, pin prick, static and dynamic 2-point discrimination, Semmes Weinstein monofilament and wrinkle test. Data comparing pre-surgery examination with post-surgery results of 42 patients with 52 digital nerve injury was evaluated. The subjective examinations, light touch, pin prick, static and dynamic 2-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament were not sensitive (57.6, 69.7, 42.4, 40 and 66.8% respectively) and specific (36.8, 36.8, 47.4, 42.1 and 31.6% respectively). Wrinkle test, the only objective examination, was the most sensitive (78.1%) and specific (55.6%). This result gives no pre-operative examination the ability to predict the result of explorative surgery.

Keywords: Injury, Sensitivity, specificity, digital nerve, nerve examination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilamen, two point discrimination, wrinkle test

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3 An Unexpected Hand Injury with Pluridigital Fractures Due to Premature Explosion of a Ramadan Cannon

Authors: Hakan Akgul

Abstract:

Purpose: The use of firecrackers (i.e., Ramadan Cannon) during the month of Ramadan is a traditional way of indicating that the fasting period is over in Muslim countries. Here, we report the rehabilitation of a case of hand injury with pluridigital fractures due to premature explosion of a Ramadan cannon. Materials and Methods: A 48-year old man admitted to the Emergency Department due to left hand injury as a result of a premature explosion of a Ramadan cannon. The patient was immediately taken to operation room because of the multiple fractures, tendon loss, and soft tissue loss in the left hand. Range of motion (ROM) of joints was measured with goniometer, pain and oedema were measured and splinting was performed. Results: Rehabilitation team took over the patient at postoperative 9th week. During the 3 month rehabilitation, range of motion increased, oedema was taken under control, pain was reduced, the colour of the skin turned to the normal tone. According to the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9 to 4. Oedema, around the metacarpofalangeal (MCP) joints, decreased from 27,5 cm to 23,5 cm. Total active range of motion of the wrist increased from 5 degrees to 50 degrees.Total active range of motion of supination and pronation increased from 55 degrees to 70 degrees. Discussion: The rehabilitation of multiple hand injury is quite difficult. Different aspects of trauma should be taken into consideration when rehabilitation is planned. Factors such as waiting for the bone union, wound healing, and use of external fixators may delay rehabilitation process. Joint mobilization, massage for reducing oedema and preventing scar tissue, exercise within the range of motion are efficient measures. Poor patient compliance to treatment may lead to poor outcome. First of all, oedema and scar formation must be taken under control. Removing fixators should not be delayed depending on the bone union, and exercise within the range of motion should be started.

Keywords: fracture, Injury, explosion, hand

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2 The Severity of Electric Bicycle Injuries Compared to Classic Bicycle Injuries in Children: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Tali Capua, Karin Hermon, Miguel Glatstein, Oren Tavor, Ayelet Rimon

Abstract:

Background: Electric bicycles (E-bikes) are one of a wide range of light electric vehicles that provide convenient local transportation and attractive recreational opportunities. Along with their growing use worldwide, the E-bike related injury rate increases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to specifically compare E-bike with classic bicycle related injuries in children. Methods: Data of all pediatric ( < 16 years of age) bicycle related injuries presenting to an urban level I trauma center between 2014 and 2015 were collected and analyzed. The recorded data included age, gender, details of the accident, as well severity of injury, medical diagnosis, and the outcome. Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were calculated for each patient. Data of E-bike related injuries and classic bicycle were then compared. Results: A total of 124 bicycle related injuries and 97 E-bike related injuries presented to the emergency department. Once pedestrians and bicycle passengers were removed, the groups of riders consisted of 111 bikers and 85 E-bikers. The mean age of bikers was 9.9 years (range 3-16 years) and of E-bikers was 13.7 years (range 7.5-16 years). Injuries to the head and the extremities were common in both groups. Compared to bikers, E-bikers had significantly more injuries to intra-abdominal organs (p = 0.04). Twenty patients (16%) with bicycle related injuries were admitted, and 13 (15%) patients with E-bike related injuries, of the latter group four underwent surgical intervention. ISS scores were low overall, but the injuries of higher severity (ISS > 9) were among the E-bikers. Conclusions: This study provides unique information which suggests that injuries in E-bikers tend to be more severe than in classic bikers. There is a need for regulation regarding the use of E-bikes to enhance the safety of both bikers and other road and pavement users.

Keywords: Trauma, Pediatric, Injury, bicycle, electric bicycle

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1 The Musician as the Athlete: Psychological Response to Injury

Authors: Shulamit Sternin

Abstract:

Athletes experience injuries that can have both a physical and psychological impact on the individual. In such instances, athletes are able to rely on the established field of sports psychology to facilitate holistic rehabilitation. Musicians, like athletes rely on their bodies to perform in much the same way athletes do and are also susceptible to injury. Due to the similar performative nature of succeeding as an athletes or a musician, these careers share many of the same primary psychological concerns and therefore it is reasonable that athletes and musicians may require similar rehabilitation post-injury. However, musicians face their own unique psychological challenges and understanding the needs of an injured athlete can serve as a foundation for understanding the injured musician but is not enough to fully rehabilitate an injured musician. The current research surrounding musicians and their injuries is primarily focused on physiological aspects of injury and rehabilitation; the psychological aspects have not yet received adequate attention resulting in poor musician rehabilitation post- injury. This review paper uses current models of psychological response to injury in athletes to draw parallels with the psychological response to injury in musicians. Search engines such as Medline and PsycInfo were systematically searched using specific key words, such as psychological response, injury, athlete, and musician. Studies that focused on post-injury psychology of either the musician or the athlete were included. Within the literature there is evidence to support psychological responses, unique to the musician, that are not accounted for by current models of response in athletes. The models of psychological response to injury in athletes are inadequate tools for application to the musician. Future directions for performance arts research that can fill the gaps in our understanding and modeling of musicians’ response to injury are discussed. A better understanding of the psychological impact of injuries on musicians holds significant implications for health care practitioners working with injured musicians. Understanding the unique barriers musicians face post-injury, and how support for this population must be tailored to properly suit musicians’ needs will aid in more holistic rehabilitation and a higher likelihood of musician’s returning to pre-injury performance levels.

Keywords: Injury, athlete, musician, psychological response

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