Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

injection molding Related Abstracts

11 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: tensile test, injection molding, melt viscosity, pressure sensor bushing (PSB)

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10 Effect of Temperature Condition in Extracting Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Polypropylene Reinforced by Recycled Carbon Fibers

Authors: Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Shota Nagata

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the proper condition in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of composite molded by injection method. Recycled carbon fibers were extracted from wasted CFRP by pyrolyzing epoxy matrix of CFRP under air atmosphere at different temperature conditions 400, 600 and 800°C in this study. Recycled carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene (RCF/PP) pellets were prepared using twin screw extruder. The RCF/PP specimens were molded into dumbbell shaped specimens using injection molding machine. The tensile strength of recycled carbon fiber was decreased with rising pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 800°C. However, superior mechanical properties of tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture strain of RCF/PP specimen were obtained when the extracting temperature was 600°C. Almost fibers in RCF/PP specimens were aligned in the mold filling direction in this study when the extracting temperature was 600°C. To discuss the results, the failure mechanisms of RCF/PP specimens was shown schematically. Finally, it was concluded that the temperature condition at 600°C should be selected in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of RCF/PP composite molded by injection method.

Keywords: Fiber Orientation, Mechanical Properties, Failure Mechanism, injection molding, CFRP, recycled carbon fiber

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9 Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Chien-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.

Keywords: monitoring, injection molding, melt viscosity, shear rate

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8 Experimental Study on Tensile Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Injected Composites

Authors: A. M. Fattahi, Armin Najipour

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM:D638 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels on the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving tensile strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the tensile strength 23.4%,elastic modulus 60.4%and elongation 29.7% of the samples improved. Also, according to the results, Manera approximation model at percentages about 0.5% weight and modified Halpin-Tsai at percentages about 1% weight lead to favorite and reliable results.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Mechanical Properties, Polyethylene, Carbon Nanotube, injection molding

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7 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: A. M. Fattahi, Armin Najipour

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Mechanical Properties, Polyethylene, Carbon Nanotube, injection molding

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6 The Analysis of Defects Prediction in Injection Molding

Authors: Kazem Abhary, Mehdi Moayyedian, Romeo Marian

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation of a plastic defect in injection molding before it occurs in the process; it is known as the short shot defect. The evaluation of different parameters which affect the possibility of short shot defect is the aim of this paper. The analysis of short shot possibility is conducted via SolidWorks Plastics and Taguchi method to determine the most significant parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed to analyze two circular flat polypropylene plates of 1 mm thickness. Filling time, part cooling time, pressure holding time, melt temperature and gate type are chosen as process and geometric parameters, respectively. A methodology is presented herein to predict the possibility of the short-shot occurrence. The analysis determined melt temperature is the most influential parameter affecting the possibility of short shot defect with a contribution of 74.25%, and filling time with a contribution of 22%, followed by gate type with a contribution of 3.69%. It was also determined the optimum level of each parameter leading to a reduction in the possibility of short shot are gate type at level 1, filling time at level 3 and melt temperature at level 3. Finally, the most significant parameters affecting the possibility of short shot were determined to be melt temperature, filling time, and gate type.

Keywords: Taguchi method, injection molding, plastic defects, short shot

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5 Reduction of Residual Stress by Variothermal Processing and Validation via Birefringence Measurement Technique on Injection Molded Polycarbonate Samples

Authors: Kay André Weidenmann, Peter Elsner, Christoph Lohr, Hanna Wund

Abstract:

Injection molding is one of the most commonly used techniques in the industrial polymer processing. In the conventional process of injection molding, the liquid polymer is injected into the cavity of the mold, where the polymer directly starts hardening at the cooled walls. To compensate the shrinkage, which is caused predominantly by the immediate cooling, holding pressure is applied. Through that whole process, residual stresses are produced by the temperature difference of the polymer melt and the injection mold and the relocation of the polymer chains, which were oriented by the high process pressures and injection speeds. These residual stresses often weaken or change the structural behavior of the parts or lead to deformation of components. One solution to reduce the residual stresses is the use of variothermal processing. Hereby the mold is heated – i.e. near/over the glass transition temperature of the polymer – the polymer is injected and before opening the mold and ejecting the part the mold is cooled. For the next cycle, the mold gets heated again and the procedure repeats. The rapid heating and cooling of the mold are realized indirectly by convection of heated and cooled liquid (here: water) which is pumped through fluid channels underneath the mold surface. In this paper, the influences of variothermal processing on the residual stresses are analyzed with samples in a larger scale (500 mm x 250 mm x 4 mm). In addition, the influence on functional elements, such as abrupt changes in wall thickness, bosses, and ribs, on the residual stress is examined. Therefore the polycarbonate samples are produced by variothermal and isothermal processing. The melt is injected into a heated mold, which has in our case a temperature varying between 70 °C and 160 °C. After the filling of the cavity, the closed mold is cooled down varying from 70 °C to 100 °C. The pressure and temperature inside the mold are monitored and evaluated with cavity sensors. The residual stresses of the produced samples are illustrated by birefringence where the effect on the refractive index on the polymer under stress is used. The colorful spectrum can be uncovered by placing the sample between a polarized light source and a second polarization filter. To show the achievement and processing effects on the reduction of residual stress the birefringence images of the isothermal and variothermal produced samples are compared and evaluated. In this comparison to the variothermal produced samples have a lower amount of maxima of each color spectrum than the isothermal produced samples, which concludes that the residual stress of the variothermal produced samples is lower.

Keywords: Residual Stress, injection molding, birefringence, polycarbonate, variothermal processing

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4 Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Ricky N. Joevan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. This system not only provides a way to compare the file version, but also it utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll), and then, the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. By this way, the system can help the user to download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.

Keywords: CAD, injection molding, data retrieval, mold base

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3 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Sky Chou

Abstract:

This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: Six Sigma, shrinkage, Taguchi parameter design, injection molding

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2 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Feng Xu, Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Ninggui Huang

Abstract:

In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: Selective Laser Melting, injection molding, cooling performance, conformal cooling channels

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1 Normally Closed Thermoplastic Microfluidic Valves with Microstructured Valve Seats: A Strategy to Avoid Permanently Bonded Valves during Channel Sealing

Authors: Kebin Li, Keith Morton, Matthew Shiu, Karine Turcotte, Luke Lukic, Teodor Veres

Abstract:

We present a normally closed thermoplastic microfluidic valve design that uses microstructured valve seats to locally prevent the membrane from bonding to the valve seat during microfluidic channel sealing. The microstructured valve seat reduces the adhesion force between the contact surfaces of the valve seat and the membrane locally, allowing valve open and close operations while simultaneously providing a permanent and robust bond elsewhere to cover and seal the microfluidic channel network. Dynamic valve operation including opening and closing times can be tuned by changing the valve seat diameter as well as the density of the microstructures on the valve seats. The influence of the microstructured valve seat on the general flow behavior through the microfluidic devices was also studied. A design window for the fabrication of valve structure is identified and discussed to minimize the fabrication complexity.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Microfabrication, Thermoplastic Elastomer, injection molding, hot-embossing, microvalves

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