Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

inhibitor Related Abstracts

10 Optical Properties of Tetrahydrofuran Clathrate Hydrates at Terahertz Frequencies

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to observe the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different average molecular weights (10,000 g/mol, 40,000 g/mol, 360,000 g/mol). Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4 - 2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and complex refractive indices are obtained and compared in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: terahertz, clathrate hydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), THz-TDS, inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
9 Phase Transition of Aqueous Ternary (THF + Polyvinylpyrrolidone + H2O) System as Revealed by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

Determination of the behavior of clathrate hydrate with inhibitor in the THz region will provide useful information about hydrate plug control in the upstream of the oil and gas industry. In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) revealed the inhibition of the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different molecular weights. Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4–2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and real part of refractive indices are obtained in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.

Keywords: Terahertz spectroscopy, tetrahydrofuran, clathrate hydrate, inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
8 Investigation of Corrosion Inhibition Potential of Acalypha chamaedrifolia Leaves Extract towards Mild Steel in Acid Medium

Authors: Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Zaharaddeen Nasiru Garba, Sani Shamsudeen, David Ebuka Authur

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium using Acalypha chamaedrifolia leaves extract as potential green inhibitor was investigated. Gravimetric (weight loss) technique was used for the corrosion studies. Mild steel coupons of 2cm × 1cm × 0.27 cm dimensions were exposed for varying durations of between 24 to 120 hours, in 1M HCl medium containing a varying concentrations of the leaves extract (0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L). The results show that corrosion rates dropped from a value of 0.49 mgcm-2hr-1 for the uninhibited medium to a value of 0.15 mgcm-2hr-1 for the inhibited medium of 1M HCl in 0.25 g/l of the extract. Values of corrosion inhibition efficiencies of 70.38-85.11% were observed as the concentration of the inhibitor were increased from 0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L. Corrosion Inhibition was found to increase with increase in immersion time and temperature. The magnitude of the Ea indicates that the interaction between the metal surface and the inhibitor was chemisorptions. The Adsorption process fit into the Langmuir isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Evidence from molecular dynamics model shows that Methyl stearate (Line 5) and (3Z, 13Z)-2-methyloctadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (line 11) were found to have the highest binding energy of -197.69 ± 3.12 and-194.56 ± 10.04 in kcal/mol respectively. The binding energy of these compounds indicates that they would be a very good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel and other Fe related materials.

Keywords: Corrosion, Binding Energy, mild steel, langmuir isotherm, inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
7 Studies on Mechanisms of Corrosion Inhibition of Acalypha chamaedrifolia Leaves Extract towards Mild Steel in Acid Medium

Authors: Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Zaharaddeen Nasiru Garba, Sani Shamsudeen, David Ebuka Authur

Abstract:

The mechanisms of corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium using Acalypha chamaedrifolia leaves extract as potential green inhibitor were investigated. Gravimetric (weight loss) technique was used for the corrosion studies. Mild steel coupons of 2cm × 1cm × 0.27 cm dimensions were exposed for varying durations of between 24 to 120 hours, in 1M HCl medium containing a varying concentrations of the leaves extract (0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L). The results show that corrosion rates dropped from a value of 0.49 mgcm-2hr-1 for the uninhibited medium to a value of 0.15 mgcm-2hr-1 for the inhibited medium of 1M HCl in 0.25 g/l of the extract. Values of corrosion inhibition efficiencies of 70.38-85.11% were observed as the concentration of the inhibitor were increased from 0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L. Corrosion Inhibition was found to increase with increase in immersion time and temperature. The magnitude of the Ea indicates that the interaction between the metal surface and the inhibitor was chemisorptions. The Adsorption process fit into the Langmuir isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Evidence from molecular dynamics model shows that Methyl stearate (Line 5) and (3Z, 13Z)-2-methyloctadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (line 11) were found to have the highest binding energy of -197.69 ± 3.12 and-194.56 ± 10.04 in kcal/mol respectively. The binding energy of these compounds indicates that they would be a very good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel and other Fe related materials.

Keywords: Corrosion, Binding Energy, mild steel, langmuir isotherm, inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6 The Utilization of Salicylic Acid of the Extract from Avocado Skin as an Inhibitor of Ethylene Production to Keep the Quality of Banana in Storage

Authors: Adira Nofeadri Ryofi, Alvin Andrianus, Anna Khairunnisa, Anugrah Cahyo Widodo, Arbhyando Tri Putrananda, Arsy Imanda N. Raswati, Gita Rahmaningsih, Ina Agustina

Abstract:

The consumption level of fresh bananas from 2005 until 2010, increased from 8.2 to 10 kg/capita/year. The commercial scale of banana generally harvested when it still green to make the banana avoid physical damage, chemical, and disease after harvest and ripe fruit. That first metabolism activity can be used as a synthesis reaction. Ripening fruit was influenced by ethylene hormone that synthesized in fruit which is experiencing ripe and including hormone in the ripening fruit process in klimaterik phase. This ethylene hormone is affected by the respiration level that would speed up the restructuring of carbohydrates inside the fruit, so the weighting of fruit will be decreased. Compared to other klimaterik fruit, banana is a fruit that has a medium ethylene production rate and the rate of respiration is low. The salicylic acid can regulate the result number of the growth process or the development of fruits and plants. Salicylic acid serves to hinder biosynthesis ethylene and delay senses. The research aims to understand the influence of salicylic acid concentration that derived from the waste of avocado skin in inhibition process to ethylene production that the maturation can be controlled, so it can keep the quality of banana for storage. It is also to increase the potential value of the waste of avocado skin that were still used in industrial cosmetics.

Keywords: salicylic acid, inhibitor, ethylene hormone, extract avocado skin

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
5 Inhibition of α-Glucosidase and Xanthine Oxidase by Curcumin and Its Analogs

Authors: Jung-Feng Hsieh, Chu Ze Chen

Abstract:

Curcumin is the main active compound of turmeric that can inhibit the activities of α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase (XO). α-Glucosidase and XO inhibitors are widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus and gout, respectively; therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the inhibitory activities of curcumin and its analogs against α-glucosidase and XO. Our results demonstrated that CM-F had the strongest antioxidant activity with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 9.39 ± 0.16 μM, which was superior to vitamin E (EC50=17.03 ± 0.09 μM). CM-F also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against XO with an IC50 value of 6.14 ± 0.38 μM and enzyme kinetic results revealed competitive inhibition of XO. We also found that CM-1 and CM-2 inhibited α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 21.06 ± 0.92 μM and 5.95 ± 0.09 μM, respectively, and kinetic studies indicated that both CM-1 and CM-2 are mixed competitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Furthermore, docking simulation identified five hydrogen bonds between XO and CM-F; however, only one and two hydrogen bonds are involved in CM-1 and CM-2 binding to α-glucosidase, respectively. Accordingly, curcumin and its analogs have the potential to be used in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and gout.

Keywords: Curcumin, α-glucosidase, inhibitor, xanthine oxidase

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
4 Identification and Characterization of Inhibitors of Epoxide Hydrolase from Trichoderma reesei

Authors: Gabriel S. De Oliveira, Patricia P. Adriani, Christophe Moriseau, Bruce D. Hammock, Felipe S. Chambergo

Abstract:

Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that are present in all living organisms and catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. EHs have high biotechnological interest for the drug design and chemistry transformation for industries. In this study, we describe the identification of substrates and inhibitors of epoxide hydrolase enzyme from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (TrEH), and these inhibitors showed the fungal growth inhibitory activity. We have used the cloned enzyme and expressed in E. coli to develop the screening in the library of fluorescent substrates with the objective of finding the best substrate to be used in the identification of good inhibitors for the enzyme TrEH. The substrate (3-phenyloxiranyl)-acetic acid cyano-(6-methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-methyl ester showed the highest specific activity and was chosen for the next steps of the study. The inhibitors screening was performed in the library with more than three thousand molecules and we could identify the 6 best inhibitors. The IC50 of these molecules were determined in nM and all the best inhibitors have urea or amide in their structure, because It has been recognized that these groups fit well in the hydrolase catalytic pocket of the epoxide hydrolases. Then the growth of T. reesei in PDA medium containing these TrEH inhibitors was tested, and fungal growth inhibition activity was demonstrated with more than 60% of inhibition of fungus growth in the assay with the TrEH inhibitor with the lowest IC50. Understanding how this EH enzyme from T. reesei responds to inhibitors may contribute for the study of fungal metabolism and drug design against pathogenic fungi.

Keywords: inhibitor, epoxide hydrolases, fungal growth inhibition, Trichoderma reesei

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3 Investigation of the Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism of Tagetes erecta Extract for Mild Steel in Nitric Acid: Gravimetric Studies

Authors: Selvam Noyel Victoria, Kavita Yadav, Manivannan Ramachandran

Abstract:

The extract of Tagetes erecta (marigold flower) was used as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (MS) in nitric acid medium. The weight loss measurements were performed to understand the inhibition mechanism. The effect of temperature on the behaviour of mild steel corrosion without and with inhibitor was studied. The temperature studies revealed that the activation energy increased from 12 kJ/mol to 28.8 kJ/mol with the addition of 500 ppm inhibitor concentration. The thermodynamic analysis and the adsorption isotherm studies revealed that the molecules of inhibitor show physical adsorption on the surface of mild steel. Based on weight loss measurements, adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel follows Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: Corrosion, Adsorption, inhibitor, Tagetes erecta

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2 Determination of the Inhibitory Effects of N-Methylpyrrole Derivatives on Glutathione Reductase Enzyme

Authors: Esma Kocaoglu, Oktay Talaz, Huseyin Cavdar, Murat Senturk, Deniz Eki̇nci̇

Abstract:

Glutathione reductase (GR) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme which is responsible for the maintenance of the antioxidant GSH (glutathione) molecule. Antimalarial effects of some chemical molecules are attributed to their inhibition of GR; thus inhibitors of this enzyme are expected to be promising candidates for the treatment of malaria. In this work, GR inhibitory properties of N-Methylpyrrole derivatives are reported. Firstly, GR was purified by means of affinity chromatography using 2’,5’-ADP-Sepharose 4B as ligand. Enzymatic activity was measured by Beutler’s method. Synthesis of the compounds was approved by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Different inhibitor concentrations were used and all compounds were tested in triplicate at each concentration used. It was found that all compounds have better inhibitory activity than the strong GR inhibitor N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, especially three molecules, 8m, 8n, and 8q, are the best among them with low micromolar I₅₀ values. Findings of our study indicate that these Schiff base derivatives are strong GR inhibitors which can be used as leads for designation of novel antimalaria candidates.

Keywords: enzyme, glutathione reductase, inhibitor, antimalaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1 Analysis of Some Produced Inhibitors for Corrosion of J55 Steel in NaCl Solution Saturated with CO₂

Authors: Ambrish Singh

Abstract:

The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran (AP) and benzimidazole (BI) derivatives on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ was investigated by electrochemical, weight loss, surface characterization, and theoretical studies. The electrochemical studies included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and electrochemical frequency modulation trend (EFMT). Surface characterization was done using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) studies were done using Gaussian and Materials Studio softwares. All the studies suggested the good inhibition by the synthesized inhibitors on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ due to the formation of a protective film on the surface. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface.

Keywords: Corrosion, dft, AFM, EFM, inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 1