Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Information and Communication Technologies Related Abstracts

16 Examining the Perceived Usefulness of ICTs for Learning about Indigenous Foods

Authors: Seraphin D. Eyono Obono, Khumbuzile M. Ngcobo

Abstract:

Science and technology has a major impact on many societal domains such as communication, medicine, food, transportation, etc. However, this dominance of modern technology can have a negative unintended impact on indigenous systems, and in particular on indigenous foods. This problem serves as a motivation to this study whose aim is to examine the perceptions of learners on the usefulness of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT's) for learning about indigenous foods. This aim will be subdivided into two types of research objectives. The design and identification of theories and models will be achieved using literature content analysis. The objective on the empirical testing of such theories and models will be achieved through the survey of Hospitality studies learners from different schools in the iLembe and Umgungundlovu Districts of the South African Kwazulu-Natal province. SPSS is used to quantitatively analyse the data collected by the questionnaire of this survey using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations after the assessment of the validity and the reliability of the data. The main hypothesis behind this study is that there is a connection between the demographics of learners, their perceptions on the usefulness of ICTs for learning about indigenous foods and the following personality an e-learning related theories constructs: computer self-efficacy, trust in ICT systems, and conscientiousness; as suggested by existing studies on learning theories. This hypothesis was fully confirmed by the survey conducted by this study except for the demographic factors where gender and age were not found to be determinant factors of learners’ perceptions on the usefulness of ICT's for learning about indigenous foods.

Keywords: e-Learning, Learning theories, Personality, Information and Communication Technologies, indigenous foods

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15 Technology Enabled Bullying and Adolescent Reporting Response Behaviours

Authors: Regina Connolly, Justin Connolly

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Despite the benefits which they confer, Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) also have the potential to be used negatively. This paper focuses on one of those negative social effects - adolescent cyberbullying. Although early research in this field has pointed to the fact that the successful intervention and resolution of bullying incidents is to a large degree dependent on such incidents being reported to an adult caregiver, the literature consistently shows that adolescents who have been bullied tend not to inform others of their experiences. However, the reasons underlying such reluctance to seek adult intervention remain undetermined. Similarly, the degree to which gender, age or other variables apply in the case of adolescents’ resistance to report cyberbullying experiences has yet to be established. Understanding the factors that influence this resistance to communicate on the part of adolescents will assist caregivers, teachers and those involved in the formulation of school anti-bullying policies in their attempts to counter the cyberbullying phenomenon.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Cyberbullying, technology-enabled bullying

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14 Examining Awareness, Foresight and Expectations about Fatih Project Increasing the Occasions and Normalizing the Technology Movement

Authors: Agah Tuğrul Korucu, Mustafa Mucahit Gundogdu, Tarık Gencturk, Ahmet Yucel

Abstract:

Countries are developing big projects and supplying financial resource for developing technological substructure and integrating technology into the education. In Turkey, the Ministry of Education, with the aim of integrating ICT into learning and teaching processes, created a project named increasing occasions and normalizing the technology movement. FATIH Project with this project, the aim is to create teaching environments which are enriched with technology. In orientating people with the technology and integrating technology into the education, teacher and teacher candidates have a big responsibility. While teachers are using technology in lesson, the devices in class and the methods developed are important factors. The aim of this research is to examine awareness, and foresight about FATIH Project in different aspects. This study was conducted during the practice period of the second semester in the 2014-2015 academic years. The working group of the research was created from 209 teacher candidates which are from different teaching departments in the Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty of Necmettin Erbakan University. Scanning model was used in this research. In research, as a getting data tool evaluation of “opinion about FATIH Project: awareness, foresight and expectation scale” which was developed by Karal et. al.; personal information form which was developed by researchers were used. Cronbach coefficient which is the reliability of the scale is 0.91. In analyzing the data, statistical package program average, standard deviation, percentage, correlation, t-test and variance analysis test were used.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, FATIH project, information technology integration, views on the Fatih Project, technology integration in education

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13 Females’ Usage Patterns of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Vhembe District, South Africa

Authors: Fulufhelo Oscar Maphiri-Makananise

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The main purpose of this paper is to explore and provide substantiated evidence based on the usage patterns of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by females in the Vhembe District in Limpopo-Province, South Africa. The study presents a broader picture and understanding about the usage of ICTs from female’s perspective. The significance of this study stems from the need to discover the role, relevance and usage patterns of ICTs such as smartphones, computers, laptops, and iPods, internet and social networking sites among females following the trends of new media technologies in the society. The main objective of the study was to investigate the usability and accessibility of ICTs to empower the Vhembe District females in South Africa. The study used quantitative research method together with elements of qualitative research to determine the major ideas, perceptions and usage patterns of ICTs by females in the District. Data collection involved structured and self-administered questionnaire with both closed-ended and open-ended questions. Two groups of respondents participated in this study. Media Studies female students (n=50) at the University of Venda provided their ideas and perceptions about the usefulness and usage patterns of ICTs such as smartphones, internet and computers at the university level, while the second group were (n=50) Makhado comprehensive school learners who also provided their perceptions and ideas about the use of ICTs at the high school level. Also, the study provides a more balanced, accurate and rational results on the pertinent issues that concern the use of ICTs by females in the Vhembe District. The researcher also believes that the findings of the study are useful as a guideline and model for ICT intervention that work as an empowerment to women in South Africa. The study showed that the main purpose of using ICTs by females was to search information for writing assignments, conducting research, dating, exchanging ideas and networking with friends and relatives that are also members of social networking sites and maintaining existing friends in real life. The study further revealed that most females were using ICTs for social purposes and accessing the internet than entertaining themselves. The finding also indicated a high number of females that used ICTs for e-learning (62%) and social purposes (85%). Moreover, the study centred on providing strong insightful information on the females’ usage patterns and their perceptions of ICTs in the Vhembe district of Limpopo province.

Keywords: Internet, Information and Communication Technologies, female users, usage patterns

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12 Assessment Methodology of E-government Projects for the Regions of Georgia

Authors: Tina Melkoshvili

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Drastic development of information and communication technologies in Georgia has led to the necessity of launching conceptually new, effective, flexible, transparent and society oriented form of government that is e-government. Through applying information technologies, the electronic system enables to raise the efficacy of state governance and increase citizens’ participation in the process. Focusing on the topic of e-government allows us to analyze success stories, attributed benefits and, at the same time, observes challenges hampering the government development process. There are number of methodologies elaborated to study the conditions in the field of electronic governance. They enable us to find out if the government is ready to apply broad opportunities of information and communication technologies and if the government is apt to improve the accessibility and quality of delivering mainly social services. This article seeks to provide comparative analysis of widely spread methodologies used for Electronic government projects’ assessment. It has been concluded that applying current methods of assessment in Georgia is related to difficulties due to inaccessible data and the necessity of involving number of experts. The article presents new indicators for e-government development assessment that reflect efficacy of e-government conception realization in the regions of Georgia and enables to provide quantitative evaluation of regional e-government projects including all significant aspects of development.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, development methodology, e-government in Georgia, regional government

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11 The Examination of Prospective ICT Teachers’ Attitudes towards Application of Computer Assisted Instruction

Authors: Agah Tuğrul Korucu, Ismail Fatih Yavuzaslan, Lale Toraman

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Nowadays, thanks to development of technology, integration of technology into teaching and learning activities is spreading. Increasing technological literacy which is one of the expected competencies for individuals of 21st century is associated with the effective use of technology in education. The most important factor in effective use of technology in education institutions is ICT teachers. The concept of computer assisted instruction (CAI) refers to the utilization of information and communication technology as a tool aided teachers in order to make education more efficient and improve its quality in the process of educational. Teachers can use computers in different places and times according to owned hardware and software facilities and characteristics of the subject and student in CAI. Analyzing teachers’ use of computers in education is significant because teachers are the ones who manage the course and they are the most important element in comprehending the topic by students. To accomplish computer-assisted instruction efficiently is possible through having positive attitude of teachers. Determination the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of teachers who get the professional knowledge from educational faculties and elimination of deficiencies if any are crucial when teachers are at the faculty. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify ICT teachers' attitudes toward computer-assisted instruction in terms of different variables. Research group consists of 200 prospective ICT teachers studying at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Keleşoğlu Faculty of Education CEIT department. As data collection tool of the study; “personal information form” developed by the researchers and used to collect demographic data and "the attitude scale related to computer-assisted instruction" are used. The scale consists of 20 items. 10 of these items show positive feature, while 10 of them show negative feature. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient of the scale is found 0.88 and Barlett test significance value is found 0.000. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of the scale is found 0.93. In order to analyze the data collected by data collection tools computer-based statistical software package used; statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics, t-test, and analysis of variance are utilized. It is determined that the attitudes of prospective instructors towards computers do not differ according to their educational branches. On the other hand, the attitudes of prospective instructors who own computers towards computer-supported education are determined higher than those of the prospective instructors who do not own computers. It is established that the departments of students who previously received computer lessons do not affect this situation so much. The result is that; the computer experience affects the attitude point regarding the computer-supported education positively.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, attitude, computer based instruction, teacher candidate, technology based instruction

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10 Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Art and Music Teachers towards the Use of Information and Communication Technologies

Authors: Agah Tuğrul Korucu

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Information and communication technologies have become an important part of our daily lives with significant investments in technology in the 21st century. Individuals are more willing to design and implement computer-related activities, and they are the main component of computer self-efficacy and self-efficacy related to the fact that the increase in information technology, with operations in parallel with these activities more successful. The Self-efficacy level is a significant factor which determines how individuals act in events, situations and difficult processes. It is observed that individuals with higher self-efficacy perception of computers who encounter problems related to computer use overcome them more easily. Therefore, this study aimed to examine self-efficacy perceptions of pre-service art and music teachers towards the use of information and communication technologies in terms of different variables. Research group consists of 60 pre-service teachers who are studying at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Keleşoğlu Faculty of Education Art and Music department. As data collection tool of the study; “personal information form” developed by the researcher and used to collect demographic data and "the perception scale related to self-efficacy of informational technology" are used. The scale is 5-point Likert-type scale. It consists of 27 items. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) sample compliance value is found 0.959. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the scale is found to be 0.97. computer-based statistical software package (SPSS 21.0) is used in order to analyze the data collected by data collection tools; descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance are used as statistical techniques.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, teacher candidate, self-efficacy perceptions, art teacher

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9 The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Teaching Performance at an Iranian University

Authors: Yusef Hedjazi, Saeedeh Nazari Nooghabi

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New information and communication technologies (ICT) as one of the main needs of Faculty members in the process of teaching and learning has used in Irans higher education system since 2000.The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching performance of Agricultural and Natural Resources Faculties at University of Tehran. The statistical population of the study consisted of all 250 faculties in Agriculture and Natural Resources Colleges and a questionnaire was used to collect data. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by computing of Cronbachs Alpha coefficient at greater than .72. The study showed a significant relationship between agricultural Faculty members teaching performance and competency in using ICT. The results of the regression analysis also explained 51.7% of the variance, teaching performance. The six independent variables that accounted for the explained variance were experience in using educational websites or software, use of educational multimedia (e.g. film and CD, etc), making a presentation using PowerPoint, familiarity with online education websites, using News group to discuss on educational subjects with colleagues and students, and using Electronic communication (messengers) to solve studentsproblems.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, teaching performance, agricultural and natural resources, faculties

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8 A Corporate Social Responsibility Project to Improve the Democratization of Scientific Education in Brazil

Authors: Denise Levy

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Nuclear technology is part of our everyday life and its beneficial applications help to improve the quality of our lives. Nevertheless, in Brazil, most often the media and social networks tend to associate radiation to nuclear weapons and major accidents, and there is still great misunderstanding about the peaceful applications of nuclear science. The Educational Portal Radioatividades (Radioactivities) is a corporate social responsibility initiative that takes advantage of the growing impact of Internet to offer high quality scientific information for teachers and students throughout Brazil. This web-based initiative focusses on the positive applications of nuclear technology, presenting the several contributions of ionizing radiation in different contexts, such as nuclear medicine, agriculture techniques, food safety and electric power generation, proving nuclear technology as part of modern life and a must to improve the quality of our lifestyle. This educational project aims to contribute for democratization of scientific education and social inclusion, approaching society to scientific knowledge, promoting critical thinking and inspiring further reflections. The website offers a wide variety of ludic activities such as curiosities, interactive exercises and short courses. Moreover, teachers are offered free web-based material with full instructions to be developed in class. Since year 2013, the project has been developed and improved according to a comprehensive study about the realistic scenario of ICTs infrastructure in Brazilian schools and in full compliance with the best e-learning national and international recommendations.

Keywords: Nuclear Technology, Information and Communication Technologies, science communication, society and education

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7 Usability Evaluation of Rice Doctor as a Diagnostic Tool for Agricultural Extension Workers in Selected Areas in the Philippines

Authors: Jerome Cayton Barradas, Rowely Parico, Lauro Atienza, Poornima Shankar

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The effective agricultural extension is essential in facilitating improvements in various agricultural areas. One way of doing this is through Information and communication technologies (ICTs) like Rice Doctor (RD), an app-based diagnostic tool that provides accurate and timely diagnosis and management recommendations for more than 80 crop problems. This study aims to evaluate the RD usability by determining the effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of RD in making an accurate and timely diagnosis. It also aims to identify other factors that affect RD usability. This will be done by comparing RD with two other diagnostic methods: visual identification-based diagnosis and reference-guided diagnosis. The study was implemented in three rice-producing areas and has involved 96 extension workers. Respondents accomplished a self-administered survey and participated in group discussions. Data collected was then subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Most of the respondents were satisfied with RD and believed that references are needed in assuring the accuracy of diagnosis. The majority found it efficient and easy to use. Some found it confusing and complicated, but this is because of their unfamiliarity with RD. Most users were also able to achieve accurate diagnosis proving effectiveness. Lastly, although users have reservations, they are satisfied and open to using RD. The study also found out the importance of visual identification skills in using RD and the need for capacity development and improvement of access to RD devices. From these results, the following are recommended to improve RD usability: review and upgrade diagnostic keys, expand further RD content, initiate capacity development for AEWs, and prepare and implement an RD communication plan.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Agricultural extension, crop protection, rice doctor

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6 Technology Valuation of Unconventional Gas R&D Project Using Real Option Approach

Authors: Young Yoon, Jinsoo Kim

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The adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) in all industry is growing under industry 4.0. Many oil companies also are increasingly adopting ICT to improve the efficiency of existing operations, take more accurate and quicker decision making and reduce entire cost by optimization. It is true that ICT is playing an important role in the process of unconventional oil and gas development and companies must take advantage of ICT to gain competitive advantage. In this study, real option approach has been applied to Unconventional gas R&D project to evaluate ICT of them. Many unconventional gas reserves such as shale gas and coal-bed methane(CBM) has developed due to technological improvement and high energy price. There are many uncertainties in unconventional development on the three stage(Exploration, Development, Production). The traditional quantitative benefits-cost method, such as net present value(NPV) is not sufficient for capturing ICT value. We attempted to evaluate the ICT valuation by applying the compound option model; the model is applied to real CBM project case, showing how it consider uncertainties. Variables are treated as uncertain and a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to consider variables effect. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20152510101880) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-205S1A3A2046684).

Keywords: R&D, Information and Communication Technologies, real option, unconventional gas

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5 Energy Trading for Cooperative Microgrids with Renewable Energy Resources

Authors: Ziaullah, Shah Wahab Ali

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Micro-grid equipped with heterogeneous energy resources present the idea of small scale distributed energy management (DEM). DEM helps in minimizing the transmission and operation costs, power management and peak load demands. Micro-grids are collections of small, independent controllable power-generating units and renewable energy resources. Micro-grids also motivate to enable active customer participation by giving accessibility of real-time information and control to the customer. The capability of fast restoration against faulty situation, integration of renewable energy resources and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) make micro-grid as an ideal system for distributed power systems. Micro-grids can have a bank of energy storage devices. The energy management system of micro-grid can perform real-time energy forecasting of renewable resources, energy storage elements and controllable loads in making proper short-term scheduling to minimize total operating costs. We present a review of existing micro-grids optimization objectives/goals, constraints, solution approaches and tools used in micro-grids for energy management. Cost-benefit analysis of micro-grid reveals that cooperation among different micro-grids can play a vital role in the reduction of import energy cost and system stability. Cooperative micro-grids energy trading is an approach to electrical distribution energy resources that allows local energy demands more control over the optimization of power resources and uses. Cooperation among different micro-grids brings the interconnectivity and power trading issues. According to the literature, it shows that open area of research is available for cooperative micro-grids energy trading. In this paper, we proposed and formulated the efficient energy management/trading module for interconnected micro-grids. It is believed that this research will open new directions in future for energy trading in cooperative micro-grids/interconnected micro-grids.

Keywords: Energy Management, Microgrid, Information and Communication Technologies, Distributed Energy Management

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4 Introducing Information and Communication Technologies in Prison: A Proposal in Favor of Social Reintegration

Authors: Carmen Rocio Fernandez Diaz

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This paper focuses on the relevance of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred as ‘ICTs’) as an essential part of the day-to-day life of all societies nowadays, as they offer the scenario where an immense number of behaviors are performed that previously took place in the physical world. In this context, areas of reality that have remained outside the so-called ‘information society’ are hardly imaginable. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify a means that continue to be behind this reality, and it is the penitentiary area regarding inmates rights, as security aspects in prison have already be improved by new technologies. Introducing ICTs in prisons is still a matter subject to great rejections. The study of comparative penitentiary systems worldwide shows that most of them use ICTs only regarding educational aspects of life in prison and that communications with the outside world are generally based on traditional ways. These are only two examples of the huge range of activities where ICTs can carry positive results within the prison. Those positive results have to do with the social reintegration of persons serving a prison sentence. Deprivation of liberty entails contact with the prison subculture and the harmful effects of it, causing in cases of long-term sentences the so-called phenomenon of ‘prisonization’. This negative effect of imprisonment could be reduced if ICTs were used inside prisons in the different areas where they can have an impact, and which are treated in this research, as (1) access to information and culture, (2) basic and advanced training, (3) employment, (4) communication with the outside world, (5) treatment or (6) leisure and entertainment. The content of all of these areas could be improved if ICTs were introduced in prison, as it is shown by the experience of some prisons of Belgium, United Kingdom or The United States. However, rejections to introducing ICTs in prisons obey to the fact that it could carry also risks concerning security and the commission of new offences. Considering these risks, the scope of this paper is to offer a real proposal to introduce ICTs in prison, trying to avoid those risks. This enterprise would be done to take advantage of the possibilities that ICTs offer to all inmates in order to start to build a life outside which is far from delinquency, but mainly to those inmates who are close to release. Reforming prisons in this sense is considered by the author of this paper an opportunity to offer inmates a progressive resettlement to live in freedom with a higher possibility to obey the law and to escape from recidivism. The value that new technologies would add to education, employment, communications or treatment to a person deprived of liberty constitutes a way of humanization of prisons in the 21st century.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Imprisonment, social reintegration, deprivation of freedom

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3 Gathering Space after Disaster: Understanding the Communicative and Collective Dimensions of Resilience through Field Research across Time in Hurricane Impacted Regions of the United States

Authors: Jack L. Harris, Marya L. Doerfel, Hyunsook Youn, Minkyung Kim, Kautuki Sunil Jariwala

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Organizational resilience refers to the ability to sustain business or general work functioning despite wide-scale interruptions. We focus on organization and businesses as a pillar of their communities and how they attempt to sustain work when a natural disaster impacts their surrounding regions and economies. While it may be more common to think of resilience as a trait possessed by an organization, an emerging area of research recognizes that for organizations and businesses, resilience is a set of processes that are constituted through communication, social networks, and organizing. Indeed, five processes, robustness, rapidity, resourcefulness, redundancy, and external availability through social media have been identified as critical to organizational resilience. These organizing mechanisms involve multi-level coordination, where individuals intersect with groups, organizations, and communities. Because the nature of such interactions are often networks of people and organizations coordinating material resources, information, and support, they necessarily require some way to coordinate despite being displaced. Little is known, however, if physical and digital spaces can substitute one for the other. We thus are guided by the question, is digital space sufficient when disaster creates a scarcity of physical space? This study presents a cross-case comparison based on field research from four different regions of the United States that were impacted by Hurricanes Katrina (2005), Sandy (2012), Maria (2017), and Harvey (2017). These four cases are used to extend the science of resilience by examining multi-level processes enacted by individuals, communities, and organizations that together, contribute to the resilience of disaster-struck organizations, businesses, and their communities. Using field research about organizations and businesses impacted by the four hurricanes, we code data from interviews, participant observations, field notes, and document analysis drawn from New Orleans (post-Katrina), coastal New Jersey (post-Sandy), Houston Texas (post-Harvey), and the lower keys of Florida (post-Maria). This paper identifies an additional organizing mechanism, networked gathering spaces, where citizens and organizations, alike, coordinate and facilitate information sharing, material resource distribution, and social support. Findings show that digital space, alone, is not a sufficient substitute to effectively sustain organizational resilience during a disaster. Because the data are qualitative, we expand on this finding with specific ways in which organizations and the people who lead them worked around the problem of scarce space. We propose that gatherings after disaster are a sixth mechanism that contributes to organizational resilience.

Keywords: Communication, Disaster Management, Resilience, Work, coordination, Information and Communication Technologies, interorganizational relationships

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2 Teachers’ Experiences regarding Use of Information and Communication Technology for Visually Impaired Students

Authors: Zikra Faiz, Zaheer Asghar, Nisar Abid

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) includes computers, the Internet, and electronic delivery systems such as televisions, radios, multimedia, and overhead projectors etc. In the modern world, ICTs is considered as an essential element of the teaching-learning process. The study was aimed to discover the usage of ICTs in Special Education Institutions for Visually Impaired students, Lahore, Pakistan. Objectives of the study were to explore the problems faced by teachers while using ICT in the classroom. The study was phenomenology in nature; a qualitative survey method was used through a semi-structured interview protocol developed by the researchers. The sample comprised of eighty faculty members selected through a purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis technique with the help of open coding. The study findings revealed that multimedia, projectors, computers, laptops and LEDs are used in special education institutes to enhance the teaching-learning process. Teachers believed that ICTs could enhance the knowledge of visually impaired students and every student should use these technologies in the classroom. It was concluded that multimedia, projectors and laptops are used in classroom by teachers and students. ICTs can promote effectively through the training of teachers and students. It was suggested that the government should take steps to enhance ICTs in teacher training and other institutions by pre-service and in-service training of teachers.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, in-services teachers, special education institutions

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1 The Use of Information and Communication Technology Between Emergency Medical Teams in a Disaster, in Riyadh : A Qualitative Study

Authors: Badryah Alshehri, Kevin Gormley, Gillian Prue, Karen McCutcheon

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The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in a disaster is increasingly reliant on effective coordination and collaboration within and between emergency medical teams (EMTs), which is essential for ensuring an effective organizational response to such incidents. The use of ICT has a mixed effect on the response of EMTs and the literature identifies a number of concerns around the effective use of ICTs following a disaster. The aim of this study is to explore the use of information and communication technology between EMTs (staff of the Saudi Red Crescent Society and hospital emergency department professionals) when responding to a disaster in Riyadh, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken to explore the experiences of 67 respondents: eighteen call-center staff, dispatcher teams, field supervisors and paramedics, and a total of 49 from hospital EDs, comprising fifteen senior paramedics, fourteen physician consultants, and twenty ED nurse managers. Semi-structured interviews were held with the participants who all had the experience of responding to a disaster and had the authority to communicate with one another. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analyzed used Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis. The findings showed three stages in communication within and between the EMS and ED hospital staff during a disaster: communication between EMT staff, communication within and between EMS and ED hospital staff, and communication among ED staff. Several important factors were found to influence the effective use of ICT during a disaster, including factors related to the technological perspective, limited resources resulting in the use of both formal and informal communication systems within and between EMS and ED teams, poor integration of ICT systems between EMS and ED teams which creates coordination problems, and inadequate network coverage for communication devices. Factors that affect the performance of EMTs were related to organizational aspects, including a lack of clear planning and protocols between the EMTs, limited training in communication and poor decision-making due to a lack of clear rules for responders. In terms of factors related to the perspectives of ICT use, the findings showed the need for improvements in communication within and between EMTs in relation to an effective response to a disaster. Several factors were found to affect the use of ICT between EMTs in a disaster. In order to improve communication, there is a need to develop a clear ICT strategy which includes the availability of effective ICT devices, agreed policies and protocols regarding the use of ICT and a comprehensive program of staff training.

Keywords: Communication, Disaster, Information and Communication Technologies, emergency medical teams

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