Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

inflammatory response Related Abstracts

2 Development of a Diagnostic Device to Predict Clinically Significant Inflammation Associated with Cardiac Surgery

Authors: Mohamed Majrashi, Patricia Connolly, Terry Gourlay

Abstract:

Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to cause inflammatory response during open heart surgery. It includes the initiation of different cascades such as coagulation, complement system and cytokines. Although the immune system is body’s key defense mechanism against external assault, when overexpressed, it can be injurious to the patient, particularly in a cohort of patients in which there is a heightened and uncontrolled response. The inflammatory response develops in these patients to an exaggerated level resulting in an autoimmune injury and may lead to poor postoperative outcomes (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organs failure). Previous studies by this group have suggested a correlation between the level of IL6 measured in patient’s blood before surgery and after polymeric activation and the observed inflammatory response during surgery. Based upon these findings, the present work is aimed at using this response to develop a test which can be used prior to the open heart surgery to identify the high-risk patients before their operation. The work will be accomplished via three main clinical phases including some pilot in-vitro studies, device development and clinical investigation. Current findings from studies using animal blood, employing DEHP and DEHP plasticized PVC materials as the activator, support the earlier results in patient samples. Having established this relationship, ongoing work will focus on developing an activated lateral flow strip technology as a screening device for heightened inflammatory propensity.

Keywords: Cytokines, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, inflammatory response, overexpression

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1 Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated with Andrographolide Ameliorates Viper Venom-Induced Inflammatory Response and Organ Toxicity in Animal Model

Authors: Sourav Ghosh, Antony Gomes

Abstract:

Since 1894 anti-snake venom serum (ASVS) is the only available treatment against snake envenomation, although there are many side effects and limitations. The need for a supportive treatment was felt for a long time to overcome the side effects and limitations of ASVS. Andrographolide conjugated with gold nanoparticle (A-GNP) has been found to antagonize viper venom-induced local damages. The present study was aimed to study the protective efficacy of A-GNP against Viper venom-induced inflammatory response and organ toxicity in animal model. Ethical clearance was obtained from animal experiments. Physico-chemical characterization of A-GNP was done by DLS (diameter and zeta potential), FE-SEM and XRD. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 4 groups: Gr.1-Sham control, Gr.2- Russell’s Viper venom (RVV) control, Gr.3- andrographolide treated and Gr.4- A-GNP treated. The 1/5th minimum lethal dose of RVV (500µg/kg, s.c.) was induced in animals of group 2, 3 & 4 animals, followed by treatment with andrographolide (100mg/kg, i.p.) and A-GNP (100mg/kg, i.v.) in group 3 & 4 animals, respectively. Blood was collected after 18 h, serum was prepared, and inflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17a, 10, TNF α) and biochemical markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) were assessed. Values were expressed as mean±SEM (n=4), one way ANOVA was done, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. DLS size showed the hydrodynamic diameter of A-GNP to be 230-260nm with polydispersity index of 0.103 and zeta potential was -18.32mV. XRD data confirmed the presence of crystalline gold in A-GNP, and FESEM indicated the presence of nearly spherical particle with size18-24nm.Treatment with A-GNP significantly decreased viper venom-induced proinflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17, TNF α) increased anti-inflammatory markers (IL 10) and decreased organ toxicity markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) in animal model. Venom neutralization efficacy of A-GNP was > andrographolide, which confirmed the increased efficacy of andrographolide after gold nanoparticle conjugation. Venom neutralization by A-GNP was due to anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, which showed increased efficacy after gold nanoparticle tagging. Thus, A-GNP may serve as a supportive therapy in snake-bite (against inflammatory response and organ toxicity) subject to further detail studies.

Keywords: Organ toxicity, andrographolide, gold nanoparticle, inflammatory response, snake venom, snake venom neutralization, viper venom

Procedia PDF Downloads 240