Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

inflammatory cytokines Related Abstracts

4 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Atif Zafar, Abdul Qayyum, Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin

Abstract:

Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

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3 Molecular Mechanism on Inflammation and Antioxidant Role of Pterocarpus Marsupiumin in Experimental Hyperglycaemia

Authors: Leelavinothan Pari, Ayyasamy Rathinam

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major and growing public health problem throughout the world. Pterocarpus marsupium (Roxb.) (Family: Fabaceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium has not been investigated so far. Two fractions (2.5% and 5%) of extract from the medicinal plant, Pterocarpus marsupium (PME) were conducted in a dose dependent manner in streptozotocin (45 mg/kg b.w.) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Each fraction of PME was administered to diabetic rats intragastrically at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w for 45 days. The effective dose 200 mg/kg b.w of 5% fraction was more pronounced in reducing the levels of blood glucose (95.65 mg/dL) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (0.41 mg/g Hb), and increasing the plasma insulin (16.20 µU/mL) level. Moreover, PME (200 mg/kg b.w) significantly ameliorated lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides) enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E and reduced glutathione) levels. The altered activities of the key enzymes of lipid metabolism along with the lipid profile in diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of PME 5% 200 mg/kg b.w fraction. PME (200 mg/kg b.w) has the ability to reduce the inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6 mRNA, as well as protein expression and apoptotic marker, such as caspase-3 enzyme in diabetic hepatic tissue. The above biochemical findings were also supported by histological studies such as improvement in pancreas and liver. Pterocarpus marsupium could effectively reduce the hyperglycemia, oxidative-stress, inflammation and hyperlipedimea in diabetic rats; hence it could be a useful drug in the management of diabetes without any side effects.

Keywords: Antioxidants, diabetes mellitus, Lipid Peroxidation, streptozotocin, inflammatory cytokines, Pterocarpus marsupium

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2 Shielding Engineered Islets with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Survival under Hypoxia by Inhibiting p38 MAPK

Authors: Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Bhonde

Abstract:

In the present study, we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia. The Islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) were cultured with and without WJ-MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin, Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitate the highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cytokine analysis of the co-cultured ICAs revealed amplification of anti-inflammatory cytokine-like TGFβ and TNFα accompanied by depletion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increment in VEGF and PDGFa was also seen showing their ability to vascularize upon transplantation. This was further accompanied by reduction in total reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and super oxide ions and down-regulation of Caspase3, Caspase8, p53 and up regulation of Bcl2 confirming prevention of apoptosis in ICAs. There was a significant reduction in the expression of p38 protein in the presence of MSCs making the ICAs responsive to glucose. Taken together our data demonstrate for the first time that the WJ-MSC expressed pancreatic markers and their supplementation protected engineered islets against hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting p38 MAPK protein.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, hypoxia, inflammatory cytokines, islet-like cell aggregates

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1 Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasomes by Helicobacter pylori Infection in Innate Cellular Model and Its Correlation to IL-1β Production

Authors: Islam Nowisser, Noha Farag, Mohamed El Azizi

Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori is a highly important human pathogen which inhabits about 50% of the population worldwide. Infection with this bacteria is very hard to treat, with high probability of recurrence. H. pylori causes severe gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastric cancer, which has been linked to chronic inflammation. The infection has been reported to be associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β and TNF-α. The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori activates NLRP3 inflammasome and its contribution to Il-1 β production in an innate cellular model. H. pylori PMSS1 and G27 standard strains, as well as the PMSS1 isogenic mutant strain PMSS1ΔVacA and G27ΔVacA, G27ΔCagA in addition to clinical isolates obtained from biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis patients, were used to establish infection in RAW-264.7 macrophages. The production levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was assessed using ELISA. Since expression of these cytokines is often regulated by the transcription factor complex, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the activation of NF-κB in H. pylori infected cells was also evaluated by luciferase assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from bacterial cultures of H. pylori clinical isolates as well as the standard strains and their corresponding mutants, where they were evaluated for the cagA pathogenicity island and vacA expression. The correlation between these findings and expression of the cagA Pathogenicity Island and vacA in the bacteria was also investigated. The results showed IL-1β, and TNF-α production significantly increased in raw macrophages following H. pylori infection. The cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains induced significant production of IL-1β compared to cagA- and vacA- strains. The activation pattern of NF-κB was correlated in the isolates to their cagA and vacA expression profiles. A similar finding could not be confirmed for TNF-α production. Our study shows the ability of H. pylori to activate NF-kB and induce significant IL-1β production as a possible mechanism for the augmented inflammatory response seen in subjects infected with cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains that would lead to the progression to more severe form of the disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, IL-1β, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor KB

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