Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

infertility Related Abstracts

21 Investigation the Difference of Several Hormones Correlated to Reproduction between Infertile and Fertile Dairy Cows

Authors: Ali M. Mutlag, Yang Zhiqiang, Meng Jiaren, Zhang Jingyan, Li Jianxi

Abstract:

The object of this study was to investigate several hormones correlated to the reproduction and Inhibin A, Inhibin B and NO levels in the infertile dairy cows as attempt to illustrate the physiological causes of dairy cows infertility. 40 Holstein cows (21 infertile and 19 fertile) were used at estrous phase of the cycle, Hormones FSH, LH, E2, Testosterone, Were measured using ELISA method. Inhibin A and B also estimated by ELISA method, Nitric oxide was measured by Greiss reagent method. The results showed different concentrations of the hormone in which FSH illustrated significantly higher concentration in the infertile cows than fertile cows (P<0.05). LH and E2 showed significant decrease in the infertile cows than the fertile cows (P<0.05), No significant difference appeared in testosterone concentrations in the fertile cows and infertile cows (P>0.05). The both inhibins A and B showed significant P<0.05 decrease concentrations in the infertile cows also NO showed clearly significant decrease P<0.05 in the infertile cows. In conclusion, The present study approved the poorly ovarian activities and reproduction disturbance of infertile cows in spite of trigger estrous signs, The study confirmed a positive correlation between inhibins and NO to regulate the ovarian physiology. These inhibins represent effective markers of dairy cows infertility.

Keywords: infertility, cows, inhibins A and B, nitric oxide (NO)

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20 Impact of Obesity on Fertility in a Population of Women in the Wilaya of Batna

Authors: S. Benbia, W. Bouafia, D. Khellaf, A. Chennaf, M. Yahia

Abstract:

Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters (CH, TG, HDL, GOT, GPT, LDL, and CRP), obese women infertile fertile witnesses and research potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work was focused on a population of 24 obese women infertile, compared to controls, subjects without any pathology causing disruption of parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in serum CH, TG, HDL, TGO and TGP (P < 0.0001) and in the rate of LDL (p = 0.0017) and CRP (p = 0.02). The hormonal balance also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001).The present study indicates that obesity is associated with infertility, but there is no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has not been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: Biochemical, Obesity, Women, infertility, Fertility

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19 Prophylactic and Curative Effect of Selenium on Infertility Induced by Formaldehyde Using Male Albino Mice

Authors: Suhera M. Aburawi, Habiba A. El Jaafari, Soad A. Treesh, Abdulssalam M. Abu-Aisha, Faisal S. Alwaer, Reda A. Eltubuly, Medeha Elghedamsi

Abstract:

Introduction: Infertility is a source of psychological, and sometimes social, stress on parents who desire to have children. Formaldehyde is used chiefly as disinfectant, preservative and in the chemical synthesis. The medical uses of formaldehyde are limited, but focused especially on laboratory use. Selenium is an essential trace mineral element for human; it is essential for sperm function and male fertility. Selenium deficiency has been linked to reproductive problems in animals. Objectives: To investigate the prophylactic and curative effect of selenium on male infertility induced by formaldehyde using male albino mice. Method: Forty male albino mice were used, weight 25-30 gm. Five groups of male mice (n=8) were used. Group 1 was daily administered water for injection (5ml/kg) for five days, group 2 was daily administered selenium (100 μg/kg) for five days, group 3 was daily administered formaldehyde (30mg/kg) for five days, group 4 (prophylaxis) was daily administered a combination of formaldehyde and selenium for five days, while group 5 (curative) was daily administered formaldehyde for five days followed by daily administration of selenium for the next five days. Intraperitoneal administration was adopted. At the end of the administration, seminal fluid was collected from vas deferens. Sperm count, morphology and motility were scored; histopathological screening of genital system was carried out. SPSS was applied for comparing groups. Results and conclusion: It was found that formaldehyde toxicity did not change the sperm count and percentage of motile sperm; unhealthy sperm was increased, while healthy sperm was decreased. Formaldehyde produces degeneration/damage to the male mice genital system. Selenium alone produce an increase in sperm count, volume of seminal fluid and the percentage of motile sperm. Selenium has prophylactic and curative effects against formaldehyde-induce genital system toxicity. Future work is recommended to find out if selenium protective effect is through antioxidant or other mechanisms.

Keywords: infertility, Selenium, formaldehyde, male mice

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18 Testicular Dose and Associated Risk from Common Pelvis Radiation Therapy in Iran

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Milad Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi

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This study aimed to investigate testicular dose (TD) and the associated risk of heritable disease from common pelvis radiotherapy of male patients in Iran. In this work, the relation between TD and changes in beam energy, pelvis size, source to skin distance (SSD) and beam directions (anterior or posterior) were also evaluated. The values of TDs were measured on 67 randomly selected male patients during common pelvis radiotherapy using 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, Theratron Cobalt-60 unit at SSD of 80 cm and 9 MV, Neptun 10 PC and 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 at SSD of 100 cm at Seyed-Al Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Results showed that the maximum TD was up to 12% of the tumor dose. Considering the risk factor for radiation-induced heritable disorders of 0.1% per Sv, an excess risk of hereditary disorders of 72 per 10000 births was conservatively calculated. There was a significant difference in the measured TD using different treatment machines and energies (P < 0.001). The TD at 100 cm SSD were much less than that for 80 cm SSD (P <0.001). The Pearson Correlation test showed that, as expected, there was a strong correlation between TD and patient’s pelvis size (r = 0.275, P <0.001). Using the student’s t-tests, it was found that, there was not a significant difference between TD and beam direction (P = 0.231). Iranian male patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy have the potential of receiving a TD of more than 1 Gy which might result in temporary azoospermia. The risk for induction of hereditary disorders in future generations should be considered as low but not negligible in comparison with the correspondent nominal risk.

Keywords: infertility, pelvis radiotherapy, testicular dose, hereditary effects

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17 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: Obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome, Bariatric surgery, infertility

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16 Endometriosis: The Optimal Treatment of Recurrent Endometrioma in Infertile Patients

Authors: Smita Lakhotia, C. Kew, S. H. M. Siraj, B. Chern

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Up to 50% of those with endometriosis may suffer from infertility due to either distorted pelvic anatomy/impaired oocyte release or inhibit ovum pickup and transport, altered peritoneal function, endocrine and anovulatory disorders, including LUF, impaired implantation, progesterone resistance or decreased levels of cellular immunity. The dilemma continues as to whether the surgery or IVF is the optimal management for such recurrent endometriomas. The core question is whether surgery adds anything of value for infertile women with recurrent endometriosis or not. Complete and detailed information on risks and benefits of treatment alternatives must be offered to patients, giving a realistic estimate of chances of success of repetitive surgery and of multiple IVF cycles in order to allow unbiased choices between different possible optionsAn individualized treatment plan should be developed taking into account patient age, duration of infertility, previous pregnancies and specific clinical conditions and wish.

Keywords: pregnancy, infertility, recurrent endometriosis, oocyte release

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15 An Under-Recognized Factor in the Development of Postpartum Depression: Infertility

Authors: Memnun Seven, Aygül Akyüz

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Having a baby, giving birth and being a mother are generally considered happy events, especially for women who have had a history of infertility and may have suffered emotionally, physically and financially. Although the transition from the prenatal period to the postnatal period is usually desired and planned, it is a developmental and cognitive transition period full of complex emotional reactions. During this period, common mood disorders for women include maternity blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. Postpartum depression is a common and serious mood disorder which can jeopardize the health of the mother, baby and family within the first year of delivery. Knowing the risks factors is an important issue for the early detection and early intervention of postpartum depression. However, knowing that a history of infertility may contribute to the development of postpartum depression, there are few studies assessing the effects of infertility during the diagnosis and treatment of depression. In this review, the effects of infertility on the development of postpartum depression and nurse/midwives’ roles in this issue are discussed in light with the literature.

Keywords: infertility, Risk Factors, Postpartum Depression, mood disorder

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14 Reversal of Testicular Damage and Subfertility by Resveratrol

Authors: Samy S. Eleawa, Mahmoud A. Alkhateeb, Fahaid H. Alhashem, Ismaeel bin-Jaliah, Hussein F. Sakr, Hesham M. Elrefaey, Abbas O. Elkarib, Mohammad A. Haidara, Abdullah S. Shatoor, Mohammad A. Khalil

Abstract:

This effect of Resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2- induced toxicity in the rat testes was investigated. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) Controls + NS, B) Control+ vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2 +NS, E) CdCl2+ vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in all groups. Testicular levels of TBARS and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were also measured. Epidydidimal semen analysis was performed and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax were assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of testes were examined microscopically and described. Pre and Post administration of RES in cadmium chloride-intoxicated rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. Not only RES attenuated cadmium chloride induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of both pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected from and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular via upregulation of Bcl2 and down regulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. Antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression. These findings have far reaching implications on subfertility and impotency frequently seen in hypertensive as well as metabolic syndrome patients.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, infertility, Resveratrol, cadmium, testis, sperm

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13 Attachment and Decision-Making in Infertility

Authors: Anisa Luli, Alessandra Santona

Abstract:

Wanting a child and experiencing the impossibility to conceive is a painful condition that often is linked to infertility and often leads infertile individuals to experience psychological, relational and social problems. In this situation, infertile couples have to review their choices and take into consideration new ones. Few studies have focused on the decision-making style used by infertile individuals to solve their problem and on the factors that influences it. The aim of this paper is to define the style of decision-making used by infertile persons to give a solution to the “problem” and the predictive role of the attachment, of the representations of the relationship with parents in childhood and of the dyadic adjustment. The total sample is composed by 251 participants, divided in two groups: the experimental group composed by 114 participants, 62 males and 52 females, age between 25 and 59 years, and the control group composed by 137 participants, 65 males and 72 females, age between 22 and 49 years. The battery of instruments comprises: General Decision Making Style (GDMS), Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire Revised (ECR-R), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The results from the analysis of the samples showed a prevalence of the rational decision-making style for both males and females, experimental and control group. There have been founded significant statistical relationships between the attachment scales, the representations of the parenting style, the dyadic adjustment and the decision-making styles. These results contribute to enrich the literature on the subject of decision-making in infertile people and show the relationship between the attachment and decision-making styles, confirming the few results in literature.

Keywords: infertility, attachment, decision-making style, dyadic adjustment

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12 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: Humans, Brucellosis, infertility, seroprevalence, bovines, orchitis, abortions

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11 Obstetric Outcome after Hysteroscopic Septum Resection in Patients with Uterine Septa of Various Sizes

Authors: Nilanchali Singh, Alka Kriplani, Reeta Mahey, Garima Kachhawa

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Objective: Resection of larger uterine septa does improve obstetric performance but whether smaller septa need resection and their impact on obstetric outcome is not clear. We wanted to evaluate the role of septal resection of septa of various sizes in obstetric performance. Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised of 107 patients with uterine septum. The patients were categorized on the basis of extent of uterine septum into four groups: a) Subsepta (< 1/3rd), b) Septum > 1/3 to ½, c) Septum>1/2 to whole uterine cervix, d) Septum traversing whole of uterine cavity and cervix. Out of these 107 patients, 74 could be contacted telephonically and outcomes recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of investigative modalities were calculated. Results: Infertility was seen in maximum number of cases in complete septa (100%), whereas abortions were seen more commonly, in subsepta (18%). MRI had maximum sensitivity and positive predictive value, followed by hysteron-salpingography. Tubal block, fibroid, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, ovarian pathologies were seen in some but no definite association of these pathologies was seen with any subgroup of septa. Almost five-year follow-up was recorded in all the subgroups. Significant reduction in infertility was seen in all septal subgroup (p=0.046, 0.032 & 0.05) patients except in subsepta (< 1/3rd uterine cavity) after septum resection. Abortions were significantly reduced (p=0.048) in third subgroup (i.e. septum > ½ to upto internal os) after hysteroscopic septum resection. Take home baby rate was 33% in subsepta and around 50% in the remaining subgroups of septa. Conclusions: Septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with uterine septa of various sizes. Whether septal resection improves obstetric performance in patients with subsepta or very small septa, is controversial. Larger studies addressing this issue need to be planned.

Keywords: infertility, septal resection, obstetric outcome, septum size

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10 The Predictive Role of Attachment and Adjustment in the Decision-Making Process in Infertility

Authors: A. Luli, A. Santona

Abstract:

It is rare for individuals that are involved in a relationship to think about the possibility of having procreation problems in the near present or in the future. However, infertility is a condition that affects millions of people all around the world. Often, infertile individuals have to deal with experiences of psychological, relational and social problems. In these cases, they have to review their choices and take into consideration, if it is necessary, new ones. Different studies have examined the different decisions that infertile individuals have to go through dealing with infertility and its treatment, but none of them is focused on the decision-making style used by infertile individuals to solve their problem and on the factors that influences it. The aim of this paper is to define the style of decision-making used by infertile persons to give a solution to the ‘problem’ and the potential predictive role of the attachment and of the dyadic adjustment. The total sample is composed by 251 participants, divided in two groups: the experimental group composed by 114 participants, 62 males and 52 females, age between 25 and 59 years, and the control group composed by 137 participants, 65 males and 72 females, age between 22 and 49 years. The battery of instruments used is composed by: the General Decision Making Style (GDMS), the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire Revised (ECR-R), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The results from the analysis of the samples showed a prevalence of the rational decision-making style for both males and females. No significant statistical difference was found between the experimental and control group. Also the analyses showed a significant statistical relationship between the decision making styles and the adult attachment styles for both males and females. In this case, only for males, there was a significant statistical difference between the experimental and the control group. Another significant statistical relationship was founded between the decision making styles and the adjustment scales for both males and females. Also in this case, the difference between the two groups was founded to be significant only of males. These results contribute to enrich the literature on the subject of decision-making styles in infertile individuals, showing also the predictive role of the attachment styles and the adjustment, confirming in this was the few results in the literature.

Keywords: infertility, attachment, adjustment, decision-making style

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9 Potential of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) in the Treatment of Metoclopramide-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Female Wistar Rats

Authors: O. J. Sharaibi, O. T. Ogundipe, O. A. Magbagbeola, M. I. Kazeem, A. J. Afolayan, M. T. Yakubu

Abstract:

Hyperprolactinemia is a condition of elevated levels of serum prolactin in humans. It is one of the major causes of female infertility because, excess prolactin inhibits gonadotropin secretion. When gonadotropin is low, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretions are low and so, do not stimulate gamete production and gonadal steroid synthesis. The aim of this study is to identify and investigate indigenous medicinal plants that can be used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Based on the frequency of mentioning during the ethnobotanical survey, Nymphaea lotus L. was selected for studies. The prolactin-lowering potential of aqueous extract of N. lotus and its effects on other female reproductive hormones in comparison with bromocritptine was evaluated by inducing hyperprolactinemia with metoclopramide at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight of the animals for 21 days and then administered various doses of aqueous extract of N. lotus for another 21 days. Aqueous extract of N. lotus at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the serum prolactin levels in female Wistar rats by 40.06, 52.60 and 61.92 % respectively. The extract at 200 mg/kg body weight had higher prolactin-lowering effect (61.92%) than bromocriptine (53.53%). Aqueous extract of N. lotus significantly increased (p < 0.05) the serum concentrations of FSH, LH and progesterone while estradiol concentrations were reduced. This study shows that Nymphaea lotus is a medicinal plant that can be used in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia.

Keywords: infertility, hyperprolactinemia, metoclopramide, Nymphaea lotus

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8 Investigating University Students' Attitudes towards Infertility in Terms of Socio-Demographic Variables

Authors: Yelda Kağnıcı, Seçil Seymenler, Bahar Baran, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M. Siyez

Abstract:

Infertility is the inability to reproduce after twelve months or longer unprotected sexual relationship. Although infertility is not a life threatening illness, it is considered as a serious problem for both the individual and the society. At this point, the importance of examining attitudes towards infertility is critical. Negative attitudes towards infertility may postpone individuals’ help seeking behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate university students’ attitudes towards infertility in terms of socio-demographic variables (gender, age, taking sexual health education, existence of an infertile individual in the social network, plans about having child and behaviors about health). The sample of the study was 9693 university students attending to 21 universities in Turkey. Of the 9693 students, % 51.6 (n = 5002) were female, % 48.4 (n = 4691) were male. The data was collected by Attitudes toward Infertility Scale developed by researchers and Personal Information Form. In data analysis first frequencies were calculated, then in order to test whether there were significant differences in attitudes towards infertility scores of university students in terms of socio-demographic variables, one way ANOVA was conducted. According to the results, it was found that female students, students who had sexual health education, who have sexual relationship experience, who have an infertile individual in their social networks, who have child plans, who have high caffeine usage and who use alcohol regularly have more positive attitudes towards infertility. On the other hand, attitudes towards infidelity did not show significant differences in terms of age and cigarette usage. When the results of the study were evaluated in general, it was seen that university students’ attitudes towards infertility were negative. The attitudes of students who have high caffeine and alcohols usage were high. It can be considered that these students are aware that their social habits are risky. Female students’ positive attitudes might be explained by their gender role. The results point out that in order to decrease university students’ negative attitudes towards infertility, there is a necessity to develop preventive programs in universities.

Keywords: Sex, attitudes, infertility, university students

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7 Determination of the Needs for Development of Infertility Psycho-Educational Program and the Design of a Website about Infertility for University Students

Authors: Bahar Baran, Şirin Nur Kaptan, D.Yelda Kağnıcı, Erol Esen, Barışcan Öztürk, Ender Siyez, Diğdem M Siyez

Abstract:

It is known that some factors associated with infertility have preventable characteristics and that young people's knowledge levels in this regard are inadequate, but very few studies focus on effective prevention studies on infertility. Psycho-educational programs have an important place for infertility prevention efforts. Nowadays, considering the households' utilization rates from technology and the Internet, it seems that young people have applied to websites as a primary source of information related to a health problem they have encountered. However, one of the prerequisites for the effectiveness of websites or face-to-face psycho-education programs is to consider the needs of participants. In particular, it is expected that these programs will be appropriate to the cultural infrastructure and the diversity of beliefs and values in society. The aim of this research is to determine what university students want to learn about infertility and fertility and examine their views on the structure of the website. The sample of the research consisted of 9693 university students who study in 21 public higher education programs in Turkey. 51.6 % (n = 5002) were female and 48.4% (n = 4691) were male. The Needs Analysis Questionnaire developed by the researchers was used as data collection tool in the research. In the analysis of the data, descriptive analysis was conducted in SPSS software. According to the findings, among the topics that university students wanted to study about infertility and fertility, the first topics were 'misconceptions about infertility' (94.9 %), 'misconceptions about sexual behaviors' (94.6 %), 'factors affecting infertility' (92.8 %), 'sexual health and reproductive health' (92.5 %), 'sexually transmitted diseases' (92.7 %), 'sexuality and society' (90.9 %), 'healthy life (help centers)' (90.4 %). In addition, the questions about how the content of the website should be designed for university students were analyzed descriptively. According to the results, 91.5 % (n = 8871) of the university students proposed to use frequently asked questions and their answers, 89.2 % (n = 8648) stated that expert video should be included, 82.6 % (n = 8008) requested animations and simulations, 76.1 % (n = 7380) proposed different content according to sex and 66 % (n = 6460) proposed different designs according to sex. The results of the research indicated that the findings are similar to the contents of the program carried out in other countries in terms of the topics to be studied. It is suggested to take into account the opinions of the participants during the design of website.

Keywords: Prevention, infertility, Web based Education, psycho-education

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6 Traditional Herbal Medicine Used to Treat Infertility in Women by Traditional Practitioner of Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Shweta Shriwas, Sumeet Dwivedi

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Knowledge of use of traditional medicine is as old as human civilization in almost every system of medicine. Traditional practitioner viz., vaidhayas, ojha, hakim have their own herbal therapy in the treatment of infertility among women’s. Infertility is very common in developed and developing countries due to busy life style of women’s. The present study was initiated with an aim to identify medicinal plants resources from traditional practitioners of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh to treat infertility. An ethnomedicinal study of Malwa region viz., Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Ujjain, Dhar, Mandsour and Neemuch of Madhya Pradesh, India comprising fifty-seven study site was conducted during Jan-217 to June-2017. During the course of present investigation, the traditional use of medicinal plants for infertility in women was revealed by traditional practitioner. The botanical name, family, local name, part used, habit along with mode of their administration and dose duration were enumerated.

Keywords: traditional, Herbal Medicine, infertility, Madhya Pradesh, Malwa

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5 The Design and Development of Online Infertility Prevention Education in the Frame of Mayer's Multimedia Learning Theory

Authors: B. Baran, S. N. Kaptanoglu, M. Ocal, Y. Kagnici, E. Esen, E. Siyez, D. M. Siyez

Abstract:

Infertility is the fact that couples cannot have children despite 1 year of unprotected sexual life. Infertility can be considered as an important problem affecting not only sexual life but also social and psychological conditions of couples. Learning about information about preventable factors related to infertility during university years plays an important role in preventing a possible infertility case in older ages. The possibility to facilitate access to information with the internet has provided the opportunity to reach a broad audience in the diverse learning environments and educational environment. Moreover, the internet has become a basic resource for the 21st-century learners. Providing information about infertility over the internet will enable more people to reach in a short time. When studies conducted abroad about infertility are examined, interactive websites and online education programs come to the fore. In Turkey, while there is no comprehensive online education program for university students, it seems that existing studies are aimed to make more advertisements for doctors or hospitals. In this study, it was aimed to design and develop online infertility prevention education for university students. Mayer’s Multimedia Learning Theory made up the framework for the online learning environment in this study. The results of the needs analysis collected from the university students in Turkey who were selected with sampling to represent the audience for online learning contributed to the design phase. In this study, an infertility prevention online education environment designed as a 4-week education was developed by explaining the theoretical basis and needs analysis results. As a result; in the development of the online environment, different kind of visual aids that will increase teaching were used in the environment of online education according to Mayer’s principles of extraneous processing (coherence, signaling, spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, redundancy, expectation principles), essential processing (segmenting, pre-training, modality principles) and generative processing (multimedia, personalization, voice principles). For example, the important points in reproductive systems’ expression were emphasized by visuals in order to draw learners’ attention, and the presentation of the information was also supported by the human voice. In addition, because of the limited knowledge of university students in the subject, the issue of female reproductive and male reproductive systems was taught before preventable factors related to infertility. Furthermore, 3D video and augmented reality application were developed in order to embody female and male reproductive systems. In conclusion, this study aims to develop an interactive Online Infertility Prevention Education in which university students can easily access reliable information and evaluate their own level of knowledge about the subject. It is believed that the study will also guide the researchers who want to develop online education in this area as it contains design-stage decisions of interactive online infertility prevention education for university students.

Keywords: Online Education, Reproductive Health, infertility, multimedia learning theory

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4 Development of Infertility Prevention Psycho-Education Program for University Students and Evaluation of Its Effectiveness

Authors: Digdem M. Siyez, Bariscan Ozturk, Erol Esen, Ender Siyez, Yelda Kagnici, Bahar Baran

Abstract:

Infertility is a reproductive disease identified with the absence of pregnancy after regular unprotected sexual intercourse that has been lasting for 12 months or more. Some of the factors that cause infertility, which has been considered as a social and societal issue since the first days of the humankind, are preventable. These are veneral diseases, age, the frequency of the intercourse and its timing, drug use, bodyweight, environmental and professional conditions. Having actual information about the reproductive health is essential to take protective and preventive measures, and it is accepted as the most effective way to reduce the rate of infertility. However, during the literature review, it has been observed that there are so few studies that focus on the prevention of the infertility. The aim of this study is to develop a psycho-education program to reduce infertility among university students and also to evaluate the program’s effectiveness. It is believed that this program will increase the information level about infertility among the university students, help them to adopt healthy attitudes, develop life skills, create awareness about the risk factors and also contribute to the literature. Throughout the study, first, the contents of sexual/reproductive health programs developed for university students were examined by the researches. Besides, “Views about Reproductive Health Psycho-education Program Survey” was developed and applied to 10221 university students from 21 universities. In accordance with the literature and the university students’ views about reproductive health psycho-education program consisting of 9 sessions each of which lasts for 90 minutes was developed. The pilot program was carried out with 16 volunteer undergraduate students attending to a state university. During the evaluation of the pilot study, at the end of each session “Session Evaluation Form” and at the end of the entire program “Program Evaluation Form” were administered to the participants. Besides, one week after the end of the program, a focus group with half of the group, and individual interviews with the rest were conducted. Based on the evaluations, it was determined that the session duration is enough, the teaching methods meet the expectation, the techniques applied are appropriate and clear, and the materials are adequate. Also, an extra session was added to psycho-education program based on the feedbacks of the participants. In order to evaluate program’s effectiveness, Solomon control group design will be used. According to this design, the research has 2 experiment groups and 2 control groups. The participants who voluntarily participated in the research after the announcement of the psycho-education program were divided into experiment and control groups. In the experiment 1 and control 1 groups, “Personal Information Test”, “Infertility Information Test” and “Infertility Attitude Scale”, “Self Identification Inventory” and “Melbourne Decision Scale” were administered as a preliminary test. Currently, at the present stage, psycho-education still continues. After this 10-week program, the same tests will be administered again as the post-tests. The decision upon which statistical method will be applied in the analysis will be made afterwards according to whether the data meets the presuppositions or not.

Keywords: Prevention, Reproductive Health, infertility, psycho-education

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3 The Effects of Androgen Receptor Mutation on Cryptorchid Testes in 46, XY Female

Authors: Ihtisham Bukhari

Abstract:

In the current study, we enrolled a 46, XY phenotypically female patient bearing testes in her inguinal canal. DNA sequencing of the AR gene detected a missense mutation C.1715A > G (p. Y572C) in exon 2 which is already known to cause Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We further studied the effects of this mutation on the testicular histopathology of the patient. No spermatocytes were seen in the surface spreading of testicular tissues while H&E staining showed that seminiferous tubules predominantly have only Sertoli cells. To confirm this meiotic failure is likely due to the current AR mutation we performed mRNA expression of genes associated with AR pathway, expression and location of the associated proteins in testicular tissues. Western blot and real-time PCR data showed that the patient had high levels of expression of AMH, SOX9, and INNB in testis. Tubules were stained with SOX9 and AMH which revealed Sertoli cell maturation arrest. Therefore, we suggest that AR mutation enhances AMH expression which ultimately leads to failure in the maturation of Sertoli cells and failure in spermatogenesis.

Keywords: spermatogenesis, infertility, androgen receptor, Sertoli cell only syndrome

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2 Spermiogram Values of Fertile Men in Malatya Region

Authors: Aliseydi Bozkurt, Ugur Yılmaz

Abstract:

Objective: It was aimed to evaluate the current status of semen parameters in fertile males with one or more children and whose wife having a pregnancy for the last 1-12 months in Malatya region. Methods: Sperm samples were obtained from 131 voluntary fertile men. In each analysis, sperm volume (ml), number of sperm (sperm/ml), sperm motility and sperm viscosity were examined with Makler device. Classification was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results: Mean ejaculate volume ranged from 1.5 ml to 5.5 ml, sperm count ranged from 27 to 180 million/ml and motility ranged from 35 to 90%. Sperm motility was found to be on average; 69.9% in A, 7.6% in B, 8.7% in C, 13.3% in D category. Conclusion: The mean spermiogram values of fertile males in Malatya region were found to be similar to those in fertile males determined by the WHO. This study has a regional classification value in terms of spermiogram values.

Keywords: infertility, sperm motility, fertile men, spermiogram

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1 Emotional Disclosure as Mediator Between Marital Satisfaction and Mental Health Problems in Women with Infertility

Authors: Sadia Saleem

Abstract:

Infertility is a global health concern that may have a long-lasting effect on the psychosocial functioning of an individual. Rich research evidence has shown that women with infertility are at greater risk of adverse psychological experiences than men. The culture plays a risk factor when it comes to infertility. Family is considered as a central focus of a collectivistic culture like Pakistan and having children is the key factor that determines the quality of a marital relationship, individual well-being and overall standing in the society. In this collectivistic cultural context, women usually get the blame and experience more psychological distress and social isolation. A total sample of 121 (M 28.17, SD 4.73) women with primary infertility selected through purposive sampling were tested using Emotional Disclosure Questionnaire, Couple Satisfaction Index and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. The results indicate that negative emotional disclosure positively mediates the relationship between marital satisfaction and mental health problems (p < .001) in women with primary infertility. The results are discussed in terms of psychosocial counseling and family psychoeducation in Pakistani collectivistic cultural context.

Keywords: Mental Health, infertility, couple satisfaction, emotional disclosure

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