Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Infections Related Abstracts

6 Acute Phase Proteins as Biomarkers of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Wael El-Deeb


The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic importance of acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in cattle. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 99 lactating cows. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n=84) and control healthy cows (n=15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed hematuria and pyuria in UTI group. The isolated bacteria were E.coli (43/84) Corynebacterium spp, (31/84), Proteus spp. (6/84) and Streptococcus spp (4/84). The concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP), fibrinogen (Fb), total protein, albumen, and globulin were higher in cows with UTI when compared to healthy ones. Fifty-one of 84 cows with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of Hp, SAA, AGP, total protein, and globulin were associated with the odds of treatment failure. Conclusively, acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cows with UTI.

Keywords: Urinary, Infections, cows, haptoglobin, serum Amyloid A

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5 Prevalence of Treponema pallidum Infection among HIV-Seroreactive Patients in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: Y. Mohammed, A. I. Kabuga


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have continued to be a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the recent resurgence of syphilis. Syphilis is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium, spirochete Treponema pallidum and has been reported as one of the common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Nigeria. Presence of genital ulcer disease from syphilis facilitates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and their ¬diagnosis is essential for the proper management. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is used as a screening test for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, unusual VDRL test results have been reported in HIV-infected persons with syphilis. There are reports showing higher than expected VDRL titers as well as biological false positive in most of the studies. A negative Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test or VDRL test result may not rule out syphilis in patients with HIV infection. For laboratory confirmation of syphilis, one specific Treponemal test, namely, Fluroscent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS) test or Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) should be done along with VDRL. A prospective cross sectional study was conducted for 2 years from Jun, 2012 to Jun 2014 to determine the prevalence of syphilis in HIV-seroreactive patients at 5 selected HIV/AIDS treatment and counseling centers in Kano State, North Western, Nigeria. New HIV-Seroreactive patients who gave informed consent to participate in the study were recruited. Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test for Syphilis screening was performed on the same sera samples which were collected for HIV testing. A total of 238 patients, 113 (47%) males and 125 (53%) females, were enrolled. In the present study, 238 HIV-seropositive patients were screened for syphilis by VDRL test. Out of these 238 cases, 72 (32%) patients were positive for TPHA and 8 (3.4%) patients were reactive for VDRL in various titers with an overall prevalence of 3.4%. All the eight patients who were reactive for VDRL test were also positive for TPHA test. In Conclusions, with high prevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected people from this study, it is recommended that serological testing for syphilis should be carried out in all patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Detection and treatment of STI should have a central role in HIV prevention and control. This will help in proper management of patients having STIs and HIV co infection.

Keywords: HIV, Infections, STIs, syphilis

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4 Biomaterials Solutions to Medical Problems: A Technical Review

Authors: Ashish Thakur


This technical paper was written in view of focusing the biomaterials and its various applications in modern industries. Author tires to elaborate not only the medical, infect plenty of application in other industries. The scope of the research area covers the wide range of physical, biological and chemical sciences that underpin the design of biomaterials and the clinical disciplines in which they are used. A biomaterial is now defined as a substance that has been engineered to take a form which, alone or as part of a complex system, is used to direct, by control of interactions with components of living systems, the course of any therapeutic or diagnostic procedure. Biomaterials are invariably in contact with living tissues. Thus, interactions between the surface of a synthetic material and biological environment must be well understood. This paper reviews the benefits and challenges associated with surface modification of the metals in biomedical applications. The paper also elaborates how the surface characteristics of metallic biomaterials, such as surface chemistry, topography, surface charge, and wettability, influence the protein adsorption and subsequent cell behavior in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation at the biomaterial–tissue interface. The chapter also highlights various techniques required for surface modification and coating of metallic biomaterials, including physicochemical and biochemical surface treatments and calcium phosphate and oxide coatings. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials. In addition to this, chapter introduces nanomedicine and the use of both natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials, focuses on specific current polymeric nanomedicine applications and research, and concludes with the challenges of nanomedicine research. Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease with a very high prevalence in humans older than 50. The main clinical consequences are bone fractures, which often lead to patient disability or even death. A number of commercial biomaterials are currently used to treat osteoporotic bone fractures, but most of these have not been specifically designed for that purpose. Many drug- or cell-loaded biomaterials have been proposed in research laboratories, but very few have received approval for commercial use. Polymeric nanomaterial-based therapeutics plays a key role in the field of medicine in treatment areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Advantages in the use of polymers over other materials for nanomedicine include increased functionality, design flexibility, improved processability, and, in some cases, biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Nanomedicine, tissue, Infections

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3 SiO2-Ag+Chlorex vs SilverSulfaDiazine: An 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' Silver Challenge

Authors: Roberto Cassino, Valeria Dissette, Carlo Alberto Bignozzi, Daniele Pazzi


Background and Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate, both ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’, if the new SCX technology (SiO2-Ag+Chlorex) can easily defeat infections and it is really more effective than SSD (SilverSulfaDiazine). ‘In vitro’ methods: we tested ‘in vitro’ the effectiveness of both silver materials using a pool of 5 strains: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus hirae and Candida Albicans. 100 µl of this pool have been seeded on Petri dishes and kept for 24 hours in incubation at 37 C°. ‘In vivo’ methods: we enrolled patients with multiple infectious chronic wounds (according with cutting & harding criteria for infection); after a qualitative evaluation of the wounds bacterial population, taking a sample by plug, we included in the study 6 patients for a total of 10 wounds, infected by one or more of the microorganisms used for the ‘in vitro’ test. The protocol consisted of a treatment with a spray powder of SSD every 48 hours for 14 days; in case of worsening we should have to start a new treatment with a spray powder containing silicon dioxide, ionic silver and chlorexidine (SiO2-Ag+Chlorex) every 48 hours for 14 days. We evaluated the number of clinical signs of infection and the disappearance or not of the wound edge erithema. ‘In vitro’ results: SSD demonstrated a wide zone of inhibition within 24 hours, but after 5 days there was no more signs of inhibition; on the contrary SCX had a good inhibition ring that lasted more than 5 days. ‘In vivo’ results: all wounds treated with SSD got worse; the signs of infection increased and the wound edge erithema did not disappear. According with the protocol, we treated then all wounds with SCX and they all improved within the period of observation with complete disappearance of clinical signs of infection and no more wound edge erithema. Conclusions: the study demonstrated the effectiveness of SiO2-Ag+Chlorex, especially in terms of long lasting antimicrobial action. We had the same results ‘in vitro’, so that there has been a perfect correspondence between the laboratory outcomes and the clinical ones.

Keywords: Infections, SSD, chronic wounds, ionic silver

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2 Parallel among Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients: A Case Study

Authors: Khaled Khleifat


This study detects the bacterial species that responsible for UTI in both diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients, Jordan. 116 urine samples were investigated in order to determine UTI-causing bacteria. These samples distributed unequally between diabetic male (12) and diabetic female (25) and also non-diabetic male (13) and non-diabetic female (66). The results represent that E.coli is responsible for UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients (15.5% and 29.3% respectively) with large proportion (44.8%). This study showed that not all bacterial species that isolated from the non-diabetic sample could be isolated from diabetic samples. E. coli (15.5%), P. aeruginosa (4.3%), K. pneumonia (1.7%), P. mirabilis (2.6%), S. marcescens (0.9%), S. aureus (1.7%), S. pyogenes (1.7%), E. faecalis (0.9%), S. epidermidis (1.7%) and S. saprophyticus (0.9%). But E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, C. freundii, A. baumannii and B. subtilis are five bacterial species that can’t isolate from all diabetic samples. This study shows that for the treatment of UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, Chloramphenicol (30 μg), Ciprofloxacin (5 μg) and Vancomycin (30 μg) are more favorable than other antibiotics. In the same time, Cephalothin (30μg) is not recommended.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, bacterial species

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1 Retrospective Study of Bronchial Secretions Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos


Purpose: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are exposed to a different spectrum of microorganisms relative to the hospital. Due to the fact that the majority of these patients are intubated, bronchial secretions should be examined. Material and Method: Bronchial secretions should be taken with care so as not to be mixed with sputum or saliva. The bronchial secretions are placed in a sterile container and then inoculated into blood, Mac Conkey No2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed and then the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) followed by a sensitivity test in the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 365 samples of bronchial secretions from the Intensive Care Unit. 237 were found positive. S. epidermidis was identified in 1 specimen, A. baumannii in 60, K. pneumoniae in 42, P. aeruginosa in 50, C. albicans in 40, P. mirabilis in 4, E. coli in 4, S. maltophilia in 6, S. marcescens in 6, S. aureus in 12, S. pneumoniae in 1, S. haemolyticus in 4, P. fluorescens in 1, E. aerogenes in 1, E. cloacae in 5. Conclusions: The majority of ICU patients appear to be a fertile ground for the development of infections. The nature of the findings suggests that a significant part of the bacteria found comes from the unit (nosocomial infection).

Keywords: Cultures, Infections, intensive care units, bronchial secretions

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