Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Infection Related Abstracts

24 The Prevalence of Citrus Specific Nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb 1913 on the Coast of the Black Sea in Georgia

Authors: I. Eliava, T. Tskitishvili, N. Bagathuria, M. Gigolashvili, L. Jgenti, E.Tskitisvili

Abstract:

The fight against dangerous nematode diseases that have world economic importance requires accurate data about the prevalence of these pests. In the point of view of the International Convention on Biological Diversity, the identification of the plant invasion causing dangerous pathogen in the early stages of invasion on new territory is the most important part of the program, which aims to monitor the Bio-Agro Coenosis and Bio-Control. Citrus nematode-specific belongs to the pathogen species, which can cause epiphytotics particularly for large areas and cause irreparable damage to citrus plantations. This paper provides a brief tour of the spread of citrus nematodes on the Black Sea coast (Adjara and Abkhazia). Also the bio-ecological monitoring data to detect the potential sources of invasion for evaluating the current conditions of the citrus nematodes prevalence. Through 2006-2010, the material was gained by structural monitoring system during the citrus vegetation period on tangerines, lemon and oranges from nine points of the study area. Mature forms of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 were observed in almost all of the samples of the root system, the peak of larvae was observed in late spring and outumn. 92 forms of nematode has been detected in the rhizosphere belonging to 8 Orders: Areolaimida, Dorylaimida, Enoplida, Mononchida, Tylenshida, Monshysterida, Rhabditida, Aphelenchida, 23 families and 40 genera. 75 forms are identified as species. It is estimated the number of nematodes fauna and ecological groups. To detect possible sources of invasion we obtained additional materials in 2013-2014 from citrus plantations planted in 2011, where is planted tangerine trees introduced from Spain and Japan. The fauna of rhizosphere is identified and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913 is not detected.

Keywords: Infection, Citrus nematodes, bioecological monitoring, epiphytotics

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23 Absolute Lymphocyte Count as Predictor of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Patients With Unknown HIV Status at a Private Tertiary Hospital

Authors: Marja A. Bernardo, Coreena A. Bueser, Cybele Lara R. Abad, Raul V. Destura

Abstract:

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection among people with HIV. Early consideration of PCP should be made even in patients whose HIV status is unknown as delay in treatment may be fatal. The use of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been suggested as an alternative predictor of PCP especially in resource limited settings where PCR testing is costly or delayed. Objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) can be used as a screening tool to predict Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with unknown HIV status admitted at a private tertiary hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a private tertiary medical center. Inpatient medical records of patients aged 18 years old and above from January 2012 to May 2014, in whom a clinical diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was made were reviewed for inclusion. Demographic data, clinical features, hospital course, PCP PCR and HIV results were recorded. Independent t-test and chi-square analysis was used to determine any statistical difference between PCP-positive and PCP-negative groups. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison of hospital stay. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between PCP positive and negative groups. While both the percent lymphocyte count (0.14 ± 0.13 vs 0.21 ± 0.16) and ALC (1160 ± 528.67 vs 1493.70 ± 988.61) were lower for the PCP-positive group, only the percent lymphocyte count reached a statistically significant difference (p= 0.067 vs p= 0.042). Conclusion: A quick determination of the ALC may be useful as an additional parameter to help screen for and diagnose pneumocystis pneumonia. In our study, the ALC of patients with PCP appear to be lower than in patients without PCP. A low ALC (e.g. below 1200) may help with the decision regarding empiric treatment. However, it should be used in conjunction with the patient’s clinical presentation, as well as other diagnostic tests. Larger, prospective studies incorporating the ALC with other clinical predictors are necessary to optimally predict those who would benefit from empiric or expedited management for potential PCP.

Keywords: Infection, PCP, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Absolute Lymphocyte Count

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22 New Test Algorithm to Detect Acute and Chronic HIV Infection Using a 4th Generation Combo Test

Authors: Barun K. De

Abstract:

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by two types of human immunodeficiency viruses, collectively designated HIV. HIV infection is spreading globally particularly in developing countries. Before an individual is diagnosed with HIV, the disease goes through different phases. First there is an acute early phase that is followed by an established or chronic phase. Subsequently, there is a latency period after which the individual becomes immunodeficient. It is in the acute phase that an individual is highly infectious due to a high viral load. Presently, HIV diagnosis involves use of tests that do not detect the acute phase infection during which both the viral RNA and p24 antigen are expressed. Instead, these less sensitive tests detect antibodies to viral antigens which are typically sero-converted later in the disease process following acute infection. These antibodies are detected in both asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals as well as AIDS patients. Studies indicate that early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection can reduce medical costs, improve survival, and reduce spreading of infection to new uninfected partners. Newer 4th generation combination antigen/antibody tests are highly sensitive and specific for detection of acute and established HIV infection (HIV1 and HIV2) enabling immediate linkage to care. The CDC (Center of Disease Control, USA) recently recommended an algorithm involving three different tests to screen and diagnose acute and established infections of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in a general population. Initially a 4th generation combo test detects a viral antigen p24 and specific antibodies against HIV -1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins. If the test is positive it is followed by a second test known as a differentiation assay which detects antibodies against specific HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins confirming established infection of HIV-1 or HIV-2. However if it is negative then another test is performed that measures viral load confirming an acute HIV-1 infection. Screening results of a Phoenix area population detected 0.3% new HIV infections among which 32.4% were acute cases. Studies in the U.S. indicate that this algorithm effectively reduces HIV infection through immediate treatment and education following diagnosis.

Keywords: Diagnosis, HIV, Infection, new algorithm

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21 An Anthropological Insight into Cultural Beliefs, Perceptions and Taboos Associated with Reproductive Tract Infections among Women of Village Junga Village, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: A. Ratika Thakur, B. A. K. Sinha, C. R. K. Pathak

Abstract:

Reproductive Tract Infections are recognized as a serious global health problem with direct impact on women. In the developing countries, prevalence of RTI is much higher relative to other health problems. Women of the reproductive age group are socially, mentally and physically more vulnerable to infections. Also, it is a well established fact that RTI has prolonged complications in women rather than men. It causes ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases, miscarriage and infertility in the long course. Women perspective about infections is less studied. In this view the study was carried out with an aim to determine knowledge, perception and belief of married women towards reproductive tract infection. The study was conducted in Junga village, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. 48 women were interviewed regarding awareness, beliefs and taboos related to reproductive tract infection. Other aspects like fertility history were also taken into account. The data were collected using interviews with the help of interview schedule and interview guide. Data were recorded in the form of narratives and case studies. The analysis was done using quantitative and qualitative analysis. It was found that a majority of women were not aware about the reasons of infection. Moreover cultural beliefs, perceptions and taboos made them more vulnerable and exposed to RTI. Economic dependency upon men, lack of control in barrier methods were some of the factors that contributed to delayed treatment of women. It was found that a majority of women suffering from RTIs were silently bearing the burden and underwent treatment when the case would not rest in their hands.

Keywords: Perception, Women, Infection, belief, taboo

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20 Pathogenic Candida Biofilms Producers Involved in Healthcare Associated Infections

Authors: Ouassila Bekkal Brikci Benhabib, Zahia Boucherit Otmani, Kebir Boucherit, A. Seghir

Abstract:

The establishment of intravenous catheters in hospitalized patient is an act common in many clinical situations. These therapeutic tools, from their insertion in the body, represent gateways including fungal germs prone. The latter can generate the growth of biofilms, which can be the cause of fungal infection. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study at the University Hospital of Tlemcen in the neurosurgery unit and aims to isolate and identify Candida yeasts from intravenous catheters. Then test their ability to form biofilms. Materials and methods: 256 patient hospitalized in surgery of the hospital in west Algeria were submitted to this study. All samples were taken from peripheral venous catheters implanted for 72 hours or more days. A total of 31 isolates of Candida species were isolated. MIC and SMIC are determined at 80% inhibition by the test XTT tetrazolium measured at 490 nm. The final concentrations of antifungal agent being between 0.03 and 16 mg / ml for amphotericin B and from 0.015 to 8 mg / mL caspofungin. Results: 31 Candida species isolates from catheters including 14 Candida albicans and 17 Candida non albicans . 21 strains of all the isolates were able to form biofilms. In their form of Planktonic cells, all isolates are 100% susceptible to antifungal agents tested. However, in their state of biofilms, more isolates have become tolerant to the tested antifungals. Conclusion: Candida yeasts isolated from intravascular catheters are considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections. Their involvement in catheter-related infections can be disastrous for their potential to generate biofilms. They survive high concentrations of antifungal where treatment failure. Pending the development of a therapeutic approach antibiofilm related to catheters, their mastery is going through: -The risk of infection prevention based on the training and awareness of medical staff, -Strict hygiene and maximum asepsis, and -The choice of material limiting microbial colonization.

Keywords: hospital, Infection, Biofilm, amphotericin B, caspofungin, candida

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19 Oral Antibiotics in Trans-Rectal Prostate Biopsy and Its Efficacy to Reduce Infectious Complications: Systematic Review

Authors: Mohand Yaghi, O. Kehinde

Abstract:

Background: For the diagnosis of prostate cancer Trans-rectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) is used commonly, the procedure is associated with infective complications. There is evidence that antibiotics (ABx) decrease infective events after TRPB, but different regimens are used. Aim: To systematically review different regimens of prophylactic oral antibiotics in TRPB. Design: Medline, Embase, Clinical trials site, and Cochrane library were searched, experts were consulted about relevant studies. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) conducted in the last twenty years, which investigated different oral antibiotic regimens in TRPB, and compared their efficacy to reduce infectious complications were analyzed. Measurements: Primary outcomes were bacteriuria, urinary tract infection (UTI), fever, bacteremia, sepsis. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization rate, and the prevalence of ABx-resistant bacteria. Results: Nine trials were eligible with 3012 patients. Antibiotics prevented bacteriuria (3.5% vs. 9.88%), UTI (4.46% vs. 9.75%), and hospitalization (0.21% vs. 2.13%) significantly in comparison with placebo or no treatment. No significant difference was found in all outcomes of the review between the single dose regimen and the 3 days. The single dose regimen was as effective as the multiple dose except in Bacteriuria (6.75% vs. 3.25%), and the prevalence of ABx-resistant bacteria (1.57% vs. 0.27%). Quinolones reduced only UTI significantly in comparison with other antibiotics. Lastly, Ciprofloxacin is the best Quinolone to prevent UTI, and hospitalization. Conclusion: it is essential to prescribe prophylactic Antibiotics in TRPB. No conclusive evidence could be claimed about the superiority of the multiple or the 3 days regimens to the single dose regimen. Unexpectedly, ABx-resistant bacteria was identified more often in the single dose cohorts.

Keywords: Infection, Prostate Cancer, sepsis, TRPB

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18 Preclinical Studying of Stable Fe-Citrate Effect on 68Ga-Citrate Tissue Distribution

Authors: A. S. Lunev, A. A. Larenkov, O. E. Klementyeva, G. E. Kodina

Abstract:

Background and aims: 68Ga-citrate is one of prospective radiopharmaceutical for PET-imaging of inflammation and infection. 68Ga-citrate is 67Ga-citrate analogue using since 1970s for SPECT-imaging. There's known rebinding reaction occurs past Ga-citrate injection and gallium (similar iron Fe3+) binds with blood transferrin. Then radiolabeled protein complex is delivered to pathological foci (inflammation/infection sites). But excessive gallium bindings with transferrin are cause of slow blood clearance, long accumulation time in foci (24-72 h) and exception of application possibility of the short-lived gallium-68 (T½ = 68 min). Injection of additional chemical agents (e.g. Fe3+ compounds) competing with radioactive gallium to the blood transferrin joining (blocking of its metal binding capacity) is one of the ways to solve formulated problem. This phenomenon can be used for correction of 68Ga-citrate pharmacokinetics for increasing of the blood clearance and accumulation in foci. The aim of real studying is research of effect of stable Fe-citrate on 68Ga-citrate tissue distribution. Materials and methods: 68Ga-citrate without/with extra injection of stable Fe-citrate (III) was injected nonlinear mice with inflammation models (aseptic soft tissue inflammation, lung infection, osteomyelitis). PET/X-RAY Genisys4 (Sofie Bioscience, USA) was used for non-invasive PET imaging (for 30, 60, 120 min past injection 68Ga-citrate) with subsequent reconstruction of imaging and their analysis (value of clearance, distribution volume). Scanning time is 10 min. Results and conclusions: I. v. injection of stable Fe-citrate blocks the metal-binding capability of transferrin serum and allows decreasing gallium-68 radioactivity in blood significantly and increasing accumulation in inflammation (3-5 time). It allows receiving more informative PET-images of inflammation early (for 30-60 min after injection). Pharmacokinetic parameters prove it. Noted there is no statistically significant difference between 68Ga-citrate accumulation for different inflammation model because PET imaging is indication of pathological processes and is not their identification.

Keywords: Infection, mice, Inflammation, PET Imaging, Fe-citrate

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17 Two Strain Dengue Dynamics Incorporating Temporary Cross Immunity with ADE Effect

Authors: Sunita Gakkhar, Arti Mishra

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In this paper, a nonlinear host vector model has been proposed and analyzed for the two strain dengue dynamics incorporating ADE effect. The model considers that the asymptomatic infected people are more responsible for secondary infection than that of symptomatic ones and differentiates between them. The existence conditions are obtained for various equilibrium points. Basic reproduction number has been computed and analyzed to explore the effect of secondary infection enhancement parameter on dengue infection. Stability analyses of various equilibrium states have been performed. Numerical simulation has been done for the stability of endemic state.

Keywords: Infection, Stability, Dengue, threshold, ade, asymptomatic

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16 Viability and Sensitivity of SFN6B (Host-Specific Bacteriophage) towards Shigella Flexneri in Various Water Samples

Authors: Gimcheong Tan, Siewchuiang Sia

Abstract:

Bacteriophages are the most abundant and genetically diverse living entities on earth; they help in regulating and maintaining microbial diversity and balance in its natural ecosystem. In this study, the infectivity of SFN6B tailed phage was investigated in various water samples. Host bacteria (Shigella flexneri) were spiked in sterilized environmental and domestic water samples, followed by SFN6B treatment. Two incubation conditions were selected for this study, 37 oC and room temperature. S. flexneri and SFN6B viability were monitored hourly for consecutive 7 hours and extended viability study for consecutive 4 days. Absorbance of all bacteria spiked water samples were taken to monitor the bacteria count. Results showed reduction in the absorbance of the SFN6B treated water sample as compared to negative control, indicating reduction in bacterial count either due to negative growth or lysis by the lytic bacteriophage. Consistent with the result, SFN6B titer increases for first two days. However, prolong incubation of these cultures reaches equilibrium, between phage and bacteria. Temperature and water sample source also influence the interaction between S. flexneri and SFN6B. Stronger interaction was observed in 37oC as compared to room temperature, where higher bacteria count and phage titer increase were recorded. Availability of nutrient in water sample also plays a crucial role in the interaction between bacteria and phage. Higher nutrient level, such as lake and river waters were observed to give better infectivity and viability of both bacteria and phage as compared to tab water. It is believed that S. flexneri continue to remain viable and able to grow in the present of SFN6B bacteriophage, but the number was closely regulated by surrounding phages. This allows better understanding of the characteristics of SFN6B that could serve as the basis for future studies and applications.

Keywords: Infection, Microbial diversity, bacteriophage, Shigella flexneri

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15 Parasitic and Fungal Identification Bamboo Lobster Panulirus versicolour and Ornate Lobster P. ornatus Cultures

Authors: Indriyani Nur, Yusnaini

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Lobster cultures have failed because of mortalities associated with parasitic and fungal infections. Monitoring of spawned eggs and larva of bamboo lobsters, Panulirus versicolour, and ornate lobsters, P. ornatus, in a hatchery, was conducted in order to characterize fungal and parasitic diseases of eggs and larva. One species of protozoan parasite (Vorticella sp.) was identified from larvae while two species of fungi (Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros sp.) were found on eggs. Furthermore, adult lobsters cultured in floating net cage had burning-like diseases on their pleopod, uropod, and telson. Histopathological samples were collected for parasite and tissue changes. There were two parasites found to infect lobsters on external body and gill which are Octolasmis sp. and Oodinium sp. Histopathology showed tissue changes which are necrosis on hepatopancreas, necrosis in the gills and around the uropods and telson.

Keywords: Infection, Histopathology, fungal, Parasite, lobster

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14 Bacteriological Spectrum and Resistance Patterns of Common Clinical Isolates from Infections in Cancer Patients

Authors: Vivek Bhat, Rohini Kelkar, Sanjay Biswas

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Introduction: Cancer patients are at increased risk of bacterial infections. This may due to the disease process itself, the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs or invasive procedures such as catheterization. A wide variety of bacteria including some emerging pathogens are increasingly being reported from these patients. The incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms particularly in the Gram negative group is also increasing, with higher resistance rates seen to cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combinations, and the carbapenems. This study documents the bacteriological spectrum of infections and their resistance patterns in cancer patients. Methods: This study includes all bacterial isolates recovered from infections cancer patients over a period of 18 months. Samples included Blood cultures, Pus/wound swabs, urine, tissue biopsies, body fluids, catheter tips and respiratory specimens such as sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory as per standard laboratory protocols. Organisms were identified to species level and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed manually by the disc diffusion technique or in the Vitek-2 (Biomereux, France) instrument. Interpretations were as per Clinical laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: A total of 1150 bacterial isolates were cultured from 884 test samples during the study period. Of these 227 were Gram-positive and 923 were Gram-negative organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (99 isolates) was the commonest Gram-positive isolate followed by Enterococcus (79) and Gr A Streptococcus (30). Among the Gram negatives, E. coli (304), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (201) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (190) were the most common. Of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates 27.2% were methicillin resistant. Only 5.06% enterococci were vancomycin resistant. High rates of resistance to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were seen amongst E. coli (84.8% & 83.55%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (71 & 62.1%) respectively. Resistance to carbapenems (meropenem) was high at 70% in Acinetobacter spp.; however all isolates were sensitive to colistin. Among the aminoglycosides, amikacin retained good efficacy against Escherichia coli (82.9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (78.1%). Occasional isolates of emerging pathogens such as Chryseobacterium indologens, Roseomonas, and Achromobacter xyloxidans were also recovered. Conclusion: The common infections in cancer patients include respiratory, wound, tract infections and sepsis. The commonest isolates include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is a high level of resistance to the commonly used antibiotics among Gram-negative organisms.

Keywords: Cancer, Resistance, Infection, Bacteria

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13 Socio-Demographic Factors and Testing Practices Are Associated with Spatial Patterns of Clostridium difficile Infection in the Australian Capital Territory, 2004-2014

Authors: Aparna Lal, Ashwin Swaminathan, Teisa Holani

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Background: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have been on the rise globally. In Australia, rates of CDI in all States and Territories have increased significantly since mid-2011. Identifying risk factors for CDI in the community can help inform targeted interventions to reduce infection. Methods: We examine the role of neighbourhood socio-economic status, demography, testing practices and the number of residential aged care facilities on spatial patterns in CDI incidence in the Australian Capital Territory. Data on all tests conducted for CDI were obtained from ACT Pathology by postcode for the period 1st January 2004 through 31 December 2014. Distribution of age groups and the neighbourhood Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage Disadvantage (IRSAD) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 National Census data. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the postcode level to quantify the relationship between CDI and socio-demographic factors. To identify CDI hotspots, exceedance probabilities were set at a threshold of twice the estimated relative risk. Results: CDI showed a positive spatial association with the number of tests (RR=1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and the resident population over 65 years (RR=1.00, 95% CI 1.00, 1.01). The standardized index of relative socio-economic advantage disadvantage (IRSAD) was significantly negatively associated with CDI (RR=0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.94). We identified three postcodes with high probability (0.8-1.0) of excess risk. Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate geographic variations in CDI in the ACT with a positive association of CDI with socioeconomic disadvantage and identify areas with a high probability of elevated risk compared with surrounding communities. These findings highlight community-based risk factors for CDI.

Keywords: Infection, Spatial, socio-demographic, Clostridium difficile

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12 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Healthcare Workers in Dutse Metropolis, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: N. M. Sani, N. S. Mujahid, I. Bitrus, A. M. Sarki

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Hepatitis is one of the neglected infectious diseases in sub Saharan Africa, and most of the available data is based on blood donors. Health care workers (HCWs) often get infected as a result of their close contact with patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among this group of professionals with a view to improving the quality of care to their patients. Hepatitis B and C infections pose a major public health problem worldwide. While infection is highest in the developing world particularly Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, healthcare workers are at higher risk of acquiring blood-borne viral infections, particularly Hepatitis B and C which are mostly asymptomatic. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and associated risk factors among health care workers in Dutse Metropolis, Jigawa State - Nigeria. A standard rapid immuno-chromatographic technique i.e. rapid ELISA was used to screen all sera for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis C viral antibody (HCVAb) respectively. Strips containing coated antibodies and antigens to HBV and HCV respectively were removed from the foil. Strips were labeled according to samples. Using a separate disposable pipette, 2 drops of the sample (plasma) were added into each test strip and allowed to run across the absorbent pad. Results were read after 15 minutes. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in 100 healthcare workers was determined by testing the plasma collected from the clients during their normal checkup using HBsAg and HCVAb test strips. Results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test. The prevalence of HBV among HCWs was 19 out of 100 (19.0%) and that of HCV was 5 out of 100 (5.0%) where in both cases, higher prevalence was observed among female nurses. It was also observed that all HCV positive cases were recorded among nurses only. The study revealed that nurses are at greater risk of contracting HBV and HCV due to their frequent contact with patients. It is therefore recommended that effective vaccination and other infection control measures be encouraged among healthcare workers.

Keywords: Hepatitis, Infection, Viruses, Prevalence, healthcare workers

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11 Identification and Management of Septic Arthritis of the Untouched Glenohumeral Joint

Authors: Sumit Kanwar, Manisha Chand, Gregory Gilot

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Background: Septic arthritis of the shoulder has infrequently been discussed. Focus on infection of the untouched shoulder has not heretofore been described. We present four patients with glenohumeral septic arthritis. Methods: Case 1: A 59 year old male with left shoulder pain in the anterior, posterior and superior aspects. Case 2: A 60 year old male with fever, chills, and generalized muscle aches. Case 3: A 70 year old male with right shoulder pain about the anterior and posterior aspects. Case 4: A 55 year old male with global right shoulder pain, swelling, and limited ROM. Results: In case 1, the left shoulder was affected. Physical examination, swelling was notable, there was global tenderness with a painful range of motion (ROM). The lab values indicated an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 96, and a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 304.30. Imaging studies were performed and MRI indicated a high suspicion for an abscess with osteomyelitis of the humeral head. Our second case’s left arm was affected. He had swelling, global tenderness and painful ROM. His ESR was 38, CRP was 14.9. X-ray showed severe arthritis. Case 3 differed with the right arm being affected. Again, global tenderness and painful ROM was observed. His ESR was 94, and CRP was 10.6. X-ray displayed an eroded glenoid space. Our fourth case’s right shoulder was affected. He had global tenderness and painful, limited ROM. ESR was 108 and CRP was 2.4. X-ray was non-significant. Discussion: Monoarticular septic arthritis of the virgin glenohumeral joint is seldom diagnosed in clinical practice. Common denominators include elevated ESR, painful, limited ROM, and involvement of the dominant arm. The male population is more frequently affected with an average age of 57. Septic arthritis is managed with incision and drainage or needle aspiration of synovial fluid supplemented with 3-6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Due to better irrigation and joint visualization, arthroscopy is preferred. Open surgical drainage may be indicated if the above methods fail. Conclusion: If a middle-aged male presents with vague anterior or posterior shoulder pain, elevated inflammatory markers and a low grade fever, an x-ray should be performed. If this displays degenerative joint disease, the complete further workup with advanced imaging, such as an MRI, CT scan, or an ultrasound. If these imaging modalities display anterior space joint effusion with soft tissue involvement, we can suspect septic arthritis of the untouched glenohumeral joint and surgery is indicated.

Keywords: Identification, Infection, glenohumeral joint, septic arthritis, shoulder

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10 Histopathological Features of Infections Caused by Fusarium equiseti (Mart.) Sacc. in Onion Plants from Kebbi State, Northern Nigeria

Authors: Wadzani Dauda Palnam, Alao S. Emmanuel Laykay, Afiniki Bawa Zarafi, Olufunmilola Alabi, Dora N. Iortsuun

Abstract:

Onion production is affected by several diseases including fusariosis. Study was conducted to investigate the histopathological features of different onion tissues infected with Fusarium equiseti by inoculation with soil drench, root dip and mycelia paste methods. This was carried out by fixation, dehydration, clearing, wax embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting of leaf and root sections for microscopical examination at 400x. Once infection occurred in the roots, the pathogen moved through the vascular system to colonize the whole plant. At first, it grew in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex but soon invaded the cells, followed by colonization of the cells by its hyphae and microconidia. At later stages of infection, the cortex tissue became completely disorganized and decomposed as the pathogen advance to the shoot system via the vessel elements; this may be responsible for the early wilting symptom of infected plants arising from the severe water stress due to blockage of the xylem tissues.

Keywords: Infection, Histopathology, inoculation, onion, fusaria

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9 The Association between Prior Antibiotic Use and Subsequent Risk of Infectious Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White

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Introduction: The microbiota lining epithelial surfaces is thought to play an important role in many human physiological functions including defense against pathogens and modulation of immune response. The microbiota is susceptible to disruption from external influences such as exposure to antibiotic medication. It is thought that antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota could predispose to pathogen overgrowth and invasion. We hypothesized that antibiotic use would be associated with increased risk of future infections. We carried out a systematic review of evidence of associations between antibiotic use and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature for observational studies assessing the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection. Eligible studies were published before April 29th, 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science and screened titles and abstracts using a predefined search strategy. Infections caused by Clostridium difficile, drug-resistant organisms and fungal organisms were excluded as their association with prior antibiotic use has been examined in previous systematic reviews. Results: Eighteen out of 21,518 retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. The association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent increased risk of infection was reported in 16 studies, including one study on Campylobacter jejuni infection (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.3), two on typhoid fever (ORs 5.7 and 12.2), one on Staphylococcus aureus skin infection (OR 2.9), one on invasive pneumococcal disease (OR 1.57), one on recurrent furunculosis (OR 16.6), one on recurrent boils and abscesses (Risk ratio 1.4), one on upper respiratory tract infection (OR 2.3) and urinary tract infection (OR 1.1), one on invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection (OR 1.51), one on infectious mastitis (OR 5.38), one on meningitis (OR 2.04) and five on Salmonella enteric infection (ORs 1.4, 1.59, 1.9, 2.3 and 3.8). The effect size in three studies on Salmonella enteric infection was of marginal statistical significance. A further two studies on Salmonella infection did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between prior antibiotic exposure and subsequent infection. Conclusion: We have found an association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent risk of a diverse range of infections in the community setting. Our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that prior antibiotic usage may predispose to future infection risk, possibly through antibiotic-induced alteration of the microbiota. The findings add further weight to calls to minimize inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions.

Keywords: Infection, Antibiotic, risk factor, side effect

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8 Ganoderma Infection in Acacia mangium: Difference of Plant Hosts to Virulency of Ganoderma

Authors: Rosa Suryantini, Reine S. Wulandari, Slamet Rifanjani

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Acacia (Acacia mangium) is a forest plant species which is produced to pulp and paper. The high demand for pulp and paper increase the acacia plantation forest area. However, the outbreak of Ganoderma (root rot pathogen) infection becomes obstacles for the development of acacia plantations. This is due to the extent of host range and species of Ganoderma. Ganoderma has also the ability to survive the long-term without hosts. The diversity of the host and Ganoderma species affects its virulence. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the virulence of Ganoderma from different hosts (acacia, palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)). The methods were isolation and morphology identification of Ganoderma, and inoculation of Ganoderma isolates on acacia seedlings. The results showed that the three isolates of Ganoderma from different hosts had a morphological similarity with G. Lucidum (according to Ganoderma isolated from acacia or G1), G. boninense (according to Ganoderma isolated from palm oil or G2) and G. applanatum (according to Ganoderma isolated from rubber or G3). Symptoms of infection in acacia were seen at 3 months of age. The symptoms were begun with chlorosis, necrosis and death of seedlings (such as burning). Necrosis was started from the tip of the leaf. Based on this visible symptoms, G1 was moderate virulence isolate and G2 was low virulence isolate while G3 was avirulen isolate. The symptoms were still growing in accordance with the development of plant so it affected the value of diseases severity index. Ganoderma infection decreased the dry weight of seedlings, ie. 3.82 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G1), 4.01 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G2); and 5.02 g (seedlings that were inoculated by G3) when the dry weight of seedlings control was 10,02 g. These results provide information for early control of Ganoderma diseases on acacia especially those planted near rubber and oil palm crops.

Keywords: Infection, virulence, Ganoderma, Acacia

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7 The Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization on Viral Bronchiolitis

Authors: K. Genise, S. Murthy

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Introductory Statement: The results of this retrospective chart review suggest the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill children with viral bronchiolitis, currently unproven, are clinically insignificant. Background: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most prevalent causes of illness requiring hospitalization among children worldwide and one of the most common reasons for admission to pediatric intensive care. It has been hypothesized that co-infection with bacteria results in more severe clinical outcomes. Conversely, the effects of bacterial colonization in critically ill patients with bronchiolitis are poorly defined. Current clinical management of colonized patients consists primarily of supportive therapies with the role of antibiotics remaining controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of all critically ill children admitted to the BC Children’s Hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) from 2014-2017 with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis was performed. Routine testing in this time frame consisted of complete pathogen testing, including PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Analyses were performed to determine the impact of bacterial colonization and antibiotic use on a primary outcome of PICU length-of-stay, with secondary outcomes of hospital length-of-stay and duration of ventilation. Results: There were 92 patients with complete pathogen testing performed during the assessed timeframe. A comparison between children with detected Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=22) and those without (n=70) revealed no significant (p=0.20) differences in severity of illness on presentation as per Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores (mean=3.0). Patients colonized with S. pneumoniae had significantly shorter PICU stays (p=0.002), hospital stays (p=0.0001) and duration of non-invasive ventilation (p=0.002). Multivariate analyses revealed that these effects on length of PICU stay and duration of ventilation do not persist after controlling for antibiotic use, presence of radiographic consolidation, age, and severity of illness (p=0.15, p=0.32). The relationship between colonization and duration of hospital stay persists after controlling for these variables (p=0.008). Conclusions: Children with viral bronchiolitis colonized with S. pneumoniae do not appear to have significantly different PICU length-of-stays or duration of ventilation compared to children who are not colonized. Colonized children appear to have shorter hospital stays. The results of this study suggest bacterial colonization is not associated with increased severity of presenting illness or negative clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Infection, Critical Care, colonization, bronchiolitis, pneumococcal

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6 Theory of Negative Trigger: The Contract between Oral Probiotics and Immune System

Authors: Cliff Shunsheng Han

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Identifying the direct allergy cause that can be easily mitigated is the foundation to stop the allergy epidemic that has been started in the seventies. It has confirmed that the personal and social hygiene practices are associated with the allergy prevalence. But direct causes have been found, and proposed translational measures have not been effective. This study, assisted by a particular case of allergies, has seen the direct cause of allergies, developed a valid test resulted in lasting relief for allergies, and constructed theory describing general relationship between microbiota and host immune system. Saliva samples were collected from a subject for three years during which time the person experienced yearlong allergy, seasonal allergy, and remission of allergy symptoms. Bacterial DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were profiled with Illumina sequencing technology. The analyzing results indicate that the possible direct cause of allergy is the lacking probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity, such as genera Streptococcus and Veilonella, that can produce metabolites to pacify immune system. Targeted promotion of those bacteria with a compound designed for them, has led to lasting remissions of allergic rhinitis. During the development of the translational measure, the subject's oral biofilm was completely destructed by a moderate fever due to an unrelated respiratory infection. The incident not only facilitated the development of the heat based microbiota reseeding procedure but also indicated a possible natural switch that subsequently increases the efficacy of the immune system previously restrained by metabolites from microbiota. These results lead to the proposal of a Theory of Negative Trigger (TNT) to describe the relationship between oral probiotics and immune system, in which probiotics are the negative trigger that will release the power of immune system when removed by fever or modern lifestyles. This study could open doors leading to further understanding of how the immune system functions under the influence of microbiota as well as validate simple traditional practices for healthy living.

Keywords: Allergy, Infection, Immune System, oral microbiome

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5 Comprehensive Literature Review of the Humanistic Burden of Clostridium (Clostridiodes) difficile Infection

Authors: Caroline Seo, Jennifer Stephens, Kirstin H. Heinrich

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Background: Clostridiodes (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium with manifestations including diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Despite general understanding that CDI may be associated with marked burden on patients’ health, there has been limited information available on the humanistic burden of CDI. The objective of this literature review was to summarize the published data on the humanistic burden of CDI globally, in order to better inform future research efforts and increase awareness of the patient perspective in this disease. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of the past 15 years (2002-2017) was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Additional searches were conducted from conference proceedings (2015-2017). Articles selected were studies specifically designed to examine the humanistic burden of illness associated with adult patients with CDI. Results: Of 3,325 articles or abstracts identified, 33 remained after screening and full text review. Sixty percent (60%) were published in 2016 or 2017. Data from the United States or Western Europe were most common. Data from Brazil, Canada, China and Spain also exist. Thirteen (13) studies used validated patient-reported outcomes instruments, mostly EQ-5D utility and SF-36 generic instruments. Three (3) studies used CDI-specific instruments (CDiff32, CDI-DaySyms). The burden of CDI impacts patients in multiple health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains. SF-36 domains with the largest decrements compared to other GI diarrheal diseases (IBS-D and Crohn’s) were role physical, physical functioning, vitality, social functioning, and role emotional. Reported EQ-5D utilities for CDI ranged from 0.35-0.42 compared to 0.65 in Crohn’s and 0.72 in IBS-D. The majority of papers addressed physical functioning and mental health domains (67% for both). Across various studies patients reported weakness, lack of appetite, sleep disturbance, functional dependence, and decreased activities of daily lives due to the continuous diarrhea. Due to lack of control over this infection, CDI also impacts the psychological and emotional quality of life of the patients. Patients reported feelings of fear, anxiety, frustration, depression, and embarrassment. Additionally, the type of disease (primary vs. recurrent) may impact mental health. One study indicated that there is a decrement in SF-36 mental scores in patients with recurrent CDI, in comparison to patients with primary CDI. Other domains highlighted by these studies include pain (27%), social isolation (27%), vitality and fatigue (24%), self-care (9%), and caregiver burden (0%). Two studies addressed work productivity, with 1 of these studies reporting that CDI patients had the highest work productivity and activity impairment scores among the gastrointestinal diseases. No study specifically included caregiver self-report. However, 3 studies did provide mention of patients’ worry on how their diagnosis of CDI would impact family, caregivers, and/or friends. Conclusions: Despite being a serious public health issue there has been a paucity of research on the HRQOL among those with CDI. While progress is being made, gaps exist in understanding the burden on patients, caregivers, and families. Future research is warranted to aid understanding of the CDI patient perspective.

Keywords: Infection, Humanistic, burden, Clostridiodes, difficile

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4 Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia

Authors: Iveta Megrelishvili, Maia Kukhaleishvili, Ekaterine Bulauri, Tamar Shamatava, Tamar Chipashvili

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Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.

Keywords: Diseases, Infection, Virus, potato

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3 Retrospective Study of Positive Blood Cultures Carried out in the Microbiology Department of General Hospital of Ioannina in 2017

Authors: P. Christodoulou, M. Gerasimou, S. Mantzoukis, N. Varsamis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos

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Purpose: Microbial infection of the blood is a serious condition where bacteria invade the bloodstream and cause systemic disease. In such cases, blood cultures are performed. Blood cultures are a key diagnostic test for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Material and method: The BacT/Alert system, which measures the production of carbon dioxide with metabolic organisms, is used. The positive result in the BacT/Alert system is followed by culture in the following selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Sabaureaud agar. Gram staining method was used to differentiate bacterial species. The microorganisms were identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan (Siemens) system and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by a Kirby Bauer-based test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 3347 blood cultures. Of these, 170 came from the ICU. 116 found positive. Of these S. epidermidis was identified in 42, A. baumannii in 27, K. pneumoniae in 12 (4 of these KPC ‘Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase’), S. hominis in 8, E. faecium in 7, E. faecalis in 5, P. aeruginosa in 3, C. albicans in 3, S. capitis in 2, K. oxytoca in 2, P. mirabilis in 2, E. coli in 1, S. intermidius in 1 and S. lugdunensis in 1. Conclusions: The study of epidemiological data and microbial resistance phenotypes is essential for the choice of therapeutic regimen for the early treatment and limitation of multivalent strains, while it is a crucial factor to solve diagnostic problems.

Keywords: Infection, Bloodstream, intensive care unit, blood culture

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2 Increasing Adherence to Preventative Care Bundles for Healthcare-Associated Infections: The Impact of Nurse Education

Authors: Lauren G. Coggins

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Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI), contributing to prolonged lengths of stay, greater costs of patient care, and increased patient mortality. Evidence-based preventative care bundles exist to establish consistent, safe patient-care practices throughout an entire organization, helping to ensure the collective application of care strategies that aim to improve patient outcomes and minimize complications. The cardiac intensive care unit at a nationally ranked teaching and research hospital in the United States exceeded its annual CAUTI and CLABSI targets in the fiscal year 2019, prompting examination into the unit’s infection prevention efforts that included preventative care bundles for both HAIs. Adherence to the CAUTI and CLABSI preventative care bundles was evaluated through frequent audits conducted over three months, using standards and resources from The Joint Commission, a globally recognized leader in quality improvement in healthcare and patient care safety. The bundle elements with the lowest scores were identified as the most commonly missed elements. Three elements from both bundles, six elements in total, served as key content areas for the educational interventions targeted to bedside nurses. The CAUTI elements included appropriate urinary catheter order, appropriate continuation criteria, and urinary catheter care. The CLABSI elements included primary tubing compliance, needleless connector compliance, and dressing change compliance. An integrated, multi-platform education campaign featured content on each CAUTI and CLABSI preventative care bundle in its entirety, with additional reinforcement focused on the lowest scoring elements. One-on-one educational materials included an informational pamphlet, badge buddy, a presentation to reinforce nursing care standards, and real-time application through case studies and electronic health record demonstrations. A digital hub was developed on the hospital’s Intranet for quick access to unit resources, and a bulletin board helped track the number of days since the last CAUTI and CLABSI incident. Audits continued to be conducted throughout the education campaign, and staff were given real-time feedback to address any gaps in adherence. Nearly every nurse in the cardiac intensive care unit received all educational materials, and adherence to all six key bundle elements increased after the implementation of educational interventions. Recommendations from this implementation include providing consistent, comprehensive education across multiple teaching tools and regular audits to track adherence. The multi-platform education campaign brought focus to the evidence-based CAUTI and CLABSI bundles, which in turn will help to reduce CAUTI and CLABSI rates in clinical practice.

Keywords: Education, Prevention, Nursing, Infection, healthcare-associated infections

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1 A Cost-Evaluation Study on the Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation for Salvage of Infected Implant-Based Breast Reconstructions

Authors: S. Haque, M. Kanapathy, E. Bollen, I. Younis, A. Mosahebi

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Background: Implant loss due to infection is the most devastating complication of implant-based breast reconstruction. The use of negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) for salvage of infected implant-based breast reconstructions has shown promising results to allow early reinsertion of a new implant as an alternative to current management of delayed reinsertion. This study compares the cost implication of NPWTi against current management of delayed reinsertion of infected breast implants. Methods: 20 cases of an infected breast implant treated with NPWTi (V.A.C. VERAFLO™ Therapy) followed by early re-insertion of a new implant were compared with 20 cases who had delayed reinsertion (non-NPWTi). Average cost per person was calculated using total operative expenses, cost of inpatient stay, cost of investigations, cost of antibiotics, and cost of outpatient visits. Results: Treatment with NPWTi allowed for earlier re-insertion of a new implant (NPWTi: 9.04 ± 2.92 days vs. non-NPWTi: 236.25 ± 123.89 days). The average cost per patient for NPWTi and non-NPWTi was £14,343.13 ± £2,786.70 and £8,920.31 ± £3,005.73 respectively. All patients treated with NPWTi had one admission and spent 11.9 ± 4.1days as an inpatient while non-NPWTi patients had 2.1 ± 0.3 admissions with total length of inpatient stay of 7.1 ± 5.8days. Patients treated with NPWTi had more surgeries (NPWTi: 3.35 ± 0.81 vs. non-NPWTi: 2.2 ± 0.41), however 3 non-NPWTi cases required flap reconstruction. Patients treated with NPWTi had fewer total outpatient visits (NPWTi: 12 ± 6 vs. non-NPWTi: 14.2 ± 6.3). Conclusion: Patients treated with NPWTi incurred higher average cost per patient, longer inpatient stay, and more procedures; however, had early re-insertion of new implants and fewer admissions and outpatient visits. A further study on patient-reported outcome is essential to compare cost against patient benefit.

Keywords: Infection, breast reconstruction, cost evaluation, negative pressure wound therapy

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