Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Industry 4.0 Related Abstracts

21 How Virtualization, Decentralization, and Network-Building Change the Manufacturing Landscape: An Industry 4.0 Perspective

Authors: Malte Brettel, Niklas Friederichsen, Michael Keller, Marius Rosenberg

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The German manufacturing industry has to withstand an increasing global competition on product quality and production costs. As labor costs are high, several industries have suffered severely under the relocation of production facilities towards aspiring countries, which have managed to close the productivity and quality gap substantially. Established manufacturing companies have recognized that customers are not willing to pay large price premiums for incremental quality improvements. As a consequence, many companies from the German manufacturing industry adjust their production focusing on customized products and fast time to market. Leveraging the advantages of novel production strategies such as Agile Manufacturing and Mass Customization, manufacturing companies transform into integrated networks, in which companies unite their core competencies. Hereby, virtualization of the process- and supply-chain ensures smooth inter-company operations providing real-time access to relevant product and production information for all participating entities. Boundaries of companies deteriorate, as autonomous systems exchange data, gained by embedded systems throughout the entire value chain. By including Cyber-Physical-Systems, advanced communication between machines is tantamount to their dialogue with humans. The increasing utilization of information and communication technology allows digital engineering of products and production processes alike. Modular simulation and modeling techniques allow decentralized units to flexibly alter products and thereby enable rapid product innovation. The present article describes the developments of Industry 4.0 within the literature and reviews the associated research streams. Hereby, we analyze eight scientific journals with regards to the following research fields: Individualized production, end-to-end engineering in a virtual process chain and production networks. We employ cluster analysis to assign sub-topics into the respective research field. To assess the practical implications, we conducted face-to-face interviews with managers from the industry as well as from the consulting business using a structured interview guideline. The results reveal reasons for the adaption and refusal of Industry 4.0 practices from a managerial point of view. Our findings contribute to the upcoming research stream of Industry 4.0 and support decision-makers to assess their need for transformation towards Industry 4.0 practices.

Keywords: mass customization, Industry 4.0, production networks, virtual process-chain

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20 Digital Transformation in Production Planning and Control: Evaluation of the Organizational Readiness

Authors: Johannes Wagner, Peter Burggräf, Tobias Wissing

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Cost pressure, competitiveness and the increasing turbulence of globalized saturated markets has been the driver for a variety of research activities in the field of production planning and control (PPC) during the past decades. For some time past an increasing awareness for innovative technologies in terms of Industry 4.0 can be noticed. Although there are many promising approaches a solely installation of those smart solutions will not maximize the PPC performance. To accelerate the successful digital transformation the cooperation between employee and technology also has to be adapted. The existing processes and organizational structures might be not sufficient to maximize the utilization of technological innovations. This paper presents the key results of an extensive study which was conducted by the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of the RWTH Aachen University to evaluate the current situation and examine the organizational readiness for this digital transformation.

Keywords: Production Planning and Control, Industry 4.0, Digital transformation, cyber-physical production system

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19 Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises

Authors: Martin Böhmer, Agatha Dabrowski, Boris Otto

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The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.

Keywords: Knowledge Engineering, Data Management, Digitization, Industry 4.0, metamodel

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18 Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves

Authors: R. Meier, M. Pander

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In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.

Keywords: Elasticity, Process Control, Microstructure, Industry 4.0, acoustoelasticity, lamb waves

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17 Educational Turn towards Digitalization by Changing Leadership, Networks and Qualification Concepts

Authors: Patricia Girrbach

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Currently, our society is facing a new and incremental upheaval technological revolution named digitalization. In order to face the relating challenges organizations have to be prepared. They need appropriate circumstances in order to cope with current issues concerning digital transformation processes. Nowadays digitalization emerged as top issues for companies and business leaders. In this context, it is a pressure on companies to have a positive, productive digital culture. And indeed, Organizations realize that they need to address this important issue. In this context 87 percent of organizations quote culture and engagement as one of their top challenges in terms of any change process, but especially in terms of the digital turn. Executives can give their company a competitive advantage and attract top talent by having a strong workplace culture that supports digitalization. Many current studies attest that fact. Digital-oriented companies can hire more easily, they have the lowest voluntary turnover rates, deliver better customer service, and are more profitable over the long run. Based on this background it is important to provide companies starting points and practical measurements how to reach this goal. The major findings are that firms need to make sense out of digitalization. In this context, they should focus on internal but also on external stakeholders. Furthermore, they should create certain working conditions and they should support the qualification of employees, e.g. by Virtual Reality. These measurements can create positive experiences in terms of digitalization in order to ensure the support of stuff in terms of the digital turn. Based on several current studies and literature research this paper provides concrete measurements for companies in order to enable the digital turn. Therefore, the aim of this paper is providing possible practical starting points which support both the education of employees by digitalization as well as the digital turn itself within the organization.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Industry 4.0, Digitalization, education 4.0

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16 Continuous Improvement as an Organizational Capability in the Industry 4.0 Era

Authors: Lodgaard Eirin, Myklebust Odd, Eleftheriadis Ragnhild

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Continuous improvement is becoming increasingly a prerequisite for manufacturing companies to remain competitive in a global market. In addition, future survival and success will depend on the ability to manage the forthcoming digitalization transformation in the industry 4.0 era. Industry 4.0 promises substantially increased operational effectiveness, were all equipment are equipped with integrated processing and communication capabilities. Subsequently, the interplay of human and technology will evolve and influence the range of worker tasks and demands. Taking into account these changes, the concept of continuous improvement must evolve accordingly. Based on a case study from manufacturing industry, the purpose of this paper is to point out what the concept of continuous improvement will meet and has to take into considering when entering the 4th industrial revolution. In the past, continuous improvement has the focus on a culture of sustained improvement targeting the elimination of waste in all systems and processes of an organization by involving everyone. Today, it has to be evolved into the forthcoming digital transformation and the increased interplay of human and digital communication system to reach its full potential. One main findings of this study, is how digital communication systems will act as an enabler to strengthen the continuous improvement process, by moving from collaboration within individual teams to interconnection of teams along the product value chain. For academics and practitioners, it will help them to identify and prioritize their steps towards an industry 4.0 implementation integrated with focus on continuous improvement.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, Human-Machine-Interaction, continuous improvement, digital communication system, team perfomance

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15 Construction 4.0: The Future of the Construction Industry in South Africa

Authors: Temidayo. O. Osunsanmi, Clinton Aigbavboa, Ayodeji Oke

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The construction industry is a renowned latecomer to the efficiency offered by the adoption of information technology. Whereas, the banking, manufacturing, retailing industries have keyed into the future by using digitization and information technology as a new approach for ensuring competitive gain and efficiency. The construction industry has yet to fully realize similar benefits because the adoption of ICT is still at the infancy stage with a major concentration on the use of software. Thus, this study evaluates the awareness and readiness of construction professionals towards embracing a full digitalization of the construction industry using construction 4.0. The term ‘construction 4.0’ was coined from the industry 4.0 concept which is regarded as the fourth industrial revolution that originated from Germany. A questionnaire was utilized for sourcing data distributed to practicing construction professionals through a convenience sampling method. Using SPSS v24, the hypotheses posed were tested with the Mann Whitney test. The result revealed that there are no differences between the consulting and contracting organizations on the readiness for adopting construction 4.0 concepts in the construction industry. Using factor analysis, the study discovers that adopting construction 4.0 will improve the performance of the construction industry regarding cost and time savings and also create sustainable buildings. In conclusion, the study determined that construction professionals have a low awareness towards construction 4.0 concepts. The study recommends an increase in awareness of construction 4.0 concepts through seminars, workshops and training, while construction professionals should take hold of the benefits of adopting construction 4.0 concepts. The study contributes to the roadmap for the implementation of construction industry 4.0 concepts in the South African construction industry.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, building information technology, Construction 4.0, smart site

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14 Exploring Disruptive Innovation Capacity Effects on Firm Performance: An Investigation in Industries 4.0

Authors: Selma R. Oliveira, E. W. Cazarini

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Recently, studies have referenced innovation as a key factor affecting the performance of firms. Companies make use of its innovative capacities to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. In this perspective, the objective of this paper is to contribute to innovation planning policies in industry 4.0. Thus, this paper examines the disruptive innovation capacity on firm performance in Europe. This procedure was prepared according to the following phases: Phase 1: Determination of the conceptual model; and Phase 2: Verification of the conceptual model. The research was initially conducted based on the specialized literature, which extracted the data regarding the constructs/structure and content in order to build the model. The research involved the intervention of experts knowledgeable on the object studied, selected by technical-scientific criteria. The data were extracted using an assessment matrix. To reduce subjectivity in the results achieved the following methods were used complementarily and in combination: multicriteria analysis, multivariate analysis, psychometric scaling and neurofuzzy technology. The data were extracted using an assessment matrix and the results were satisfactory, validating the modeling approach.

Keywords: Performance, Capacity, Industry 4.0, disruptive innovation

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13 Implications of Industry 4.0 to Supply Chain Management and Human Resources Management: The State of the Art

Authors: Ayse Begum Kilic, Sevgi Ozkan

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Industry 4.0 (I4.0) is a significant and promising research topic that is expected to gain more importance due to its effects on important concepts like cost, resource management, and accessibility. Instead of focusing those effects in only one area, combining different departments, and see the big picture helps to make more realistic predictions about the future. The aim of this paper is to identify the implications of Industry 4.0 for both supply chain management and human resources management by finding out the topics that take place at the intersection of them. Another objective is helping the readers to realize the expected changes in these two areas due to I4.0 in order to take the necessary steps in advance and make recommendations to catch up the latest trends. The expected changes are concluded from the industry reports and related journal papers in the literature. As found in the literature, this study is the first to combine the Industry 4.0, supply chain management and human resources management and urges to lead future works by finding out the intersections of those three areas. Benefits of I4.0 and the amount, research areas and the publication years of papers on I4.0 in the academic journals are mentioned in this paper. One of the main findings of this research is that a change in the labor force qualifications is expected with the advancements in the technology. There will be a need for higher level of skills from the workers. This will directly affect the human resources management in a way of recruiting and managing those people. Another main finding is, as it is explained with an example in the article, the advancements in the technology will change the place of production. For instance, 'dark factories', a popular topic of I4.0, will enable manufacturers to produce in places that close to their marketplace. The supply chains are expected to be influenced by that change.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Human Resources Management, Industry 4.0

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12 From Industry 4.0 to Agriculture 4.0: A Framework to Manage Product Data in Agri-Food Supply Chain for Voluntary Traceability

Authors: Angelo Corallo, Maria Elena Latino, Marta Menegoli

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Agri-food value chain involves various stakeholders with different roles. All of them abide by national and international rules and leverage marketing strategies to advance their products. Food products and related processing phases carry with it a big mole of data that are often not used to inform final customer. Some data, if fittingly identified and used, can enhance the single company, and/or the all supply chain creates a math between marketing techniques and voluntary traceability strategies. Moreover, as of late, the world has seen buying-models’ modification: customer is careful on wellbeing and food quality. Food citizenship and food democracy was born, leveraging on transparency, sustainability and food information needs. Internet of Things (IoT) and Analytics, some of the innovative technologies of Industry 4.0, have a significant impact on market and will act as a main thrust towards a genuine ‘4.0 change’ for agriculture. But, realizing a traceability system is not simple because of the complexity of agri-food supply chain, a lot of actors involved, different business models, environmental variations impacting products and/or processes, and extraordinary climate changes. In order to give support to the company involved in a traceability path, starting from business model analysis and related business process a Framework to Manage Product Data in Agri-Food Supply Chain for Voluntary Traceability was conceived. Studying each process task and leveraging on modeling techniques lead to individuate information held by different actors during agri-food supply chain. IoT technologies for data collection and Analytics techniques for data processing supply information useful to increase the efficiency intra-company and competitiveness in the market. The whole information recovered can be shown through IT solutions and mobile application to made accessible to the company, the entire supply chain and the consumer with the view to guaranteeing transparency and quality.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, Agriculture 4.0, agri-food suppy chain, voluntary traceability

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11 A Web and Cloud-Based Measurement System Analysis Tool for the Automotive Industry

Authors: C. A. Barros, Ana P. Barroso

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Any industrial company needs to determine the amount of variation that exists within its measurement process and guarantee the reliability of their data, studying the performance of their measurement system, in terms of linearity, bias, repeatability and reproducibility and stability. This issue is critical for automotive industry suppliers, who are required to be certified by the 16949:2016 standard (replaces the ISO/TS 16949) of International Automotive Task Force, defining the requirements of a quality management system for companies in the automotive industry. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is one of the mandatory tools. Frequently, the measurement system in companies is not connected to the equipment and do not incorporate the methods proposed by the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG). To address these constraints, an R&D project is in progress, whose objective is to develop a web and cloud-based MSA tool. This MSA tool incorporates Industry 4.0 concepts, such as, Internet of Things (IoT) protocols to assure the connection with the measuring equipment, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, statistical tools, and advanced mathematical algorithms. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the project. The web and cloud-based MSA tool is innovative because it implements all statistical tests proposed in the MSA-4 reference manual from AIAG as well as other emerging methods and techniques. As it is integrated with the measuring devices, it reduces the manual input of data and therefore the errors. The tool ensures traceability of all performed tests and can be used in quality laboratories and in the production lines. Besides, it monitors MSAs over time, allowing both the analysis of deviations from the variation of the measurements performed and the management of measurement equipment and calibrations. To develop the MSA tool a ten-step approach was implemented. Firstly, it was performed a benchmarking analysis of the current competitors and commercial solutions linked to MSA, concerning Industry 4.0 paradigm. Next, an analysis of the size of the target market for the MSA tool was done. Afterwards, data flow and traceability requirements were analysed in order to implement an IoT data network that interconnects with the equipment, preferably via wireless. The MSA web solution was designed under UI/UX principles and an API in python language was developed to perform the algorithms and the statistical analysis. Continuous validation of the tool by companies is being performed to assure real time management of the ‘big data’. The main results of this R&D project are: MSA Tool, web and cloud-based; Python API; New Algorithms to the market; and Style Guide of UI/UX of the tool. The MSA tool proposed adds value to the state of the art as it ensures an effective response to the new challenges of measurement systems, which are increasingly critical in production processes. Although the automotive industry has triggered the development of this innovative MSA tool, other industries would also benefit from it. Currently, companies from molds and plastics, chemical and food industry are already validating it.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Automotive industry, Measurement System Analysis, Industry 4.0, IATF 16949:2016

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10 Virtualization of Production Using Digital Twin Technology

Authors: Martin Juhas, Bohuslava Juhasova, Igor Halenar

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The contribution deals with the current situation in modern manufacturing enterprises, which is affected by digital virtualization of different parts of the production process. The overview part of this article points to the fact, that wide informatization of all areas causes substitution of real elements and relationships between them with their digital, often virtual images, in real practice. Key characteristics of the systems implemented using digital twin technology along with essential conditions for intelligent products deployment were identified across many published studies. The goal was to propose a template for the production system realization using digital twin technology as a supplement to standardized concepts for Industry 4.0. The main resulting idea leads to the statement that the current trend of implementation of the new technologies and ways of communication between industrial facilities erases the boundaries between the real environment and the virtual world.

Keywords: Communication, Simulation, Virtualization, Industry 4.0, Digital Twin

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9 Smart Lean Manufacturing in the Context of Industry 4.0: A Case Study

Authors: M. Ramadan, B. Salah

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This paper introduces a framework to digitalize lean manufacturing tools to enhance smart lean-based manufacturing environments or Lean 4.0 manufacturing systems. The paper discusses the integration between lean tools and the powerful features of recent real-time data capturing systems with the help of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to develop an intelligent real-time monitoring and controlling system of production operations concerning lean targets. This integration is represented in the Lean 4.0 system called Dynamic Value Stream Mapping (DVSM). Moreover, the paper introduces the practice of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and ICT to smartly support lean tools and practices during daily production runs to keep the lean system alive and effective. This work introduces a practical description of how the lean method tools 5S, standardized work, and poka-yoke can be digitalized and smartly monitored and controlled through DVSM. A framework of the three tools has been discussed and put into practice in a German switchgear manufacturer.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Radio Frequency Identification, Industry 4.0, value stream mapping

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8 Current Status of Industry 4.0 in Material Handling Automation and In-house Logistics

Authors: Orestis Κ. Efthymiou, Stavros T. Ponis

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In the last decade, a new industrial revolution seems to be emerging, supported -once again- by the rapid advancements of Information Technology in the areas of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication permitting large numbers of intelligent devices, e.g. sensors to communicate with each other and take decisions without any or minimum indirect human intervention. The advent of these technologies have triggered the emergence of a new category of hybrid (cyber-physical) manufacturing systems, combining advanced manufacturing techniques with innovative M2M applications based on the Internet of Things (IoT), under the umbrella term Industry 4.0. Even though the topic of Industry 4.0 has attracted much attention during the last few years, the attempts of providing a systematic literature review of the subject are scarce. In this paper, we present the authors’ initial study of the field with a special focus on the use and applications of Industry 4.0 principles in material handling automations and in-house logistics. Research shows that despite the vivid discussion and attractiveness of the subject, there are still many challenges and issues that have to be addressed before Industry 4.0 becomes standardized and widely applicable.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Manufacturing Systems, Logistics, material handling, Industry 4.0

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7 Methodical Approach for the Integration of a Digital Factory Twin into the Industry 4.0 Processes

Authors: R. Hellmuth

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The orientation of flexibility and adaptability with regard to factory planning is at machine and process level. Factory buildings are not the focus of current research. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas and the construction of a factory. The adaptability of a factory can be divided into three types: spatial, organizational and technical adaptability. Spatial adaptability indicates the ability to expand and reduce the size of a factory. Here, the area-related breathing capacity plays the essential role. It mainly concerns the factory site, the plant layout and the production layout. The organizational ability to change enables the change and adaptation of organizational structures and processes. This includes structural and process organization as well as logistical processes and principles. New and reconfigurable operating resources, processes and factory buildings are referred to as technical adaptability. These three types of adaptability can be regarded independently of each other as undirected potentials of different characteristics. If there is a need for change, the types of changeability in the change process are combined to form a directed, complementary variable that makes change possible. When planning adaptability, importance must be attached to a balance between the types of adaptability. The vision of the intelligent factory building and the 'Internet of Things' presupposes the comprehensive digitalization of the spatial and technical environment. Through connectivity, the factory building must be empowered to support a company's value creation process by providing media such as light, electricity, heat, refrigeration, etc. In the future, communication with the surrounding factory building will take place on a digital or automated basis. In the area of industry 4.0, the function of the building envelope belongs to secondary or even tertiary processes, but these processes must also be included in the communication cycle. An integrative view of a continuous communication of primary, secondary and tertiary processes is currently not yet available and is being developed with the aid of methods in this research work. A comparison of the digital twin from the point of view of production and the factory building will be developed. Subsequently, a tool will be elaborated to classify digital twins from the perspective of data, degree of visualization, and the trades. Thus a contribution is made to better integrate the secondary and tertiary processes in a factory into the added value.

Keywords: Factory Planning, Adaptability, Industry 4.0, digital factory twin

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6 Using Axiomatic Design for Developing a Framework of Manufacturing Cloud Service Composition in the Equilibrium State

Authors: Omid Fatahi Valilai, Ehsan Vaziri Goodarzi, Mahmood Houshmand, Vahidreza Ghezavati, Shahrooz Bamdad

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One important paradigm of industry 4.0 is Cloud Manufacturing (CM). In CM everything is considered as a service, therefore, the CM platform should consider all service provider's capabilities and tries to integrate services in an equilibrium state. This research develops a framework for implementing manufacturing cloud service composition in the equilibrium state. The developed framework using well-known tools called axiomatic design (AD) and game theory. The research has investigated the factors for forming equilibrium for measures of the manufacturing cloud service composition. Functional requirements (FRs) represent the measures of manufacturing cloud service composition in the equilibrium state. These FRs satisfied by related Design Parameters (DPs). The FRs and DPs are defined by considering the game theory, QoS, consumer needs, parallel and cooperative services. Ultimately, four FRs and DPs represent the framework. To insure the validity of the framework, the authors have used the first AD’s independent axiom.

Keywords: Cloud manufacturing, Axiomatic Design, Industry 4.0, manufacturing cloud service composition

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5 Training Undergraduate Engineering Students in Robotics and Automation through Model-Based Design Training: A Case Study at Assumption University of Thailand

Authors: Sajed A. Habib

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Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that originated in the medical field and has also been used extensively in other knowledge disciplines with recognized advantages and limitations. PBL has been used in various undergraduate engineering programs with mixed outcomes. The current fourth industrial revolution (digital era or Industry 4.0) has made it essential for many science and engineering students to receive effective training in advanced courses such as industrial automation and robotics. This paper presents a case study at Assumption University of Thailand, where a PBL-like approach was used to teach some aspects of automation and robotics to selected groups of undergraduate engineering students. These students were given some basic level training in automation prior to participating in a subsequent training session in order to solve technical problems with increased complexity. The participating students’ evaluation of the training sessions in terms of learning effectiveness, skills enhancement, and incremental knowledge following the problem-solving session was captured through a follow-up survey consisting of 14 questions and a 5-point scoring system. From the most recent training event, an overall 70% of the respondents indicated that their skill levels were enhanced to a much greater level than they had had before the training, whereas 60.4% of the respondents from the same event indicated that their incremental knowledge following the session was much greater than what they had prior to the training. The instructor-facilitator involved in the training events suggested that this method of learning was more suitable for senior/advanced level students than those at the freshmen level as certain skills to effectively participate in such problem-solving sessions are acquired over a period of time, and not instantly.

Keywords: Automation, Industry 4.0, Problem-Based Learning, model-based design training

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4 Automatic Adjustment of Thresholds via Closed-Loop Feedback Mechanism for Solder Paste Inspection

Authors: Chia-Chen Wei, Pack Hsieh, Jeffrey Chen

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Surface Mount Technology (SMT) is widely used in the area of the electronic assembly in which the electronic components are mounted to the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB). Most of the defects in the SMT process are mainly related to the quality of solder paste printing. These defects lead to considerable manufacturing costs in the electronics assembly industry. Therefore, the solder paste inspection (SPI) machine for controlling and monitoring the amount of solder paste printing has become an important part of the production process. So far, the setting of the SPI threshold is based on statistical analysis and experts’ experiences to determine the appropriate threshold settings. Because the production data are not normal distribution and there are various variations in the production processes, defects related to solder paste printing still occur. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online machine learning algorithm, called the automatic threshold adjustment (ATA) algorithm, and closed-loop architecture in the SMT process to determine the best threshold settings. Simulation experiments prove that our proposed threshold settings improve the accuracy from 99.85% to 100%.

Keywords: Big data analytics, Surface Mount Technology, Industry 4.0, SPI threshold setting

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3 Present Status of Cloud and IoT Applications in Material Handling Automation and Intralogistics

Authors: Orestis Efthymiou, Stavros Ponis

Abstract:

During the last decade, digitalization has borne tremendous changes on the way we live and do business. Industry 4.0, the new industrial revolution, is merging the physical, digital and virtual worlds through several trends that collide with each other and create a paradigm shift. Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud Computing, which are two of these trends, have also made an entrance in logistics and material handling through applications on Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), conveyors and other complex warehouse automation systems. Even though the topic of digitalization, under the umbrella of Industry 4.0, has attracted plenty of attention during the past few years, literature in this subject area is still limited. In this paper, we present the authors’ initial study of the field with a special focus on the use and applications of IoT and Cloud Computing principles in material handling automation and intralogistics. Research shows that despite the intense discussion and appeal of the subject, there are still many challenges and issues that have to be addressed before IoT & Cloud applications become standardized and widely applicable on industrial environments. Furthermore, a case study is presented from a Distribution Center (DC) that supplies retail home furnishing and sporting goods products to stores in Greece and the Balkan region. This DC runs two different automation systems with AGVs and conveyors that are equipped with IoT technology and therefore is able to have real-time visibility and smart decision making, through reacting to errors and faults according to specified monitored parameters.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Logistics, Industry 4.0, Smart Factory, material handling systems

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2 Systematic Mapping Study of Digitization and Analysis of Manufacturing Data

Authors: R. Clancy, S.Raut, A. Brem, D. O’Sullivan, K. Bruton

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The manufacturing industry is currently undergoing a digital transformation as part of the mega-trend Industry 4.0. As part of this phase of the industrial revolution, traditional manufacturing processes are being combined with digital technologies to achieve smarter and more efficient production. To successfully digitally transform a manufacturing facility, the processes must first be digitized. This is the conversion of information from an analog format to a digital format. The objective of this study was to explore the research area of digitizing manufacturing data as part of the worldwide paradigm Industry 4.0. The formal methodology of a systematic mapping study was utilized to capture a representative sample of the research area and assess its current state. Specific research questions were defined to assess the key benefits and limitations associated with the digitization of manufacturing data. Research papers were classified according to the type of research and type of contribution to the research area. Upon analyzing the 54 papers identified in this area, it was noted that 23 of the papers originated in Germany. This is an unsurprising finding as Industry 4.0 is originally a German strategy with supporting strong policy instruments being utilized in Germany to support its implementation. It was also found that the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechatronic Systems Design, in collaboration with the University of Paderborn in Germany, was the most frequent contributing Institution of the research papers with three papers published. The literature suggested future research directions and highlighted one specific gap in the area. There exists an unresolved gap between the data science experts and the manufacturing process experts in the industry. The data analytics expertise is not useful unless the manufacturing process information is utilized. A legitimate understanding of the data is crucial to perform accurate analytics and gain true, valuable insights into the manufacturing process. There lies a gap between the manufacturing operations and the information technology/data analytics departments within enterprises, which was borne out by the results of many of the case studies reviewed as part of this work. To test the concept of this gap existing, the researcher initiated an industrial case study in which they embedded themselves between the subject matter expert of the manufacturing process and the data scientist. This case study has confirmed the existence of this gap between the data analytics and visualization team with the process engineers by virtue of a dearth of process-specific knowledge feeding into the analytics development pipeline. The confirmation of this gap existing in industry highlighted the need for a universal methodology for digitizing and analyzing manufacturing data in the industry. Of the papers resulting from the systematic mapping study, 12 of the papers contributed a framework, another 12 of the papers were based on a case study, and 11 of the papers focused on theory. However, there were only three papers that contributed to a methodology. This provides further evidence for the need for an industry-focused methodology for digitizing and analyzing manufacturing data, which will be developed in future research.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Analytics, Digitization, Industry 4.0

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1 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli

Abstract:

Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: System Identification, Industry 4.0, Digital Twin, linear and nonlinear models

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