Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

industrialization Related Abstracts

9 Challenges of Teaching English Language in Polytechnics

Authors: Jyoti Sanjay Pathrikar


The 21st century is marked by increased industrialization and a great spurt of technical institutes in almost all parts of the country. In this changing scenario, teaching English language to the students of polytechnic institutes, situated in the small towns of the country is a great challenge as well as responsibility. The learners have very strong vernacular roots and their adaptation to the English language is really slow, as a result teaching English language to them is a herculean task. The students of polytechnics get admission despite of low grades, the base of English has to be prepared at the plus two level, the influence of the local language looms large and the reluctance to learn the English language is obvious. However, the needs of the industries have to be kept in mind and the prospective engineers have to be taught the language. There is an urgent need to devise new ways of teaching the language keeping in mind the requirements of the industry, the capability of the students and maintaining the sanctity of the language. A way has to be carved out.

Keywords: industrialization, herculean, prospective, sanctity, vernacular

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8 Effect of Globalization on Flow Performance in Godean Jathilan Pranesa Yogyakarta

Authors: Maria Armalita Tumimbang


Jathilan or Kuda Lumping is a dance-drama with warfare as the main theme and the dancers mimicking mighty horsemen armed with sword in the middle of the battle field. However, to most people this dance-drama is more identical with magical nuanced dance and trance, beside the attractive and even dangerous acts of the dancers, such as eating shard or broken glass in a state of trance. Several music players play the accompaniment made up of incomplete gamelan set that include saron, kendang, gong, and kempul. In general, it remains unchanged with regards to the seemingly monotonous beat and occasional “bumps” that may lead the dancers into a trance state. The dances performed also tend to be of repetitive patterns. The development of Jathilan and other traditional art performance in this globalization and industrialization era can be divided into two: firstly, they are subjected to the power of industrialization, which means their performances are to be recorded for commercial purpose, and secondly, they are to be presented in live performances. To some people, live performances are preferable, and for some reasons, they represent a form of cultural résistance to globalization and industrialization. The present study is qualitative in nature. It aims to describe the music and performance of Jathilan in the era of globalization in Indonesia. The subject of this study is a traditional art group, Jathilan Kuda Pranesa of Godean, Yogyakarta. Data collection was conducted by interviews with the leader of the group, the dancers and music players, as well as the audience. The wave of globalization has brought strong capitalistic industrialization that render traditional arts simply into industrial commodities tailored to the need of the era. This very fact has made the repositioning of traditional art performance of Jathilan a necessity. And by repositioning we mean that Jathilans should be put back to their traditional forms and functions as they used to be.

Keywords: Music, Performance, Globalization, industrialization, Jathilan

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7 Agricultural Mechanization for Transformation

Authors: Lawrence Gumbe


Kenya Vision 2030 is the country's programme for transformation covering the period 2008 to 2030. Its objective is to help transform Kenya into a newly industrializing, middle-income, exceeding US$10000, country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens by 2030, in a clean and secure environment. Increased agricultural and production and productivity is crucial for the realization of Vision 2030. Mechanization of agriculture in order to achieve greater yields is the only way to achieve these objectives. There are contending groups and views on the strategy for agricultural mechanization. The first group are those who oppose the widespread adoption of advanced technologies (mostly internal combustion engines and tractors) in agricultural mechanization as entirely inappropriate in most situations in developing countries. This group argues that mechanically powered -agricultural mechanization often leads to displacement of labour and hence increased unemployment, and this results in a host of other socio-economic problems, amongst them, rural-urban migration, inequitable distribution of wealth and in many cases an increase in absolute poverty, balance of payments due to the need to import machinery, fuel and sometimes technical assistance to manage them. The second group comprises of those who view the use of the improved hand tools and animal powered technology as transitional step between the most rudimentary step in technological development (characterized by entire reliance on human muscle power) and the advanced technologies (characterized 'by reliance on tractors and other machinery). The third group comprises those who regard these intermediate technologies (ie. improved hand tools and draught animal technology in agriculture) as a ‘delaying’ tactic and they advocate the use of mechanical technologies as-the most appropriate. This group argues that alternatives to the mechanical technologies do not just exist as a practical matter, or, if they are available, they are inefficient and they cannot be compared to the mechanical technologies in terms of economics and productivity. The fourth group advocates a compromise between groups two and third above. This group views the improved hand tools and draught animal technology as more of an 18th century technology and the modem tractor and combine harvester as too advanced for developing countries. This group has been busy designing an ‘intermediate’, ‘appropriate’, ‘mini’, ‘micro’ tractor for use by farmers in developing countries. This paper analyses and concludes on the different agricultural mechanization strategies available to Kenya and other third world countries

Keywords: Agriculture, Transformation, industrialization, mechanazation

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6 Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev


The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.

Keywords: industrialization, anti-colonial struggle, art over architecture, Bauhaus exhibition of 1922

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5 Examining the Missing Feedback Link in Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis

Authors: Apra Sinha


The inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) demonstrates(pollution-income relationship)that initially the pollution and environmental degradation surpass the level of income per capita; however this trend reverses since at the higher income levels, economic growth initiates environmental upgrading. However, what effect does increased environmental degradation has on growth is the missing feedback link which has not been addressed in the EKC hypothesis. This paper examines the missing feedback link in EKC hypothesis in Indian context by examining the casual association between fossil fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth for India. Fossil fuel consumption here has been taken as a proxy of driver of economic growth. The casual association between the aforementioned variables has been analyzed using five interventions namely 1) urban development for which urbanization has been taken proxy 2) industrial development for which industrial value added has been taken proxy 3) trade liberalization for which sum of exports and imports as a share of GDP has been taken as proxy 4)financial development for which a)domestic credit to private sector and b)net foreign assets has been taken as proxies. The choice of interventions for this study has been done keeping in view the economic liberalization perspective of India. The main aim of the paper is to investigate the missing feedback link for Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis before and after incorporating the intervening variables. The period of study is from 1971 to 2011 as it covers pre and post liberalization era in India. All the data has been taken from World Bank country level indicators. The Johansen and Juselius cointegration testing methodology and Error Correction based Granger causality have been applied on all the variables. The results clearly show that out of five interventions, only in two interventions the missing feedback link is being addressed. This paper can put forward significant policy implications for environment protection and sustainable development.

Keywords: Urbanization, industrialization, environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, fossil fuel consumption, trade liberalization

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4 Modern Agriculture and Industrialization Nexus in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon, Olabanji Ewetan


Modern agriculture involves the use of improved tools and equipment (instead of crude and ineffective tools) like tractors, hand operated planters, hand operated fertilizer drills and combined harvesters - which increase agricultural productivity. Farmers in Nigeria still have huge potentials to enhance their productivity. The study argues that the increase in agricultural output due to increased productivity, orchestrated by modern agriculture will promote forward linkages and opportunities in the processing sub-sector; both the manufacturing of machines and the processing of raw materials. Depending on existing incentives, foreign investment could be attracted to augment local investment in the sector. The availability of raw materials in large quantity – which prices are competitive – will attract investment in other industries. In addition, potentials for backward linkages will also be created. In a nutshell, adopting the unbalanced growth theory in favour of the agricultural sector could engender industrialization in a country with untapped potentials. The paper highlights the numerous potentials of modern agriculture that are yet to be tapped in Nigeria and also provides a theoretical analysis of how the realization of such potentials could promote industrialization in the country. The study adopts the Lewis’ theory of structural–change model and Hirschman’s theory of unbalanced growth in the design of the analytical framework. The framework will be useful in empirical studies that will guide policy formulation.

Keywords: Modern Agriculture, industrialization, structural change model, unbalanced growth

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3 Human Capital Development, Foreign Direct Investment and Industrialization in Nigeria

Authors: Ese Urhie, Bosede Olopade, Muyiwa Oladosun, Henry Okodua


In the past three and half decades, aside from the fact that the contribution of the industrial sector to gross domestic product in Nigeria has nose-dived, its performance has also been highly unstable. Investment funds needed to develop the industrial sector usually come from both internal and external sources. The internal sources include surplus generated within the industrial sector and surplus diverted from other sectors of the economy. It has been observed that due to the small size of the industrial sector in developing countries, very limited funds could be raised for further investment. External sources of funds which many currently industrialized and some ‘newly industrializing countries’ have benefited from including direct and indirect investment by foreign capitalists; foreign aid and loans; and investments by nationals living abroad. Foreign direct investment inflow in Nigeria has been declining since 2009 in both absolute and relative terms. High level of human capital has been identified as one of the crucial factors that explain the miraculous growth of the ‘Asian Tigers’. Its low level has also been identified as the major cause for the low level of FDI flow to Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. There has been positive, but slow improvement in human capital indicators in Nigeria in the past three decades. In spite of this, foreign direct investment inflow has not only been low; it has declined drastically in recent years. i) Why has the improvement in human capital in Nigeria failed to attract more FDI inflow? ii) To what extent does the level of human capital influence FDI inflow in Nigeria? iii) Is there a threshold of human capital stock that guarantees sustained inflow of FDI? iv) Does the quality of human capital matter? v) Does the influence of other (negative) factors outweigh the benefits of human capital? Using time series secondary data, a system of equations is employed to evaluate the effect of human capital on FDI inflow in Nigeria on one hand and the effect of FDI on the level of industrialization on the other. A weak relationship between human capital and FDI is expected, while a strong relationship between FDI and industrial growth is expected from the result.

Keywords: Human Capital, Foreign Direct Investment, industrialization, gross domestic product

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2 The Nexus between Renewable Energy, Urbanization, Industrialization and Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Zubda Zia, Zainab Masood


This study has investigated the relationship between renewable energy, urbanization, industrialization, and economic growth in Pakistan, through the years 1990-2016. All the three explanatory variables play a pivotal role in their contribution to growth in any economy, especially a developing one such as Pakistan. Auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL) model has been used to determine the co-integration and relationship between the variables. The empirical results indicate that there exists a positive and significant relationship between all the three variables and economic growth and that there is a stable, long-run relationship among them. Policy suggestions that incorporate the results include having a larger share of renewable energy in the energy sector, using urbanization as a means to remove the big city trend and move towards, smaller sustainable cities, etc.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Economic growth, Urbanization, Energy Crisis, industrialization, SGDs

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1 Change Detection of Water Bodies in Dhaka City: An Analysis Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

Authors: M. Humayun Kabir, Mahamuda Afroze, K. Maudood Elahi


Since the late 1900s, unplanned and rapid urbanization processes have drastically altered the land, reduced water bodies, and decreased vegetation cover in the capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka. The capitalist modes of urbanization results in the encroachment of the surface water bodies in this city. The main goal of this study is to investigate the change detection of water bodies in Dhaka city, analyzing spatial distribution of water bodies and calculating the changing rate of it. This effort aims to influence public policy for environmental justice initiatives around protecting water bodies for ensuring proper function of the urban ecosystem. This study accomplishes research goal by compiling satellite imageries into GIS software to understand the changes of water bodies in Dhaka city. The work focuses on the late 20th century to early 21st century to analyze this city before and after major infrastructural changes occurred in unplanned manner. The land use of the study area has been classified into four categories, and the areas of the different land use have been calculated using MS Excel and SPSS. The results reveal that the urbanization expanded from central to northern part and major encroachment occurred at the western and eastern part of the city. It has also been found that, in 1988, the total area of water bodies was 8935.38 hectares, and it gradually decreased, and in 1998, 2008, 2017, the total areas of water bodies reached 6065.73, 4853.32, 2077.56 hectares, respectively. Rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization, and industrialization have generated pressure to change the land use pattern in Dhaka city. These expansion processes are engulfing wetland, water bodies, and vegetation cover without considering environmental impact. In order to regain the wetland and surface water bodies, the concern authorities must implement laws and act as a legal instrument in this regard and take action against the violators of it. This research is the synthesis of time series data that provides a complete picture of the water body’s status of Dhaka city that might help to make plans and policies for water body conservation.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Remote Sensing, Land Use, GIS, Urbanization, industrialization

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