Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Industrial Symbiosis Related Abstracts

9 Industrial Ecology Perspectives of Food Supply Chains: A Framework of Analysis

Authors: Luciano Batista, Sylvia Saes, Nuno Fouto, Liam Fassam

Abstract:

This paper introduces the theoretical and methodological basis of an analytical framework conceived with the purpose of bringing industrial ecology perspectives into the core of the underlying disciplines supporting analyses in studies concerned with environmental sustainability aspects beyond the product cycle in a supply chain. Given the pressing challenges faced by the food sector, the framework focuses upon waste minimization through industrial linkages in food supply chains. The combination of industrial ecology practice with basic LCA elements, the waste hierarchy model, and the spatial scale of industrial symbiosis allows the standardization of qualitative analyses and associated outcomes. Such standardization enables comparative analysis not only between different stages of a supply chain, but also between different supply chains. The analytical approach proposed contributes more coherently to the wider circular economy aspiration of optimizing the flow of goods to get the most out of raw materials and cuts wastes to a minimum.

Keywords: Industrial Ecology, Industrial Symbiosis, Food Supply Chain, by-product synergy

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8 A Multi-Level Approach to Improve Sustainability Performances of Industrial Agglomerations

Authors: Patrick Innocenti, Elias Montini, Silvia Menato, Marzio Sorlini

Abstract:

Documented experiences of industrial symbiosis are always triggered and driven only by economic goals: environmental and (even rarely) social results are sometimes assessed and declared as effects of virtuous behaviours, but are merely casual and un-pursued side externalities. Even worse: all the symbiotic project candidates entailing economic loss for just one of the (also dozen) partners are simply stopped without considering the overall benefit for the whole partnership. The here-presented approach aims at providing methodologies and tools to effectively manage these situations and fostering the implementation of virtuous symbiotic investments in manufacturing aggregations for a more sustainable production.

Keywords: Sustainability, Business Model, Industrial Symbiosis, industrial agglomerations

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7 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi

Abstract:

Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: Energy Management, Energy Efficiency, Industrial Symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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6 Eco-Design of Construction Industrial Park in China with Selection of Candidate Tenants

Authors: Yang Zhou, Kaijian Li, Guiwen Liu

Abstract:

Offsite construction is an innovative alternative to conventional site-based construction, with wide-ranging benefits. It requires building components, elements or modules were prefabricated and pre-assembly before installed into their final locations. To improve efficiency and achieve synergies, in recent years, construction companies were clustered into construction industrial parks (CIPs) in China. A CIP is a community of construction manufacturing and service businesses located together on a common property. Companies involved in industrial clusters can obtain environment and economic benefits by sharing resources and information in a given region. Therefore, the concept of industrial symbiosis (IS) can be applied to the traditional CIP to achieve sustainable industrial development or redevelopment through the implementation of eco-industrial parks (EIP). However, before designing a symbiosis network between companies in a CIP, candidate support tenants need to be selected to complement the existing construction companies. In this study, an access indicator system and a linear programming model are established to select candidate tenants in a CIP while satisfying the degree of connectivity among the enterprises in the CIP, minimizing the environmental impact, and maximizing the annualized profit of the CIP. The access indicator system comprises three primary indicators and fifteen secondary indicators, is proposed from the perspective of park-based level. The fifteen indicators are classified as three primary indicators including industrial symbiosis, environment performance and economic benefit, according to the three dimensions of sustainability (environment, economic and social dimensions) and the three R's of the environment (reduce, reuse and recycle). The linear programming model is a method to assess the satisfactoriness of all the indicators and to make an optimal multi-objective selection among candidate tenants. This method provides a practical tool for planners of a CIP in evaluating which among the candidate tenants would best complement existing anchor construction tenants. The reasonability and validity of the indicator system and the method is worth further study in the future.

Keywords: China, Industrial Symbiosis, construction industrial park, offsite construction, selection of support tenants

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5 Contracting Strategies to Foster Industrial Symbiosis Implementation

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with the exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production. While it brings environmental benefits from resource conservation its economic profitability is one of the main barriers to its implementation. I.S involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each actor must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward investments and transactions. Regarding I.S Transaction cost economics helps to identify hybrid forms of governance for transactions governance due to I.S projects specificities induced by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity). Thus we propose a framework to analyze the best contractual practices tailored to address I.S specific risks that we identified as threefold (load profiles and quality mismatch, value fluctuations). Schemes from cooperative game theory and contracting management are integrated to analyze value flows between actors. Contractual guidelines are then proposed to address the identified risks and to split the value for a set of I.S archetypes drawn from actual experiences.

Keywords: Economics, Contracts, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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4 Capacity Oversizing for Infrastructure Sharing Synergies: A Game Theoretic Analysis

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two basic modes of cooperation between organizations that are infrastructure/service sharing and resource substitution (the use of waste materials, fatal energy and recirculated utilities for production). The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset and thus requires to compare the incremental investment cost to be incurred and the stand-alone cost faced by each potential participant to satisfy its own requirements. In order to investigate the way such a cooperation mode can be implemented we formulate a game theoretic model integrating the grassroot investment decision and the ex-post access pricing problem. In the first period two actors set cooperatively (resp. non-cooperatively) a level of common (resp. individual) infrastructure capacity oversizing to attract ex-post a potential entrant with a plug-and-play offer (available capacity, tariff). The entrant’s requirement is randomly distributed and known only after investments took place. Capacity cost exhibits sub-additive property so that there is room for profitable overcapacity setting in the first period under some conditions that we derive. The entrant willingness-to-pay for the access to the infrastructure is driven by both her standalone cost and the complement cost to be incurred in case she chooses to access an infrastructure whose the available capacity is lower than her requirement level. The expected complement cost function is thus derived, and we show that it is decreasing, convex and shaped by the entrant’s requirements distribution function. For both uniform and triangular distributions optimal capacity level is obtained in the cooperative setting and equilibrium levels are determined in the non-cooperative case. Regarding the latter, we show that competition is deterred by the first period investor with the highest requirement level. Using the non-cooperative game outcomes which gives lower bounds for the profit sharing problem in the cooperative one we solve the whole game and describe situations supporting sharing agreements.

Keywords: cooperation, Capacity, Pricing, Industrial Symbiosis

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3 Integrating Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contract Design to Support Industrial Symbiosis Deployment

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) is the realization of Industrial Ecology (I.E) principles in production systems in function. I.S consists in the use of waste materials, fatal energy, recirculated utilities and infrastructure/service sharing as resources for production. Environmental benefits can be achieved from resource conservation but economic profitability is required by the participating actors. I.S indeed involves several actors with their own objectives and resources so that each one must be satisfied by ex-ante arrangements to commit toward I.S execution (investments and transactions). Following the Resource-Based View of transactions we build a modular framework to assess global I.S profitability and to specify each actor’s contributions to costs and benefits in line with their resource endowments and performance requirements formulations. I.S projects specificities implied by the need for customization (asset specificity, non-homogeneity) induce the use of long-term contracts for transactions following Transaction costs economics arguments. Thus we propose first a taxonomy of costs and value drivers for I.S and an assignment to each actor of I.S specific risks that we identified as load profiles mismatch, quality problems and value fluctuations. Then appropriate contractual guidelines (pricing, cost sharing and warranties) that support mutual profitability are derived from the detailed identification of contributions by the cost-benefits model. This analytical framework helps identifying what points to focus on when bargaining over contracting for transactions and investments. Our methodology is applied to I.S archetypes raised from a literature survey on eco-industrial parks initiatives and practitioners interviews.

Keywords: Contracts, Cost-benefit analysis, Industrial Symbiosis, risks

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2 Infrastructure Sharing Synergies: Optimal Capacity Oversizing and Pricing

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with both substitution synergies (exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production) and infrastructure/service sharing synergies. The latter is based on the intensification of use of an asset and thus requires to balance capital costs increments with snowball effects (network externalities) for its implementation. Initial investors must specify ex-ante arrangements (cost sharing and pricing schedule) to commit toward investments in capacities and transactions. Our model investigate the decision of 2 actors trying to choose cooperatively a level of infrastructure capacity oversizing to set a plug-and-play offer to a potential entrant whose capacity requirement is randomly distributed while satisficing their own requirements. Capacity cost exhibits sub-additive property so that there is room for profitable overcapacity setting in the first period. The entrant’s willingness-to-pay for the access to the infrastructure is dependent upon its standalone cost and the capacity gap that it must complete in case the available capacity is insufficient ex-post (the complement cost). Since initial capacity choices are driven by ex-ante (expected) yield extractible from the entrant we derive the expected complement cost function which helps us defining the investors’ objective function. We first show that this curve is decreasing and convex in the capacity increments and that it is shaped by the distribution function of the potential entrant’s requirements. We then derive the general form of solutions and solve the model for uniform and triangular distributions. Depending on requirements volumes and cost assumptions different equilibria occurs. We finally analyze the effect of a per-unit subsidy a public actor would apply to foster such sharing synergies.

Keywords: cooperation, Capacity, Pricing, Industrial Symbiosis

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1 A Study of Industrial Symbiosis and Implementation of Indigenous Circular Economy Technique on an Indian Industrial Area

Authors: A. Gokulram

Abstract:

Industrial waste is often categorized as commercial and non-commercial waste by market value. In many Indian industries and other industrialized countries, the commercial value waste is capitalized and non-commercial waste is dumped to landfill. A lack of adequate research on industrial waste leads to the failure of effective resource management and the non-commercial waste are being considered as commercially non-viable residues. The term Industrial symbiosis refers to the direct inter-firm reuse or exchange of material and energy resource. The resource efficiency of commercial waste is mainly followed by an informal symbiosis in our research area. Some Industrial residues are reused within the facility where they are generated, others are reused directly nearby industrial facilities and some are recycled via the formal and informal market. The act of using industrial waste as a resource for another product faces challenges in India. This research study has observed a major negligence of trust and communication among several bodies to implement effective circular economy in India. This study applies interviewing process across researchers, government bodies, industrialist and designers to understand the challenges of circular economy in India. The study area encompasses an industrial estate in Ahmedabad in the state of Gujarat which comprises of 1200 industries. The research study primarily focuses on making industrial waste as commercial ready resource and implementing Indigenous sustainable practice in modern context to improve resource efficiency. This study attempted to initiate waste exchange platform among several industrialist and used varied methodologies from mail questionnaire to telephone survey. This study makes key suggestions to policy change and sustainable finance to improve circular economy in India.

Keywords: Environmental policy, Sustainable Finance, Industrial Symbiosis, effective resource management, indigenous technique

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