Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Indoor Environmental Quality Related Abstracts

3 Multi-Stage Optimization of Local Environmental Quality by Comprehensive Computer Simulated Person as Sensor for Air Conditioning Control

Authors: Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuhide Ito

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive computer simulated person (CSP) that integrates computational human model (virtual manikin) and respiratory tract model (virtual airway), was applied for estimation of indoor environmental quality. Moreover, an inclusive prediction method was established by integrating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with advanced CSP which is combined with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, unsteady thermoregulation model for analysis targeting micro-climate around human body and respiratory area with high accuracy. This comprehensive method can estimate not only the contaminant inhalation but also constant interaction in the contaminant transfer between indoor spaces, i.e., a target area for indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment, and respiratory zone for health risk assessment. This study focused on the usage of the CSP as an air/thermal quality sensor in indoors, which means the application of comprehensive model for assessment of IAQ and thermal environmental quality. Demonstrative analysis was performed in order to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model to the heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) control scheme. CSP was located at the center of the simple model room which has dimension of 3m×3m×3m. Formaldehyde which is generated from floor material was assumed as a target contaminant, and flow field, sensible/latent heat and contaminant transfer analysis in indoor space were conducted by using CFD simulation coupled with CSP. In this analysis, thermal comfort was evaluated by thermoregulatory analysis, and respiratory exposure risks represented by adsorption flux/concentration at airway wall surface were estimated by PBPK-CFD hybrid analysis. These Analysis results concerning IAQ and thermal comfort will be fed back to the HVAC control and could be used to find a suitable ventilation rate and energy requirement for air conditioning system.

Keywords: Indoor Environmental Quality, CFD simulation, computer simulated person, HVAC control

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2 Numerical Investigation of Indoor Environmental Quality in a Room Heated with Impinging Jet Ventilation

Authors: Mathias Cehlin, Arman Ameen, Ulf Larsson, Taghi Karimipanah

Abstract:

The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is increasingly recognized as a significant factor influencing the overall level of building occupants’ health, comfort and productivity. An air-conditioning and ventilation system is normally used to create and maintain good thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Providing occupant thermal comfort and well-being with minimized use of energy is the main purpose of heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. Among different types of ventilation systems, the most widely known and used ventilation systems are mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV). Impinging jet ventilation (IJV) is a promising ventilation strategy developed in the beginning of 2000s. IJV has the advantage of supplying air downwards close to the floor with high momentum and thereby delivering fresh air further out in the room compare to DV. Operating in cooling mode, IJV systems can have higher ventilation effectiveness and heat removal effectiveness compared to MV, and therefore a higher energy efficiency. However, how is the performance of IJV when operating in heating mode? This paper presents the function of IJV in a typical office room for winter conditions (heating mode). In this paper, a validated CFD model, which uses the v2-f model is used for the prediction of air flow pattern, thermal comfort and air change effectiveness. The office room under consideration has the dimensions 4.2×3.6×2.5m, which can be designed like a single-person or two-person office. A number of important factors influencing in the room with IJV are studied. The considered parameters are: heating demand, number of occupants and supplied air conditions. A total of 6 simulation cases are carried out to investigate the effects of the considered parameters. Heat load in the room is contributed by occupants, computer and lighting. The model consists of one external wall including a window. The interaction effects of heat sources, supply air flow and down draught from the window result in a complex flow phenomenon. Preliminary results indicate that IJV can be used for heating of a typical office room. The IEQ seems to be suitable in the occupied region for the studied cases.

Keywords: Indoor Environmental Quality, computation fluid dynamics, impinging jet ventilation, ventilation strategy

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1 Numerical Simulation of a Combined Impact of Cooling and Ventilation on the Indoor Environmental Quality

Authors: Matjaz Prek

Abstract:

Impact of three different combinations of cooling and ventilation systems on the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has been studied. Comparison of chilled ceiling cooling in combination with displacement ventilation, cooling with fan coil unit and cooling with flat wall displacement outlets was performed. All three combinations were evaluated from the standpoint of whole-body and local thermal comfort criteria as well as from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The comparison was made on the basis of numerical simulation with DesignBuilder and Fluent. Numerical simulations were carried out in two steps. Firstly the DesignBuilder software environment was used to model the buildings thermal performance and evaluation of the interaction between the environment and the building. Heat gains of the building and of the individual space, as well as the heat loss on the boundary surfaces in the room, were calculated. In the second step Fluent software environment was used to simulate the response of the indoor environment, evaluating the interaction between building and human, using the simulation results obtained in the first step. Among the systems presented, the ceiling cooling system in combination with displacement ventilation was found to be the most suitable as it offers a high level of thermal comfort with adequate ventilation efficiency. Fan coil cooling has proved inadequate from the standpoint of thermal comfort whereas flat wall displacement outlets were inadequate from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The study showed the need in evaluating indoor environment not solely from the energy use point of view, but from the point of view of indoor environmental quality as well.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Thermal comfort, ventilation, Indoor Environmental Quality, Cooling, Ventilation effectiveness, IEQ

Procedia PDF Downloads 46