Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

indole Related Abstracts

5 Usy-Cui Zeolite: An Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for Derivatives Indole Synthesis

Authors: Hassina Harkat, Samiha Taybe, Salima Loucif, Valérie Beneteau, Patrick Pale


Indole and its derivatives have attracted great interest because of their importance in the synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry. They are widely used as anti hypertension, anti tubercular, anticancer activity, antiviral, Alzheimer's disease, antioxidant properties, and free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Many drugs and natural products contain indole moiety, such as the vinca alkaloids, fungal metabolites and marine natural products. Generally applicable synthetic methods for indole moiety involve ring closure to form the pyrrole. Indole derivatives can also be accessed by further functionalization of the indole nucleus. Therefore we report a mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of analogues of indole catalyzed via zeolithe USY doped with CuI under solvent-free conditions.

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, indole, zeolithe, USY-CuI

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4 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Elif Ince, Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone

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3 Indigo Production in a Fed Batch Bioreactor Using Aqueous-Solvent Two Phase System

Authors: Vaishnavi Unde, Srikanth Mutnuri


Today dye stuff sector is one of the major chemical industries in India. Indigo is a blue coloured dye used all over the world in large quantity. The indigo dye produced and used in textile industries is synthetic having toxic effect, thus there is an increase in interest for natural dyes owing to the environmental concerns. The present study focuses on the use of a strain Pandoraea sp. isolated from garage soil, for the production of indigo in fed batch bioreactor. A comparative study between single phase and two phase production was carried out in this work. The blue colour produced during the experiments was analyzed using, TLC, UV-visible spectrophotometer and FTIR technique. The blue pigment was found to be indigo. The production of bio-indigo was done in a single phase fermentor carrying medium and substrate indole in dissolved form and was found to produce maximum of 0.041 g/L of indigo. Whereas there was an increase in production of indigo to 0.068 g/L in a two phase, water-silicone oil system. In this study the advantage of using second phase as silicone oil has enhanced the indigo production, as the second phase made the substrate available to the bacteria by increasing the surface area as well as it helped to prevent the inhibition effect of the high concentration of substrate, indole. The effect of single and two phases on the growth of bacteria was also studied.

Keywords: Dyes, indigo, indole, fed batch reactor

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2 Effects of Indole on Aerobic Biodegradation of Butanoic Acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens

Authors: J. B. J. Njalam’mano, E. M. N. Chirwa


In low resource settings in Africa and other developing regions, pit latrines remain the dominant basic minimum acceptable form of sanitation. However, unpleasant smells-malodours emitted from faecal sludge in the pit latrines, which elicit disgusting or repulsive response, are one of the factors that thwart people to use latrines and instead opt for open defecation as an alternative. This provides an important but often overlooked major impediment, dissuading people from adopting and using the pit latrines hence affecting successful, effective sanitation promotion. The malodours are primarily attributed to four odorants: butanoic acid (C₄H₈O₂), dimethyl trisulphide (C₂H₆S₃), indole (C₈H₇N) and para-cresol (C₇H₈O). Several pit latrine deodorisation methods such as addition of carbonous materials, use of ventilation systems and urine separation are available, and they continue to occupy their niche, but social, economic, environmental and technological shortfalls remain. Bioremediation has been gaining popularity because it is inexpensive, simple to operate and environmentally friendly. Recently, the biodegradation of butanoic acid as individual odorant has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no kinetic studies of the butanoic acid in the presence of other key odorous compounds. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of indole on the removal of butanoic acid under aerobic conditions using indigenous bacteria strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens isolated from faecal sludge as pure cultures as well as mixed cultures. In this purpose, butanoic acid removal was performed in a batch reactor containing the bacterial strains in mineral salt medium (MSM) amended with 3000 ppm of butanoic acid at the temperature of 30°C, under continuous stirring rate of 150 rpm and the concentration of indole was varied from 50-200 ppm. The initial pH of the solution was in the range of 6.0-7.2. Overall, there were significant differences in the bacterial growth rate and total butanoic acid removal dependent on the concentration of indole in the solution.

Keywords: biodegradation, indole, butanoic acid, pit latrine

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1 Regioselective Nucleophilic Substitution of the Baylis-Hillman Adducts with Iodine

Authors: Dong Wang, Zahid Shafiq, Li Liu, Yong-Jun Chen


As synthetic organic methods are increasingly concerned with the growing importance of sustainable chemistry, iodine recently has emerged as an inexpensive, non-toxic, readily available and environmentally benign catalyst for various organic transformations to afford the corresponding products in high yields with high regio- and chemoselectivity. Iodine has found widespread applications in various organic synthesis such as Michael addition, coupling reaction and also in the multicomponent synthesis where it can efficiently activate C=C, C=O, C=N, and so forth. Iodine not only has been shown to be an efficient mild Lewis acid in various processes, but also due to its moderate nature, and water tolerance, reactions catalyzed by iodine can be effectively carried out in neutral media under very mild conditions. We have successfully described an efficient procedure for the nucleophilic substitution of the Baylis-Hillman (BH) adducts and their corresponding acetates with indoles to get α-substitution product using catalytic Silver Triflate (AgOTf) as Lewis acid. At this point, we were interested to develop an environmentally benign catalytic system to effect this substitution reaction and to avoid the use of metal Lewis acid as a catalyst. Since, we observed the formation of -product during the course of the reaction, we also became interested to explore the reaction conditions in order to control regioselectivity and to obtain both regioisomers. The developed methodology resulted in regioselective substitution products with controlled selectivity. Further, the substitution products were used to synthesize various Tri- and Tetracyclo Azepino indole derivatives via reductive amination.

Keywords: substitution, indole, regioselective, Baylis-Hillman

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