Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Indigenous Related Abstracts

28 Indigenous Pre-Service Teacher Education: Developing, Facilitating, and Maintaining Opportunities for Retention and Graduation

Authors: Karen Trimmer, Raelene Ward, Linda Wondunna-Foley

Abstract:

Within Australian tertiary institutions, the subject of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education has been a major concern for many years. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers are significantly under-represented in Australian schools and universities. High attrition rates in teacher education and in the teaching industry have contributed to a minimal growth rate in the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers in previous years. There was an increase of 500 Indigenous teachers between 2001 and 2008 but these numbers still only account for one percent of teaching staff in government schools who identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs 2010). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers are paramount in fostering student engagement and improving educational outcomes for Indigenous students. Increasing the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers is also a key factor in enabling all students to develop understanding of and respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, cultures, and language. An ambitious reform agenda to improve the recruitment and retention of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers will be effective only through national collaborative action and co-investment by schools and school authorities, university schools of education, professional associations, and Indigenous leaders and community networks. Whilst the University of Southern Queensland currently attracts Indigenous students to its teacher education programs (61 students in 2013 with an average of 48 enrollments each year since 2010) there is significant attrition during pre-service training. The annual rate of exiting before graduation remains high at 22% in 2012 and was 39% for the previous two years. These participation and retention rates are consistent with other universities across Australia. Whilst aspirations for a growing number of Indigenous people to be trained as teachers is present, there is a significant loss of students during their pre-service training and within the first five years of employment as a teacher. These trends also reflect the situation where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers are significantly under-represented, making up less than 1% of teachers in schools across Australia. Through a project conducted as part the nationally funded More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teachers Initiative (MATSITI) we aim to gain an insight into the reasons that impact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander student’s decisions to exit their program. Through the conduct of focus groups and interviews with two graduating cohorts of self-identified Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, rich data has been gathered to gain an understanding of the barriers and enhancers to the completion of pre-service qualification and transition to teaching. Having a greater understanding of these reasons then allows the development of collaborative processes and procedures to increase retention and completion rates of new Indigenous teachers. Analysis of factors impacting on exit decisions and transitions has provided evidence to support change of practice, redesign and enhancement of relevant courses and development of policy/procedures to address identified issues.

Keywords: Indigenous, Retention, graduation, pre-service teacher education

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27 Innovation and Creativity: Inspiring the Next Generation in the Ethekwini Municipality

Authors: Anneline Chetty

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Innovation is not always born in a sterile lab or is not always about applications and technology. Innovative solutions to community challenges can be borne out of the creativity of community members. This was proven by Professor Anil Gupta who for more than two decades scoured rural India for its hidden innovations motivated by the belief that the most powerful ideas for fighting poverty and hardship will not come from corporate research labs, but from ordinary people struggling to survive. The Ethekwini Municipality is a city in South Africa which adopted a similar approach, recognising the innovativeness of youth (students and school pupils) in its area. The intention was to make the youth a part of the solution to challenges faced by the Municipality. In this regard, five areas were selected and five groups of students were identified. Each group was sent into the community to identify challenges and engage with community leaders as well as members. Each group was tasked to come with solutions to these challenges which were to be presented at an Innovation Summit. The presented solutions were judged and the winning solution would be implemented by the Municipality. This paper, documents the experience of the students as well as the kinds of solutions that were presented. The purpose is to highlight the importance of using the ingenious minds and creativity of youth and channel their energy into becoming part of society’s solutions as opposed to being the problem

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Community, Indigenous

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26 Characteristics of an Indigenous Entrepreneur, in the Post-Apartheid South Africa

Authors: Ndivhuho Tshikovhi

Abstract:

The debate about indigenous people throughout the world has been necessitated by different circumstances that indigenous communities continue to suffer. Indigenous people of the world suffer chronic diseases, poor education, high unemployment and slow economic developments. This paper contributes to the continuous debate by studying the common elements of indigenous entrepreneur of the world and that of the South African indigenous entrepreneur. The research objective of this paper is to understand what constitute an indigenous status in the South African context as opposed to the indigenous people of the world. Furthermore, the study will explore the indigenous status through their entrepreneurial engagements. The paper will adopt a secondary data research method, by utilising the literature on indigenous entrepreneurship practice and theory of indigenous entrepreneurship. The implications of this paper is to bring about an African indigenous entrepreneurship debate rooted from the correct circumstances rather than generalised definitions. Recommendations for future research will be outlined, together with further readings on circumstantial evidence that necessitate indigenous entrepreneurs status in South Africa.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Development, Indigenous, indigenous people, indigenous entrepreneur

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25 Vernacular Language Origin and Student's Accent Neutralization: A Basis for BPO Employability

Authors: Elma C. Sultan

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The study concentrated on Vernacular Language Origin and Students’ Accent Neutralization of the College of Arts and Sciences fourth students in Samar State University, Catbalogan City answering respondent’s locale profile, vernacular language origin in terms of local dialect/s and domestic language/s used; the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and accent neutralization of the respondents; and the proposed activities to adopt in neutralizing students’ accent. It utilized the descriptive-correlational method of research determining the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. The researcher used: (1) questionnaire divided into three parts: the first part identified the students’ locale; the second part determined the respondents’ domestic language/s used while the third part identified their local language/s used, (2) validated accent neutralization assessment tool, (3) statistical treatments in the analysis of data: percentage to determine the profile of the students; chi-square test for independence to determine the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. Findings of the study showed that vowel and diphthong sound production, domestic and local languages in indigenous, and native dialects are significantly related to accent neutralization. While, slow reading speed has a higher possibility in affecting accent neutralization. These caused designing a 50-hour short-term program for accent neutralization focusing in the correct vowel and diphthong sounds production and appropriate reading speed in preparation for the respondents’ search for BPO employment. This short-term program ran for 5 hours in a day for five days in a week.

Keywords: Language, Indigenous, Dialect, Vowels, native, vernacular, accent neutralization, diphthongs, language origin, reading speed

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24 The Role of the Indigenous Radio Today and Its Impact on the Audience: The Case of Dambana FM in Sri Lanka

Authors: Dammika Bandara Herath

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A group of people who inherits a long history of existence within a particular country may be known as early inhabitants or indigenous peoples. In other words, they have not migrated to the particular territory from another part of the world and at the same time, they have inhabited the territory in issue prior to the time of a major invasion/migration. According to the UN, there are a number of unique attributes of the indigenous peoples: Self-identification as indigenous people,Historical continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre-settler societies, Distinct social, economic or political systems, Distinct language, culture and beliefs, Form non-dominant groups of society, Resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities. Indigenous peoples constitute 5% of the world’s population. They are also known as tribal people, first people, native people, and indigenous people. Various indigenous communities can be found in about 90 countries in the world. Asia is home to approximately 70 % of these indigenous communities who have their own unique socio-cultural identities. Most indigenous communities remain isolated from the mainstream social, cultural, and economic institutions of their homeland. Yet, they inherited their own unique rights and responsible peculiar to their own group. These include: Protecting the socio-cultural heritage of the group, Protecting the unique identity of their community from socio-cultural changes in the mainstream communities,Protecting their land, Diffusing their cultural heritage to the future generation, Co-existing peacefully with other community .However, indigenous peoples encounter a lot of challenges as a result of socio-cultural change and legal restrictions in the world today. To assist the communities to face these challenges, the mass –media can play a significant role and the radio media has a purpose-built mechanism for this mission, known as the indigenous radio. In Sri Lanka, Dambana FM is such a radio channel based on the indigenous radio model. The target audience of this channel is the vedda / indigenous community of Sri Lanka. This study intends to the current role of the indigenous radio based on Dambana FM, of which the target audience is the indigenous community of Dambana. For the purpose of this study, interviews were conducted among fifty randomly selected respondents from the indigenous community of Dambana. As far as the findings of this study are concerned, problems in the quality of the programmed broadcasted and problems of transmission are the key issues faced by the indigenous radio in Sri Lanka. Based on the findings, the researcher seeks to develop a model to enhance the impact of the indigenous radio on its listeners in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Culture, Radio, Communities, Indigenous, vedda

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23 Some Factors Affecting Reproductive Traits in Nigerian Indigenous Chickens under Intensive Management System

Authors: J. Aliyu, A. O. Raji, A. A. Ibrahim

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The study was carried out to assess the fertility, early and late embryonic mortalities as well as hatchability by strain, season and hen’s weight in Nigerian indigenous chickens reared on deep litter. Four strains (normal feathered, naked neck, frizzle and dwarf) of hens maintained at a mating ratio of 1 cock to 4 hens, fed breeders mash and water ad libitum were used in a three year experiment. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS package and the means, where significant, were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of strain on all the traits studied. Fertility was generally high (84.29 %) in all the strains. Early embryonic mortality was significantly lowest (P < 0.01) in naked neck which had the highest late embryonic mortality (P < 0.001). Hatchability was significantly highest (P < 0.01) in normal feathered (80.23 %) and slightly depressed in frizzle (74.95 %) and dwarf (72.27 %) while naked neck had the lowest (60.80 %). Season of the year had significant effects on early embryonic mortality. Dry hot season significantly (P < 0.05) depressed fertility while early embryonic mortality was depressed in the wet season (15.33 %). Early and late embryonic mortalities significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing weight of hen. Dwarf, frizzle and normal feathered hens could be used to improve hatchability as well as reduce early and late embryonic mortalities in Nigerian indigenous chickens.

Keywords: Indigenous, Fertility, Chicken, strain, hatchability

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22 Prospects of Agroforestry Products in the Emergency Situation: A Case Study of Earthquake of 2015 in Central Nepal

Authors: Raju Chhetri

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Agroforestry is one of the main sources of livelihood among the people of Nepal. In particular, this is the only one mode of livelihood among the Chepangs. The monster earthquake (7.3 MW) that hit the country on the 25th of April in 2015 and many of its aftershocks had devastating effects. As a result, not only the big structures collapsed, it incurred great losses on fabrication, collection centers, schools, markets and other necessary service centers. Although there were a large number of aftershocks after the monster earthquake, the most devastating aftershock took place on 12th May, 2015, which measured 6.3 richter scale. Consequently, it caused more destruction of houses, further calamity to the lives of people, and public life got further perdition. This study was mainly carried out to find out the food security and market situation of Agroforestry product of the Chepang community in Raksirang VDC (one of the severely affected VDCs of Makwanpur district) due to the earthquake. A total of 40 households (12 percent) were randomly selected as a sample in ward number 7 only. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to gather primary data. Additional, two Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were convened in the study area to get some descriptive information on this study. Estimated 370 hectares of land, which was full of Agroforestry plantation, ruptured by the earthquake. It caused severe damages to the households, and a serious loss of food-stock, up to 60-80 percent (maize, millet, and rice). Instead of regular cereal intake, banana (Muas Paradisca) consumption was found ‘high scale’ in the emergency period. The market price of rice (37-44 NRS/Kg) increased by 18.9 percent. Some difference in the income range before and after the earthquake was observed. Before earthquake, sale of Agroforestry, and livestock products were continuing, but after the earthquake, Agroforestry product sale is the only one means of livelihood among Chepangs. Nearly 50-60 percent Agroforestry production of banana (Mass Paradisca), citrus (Citrus Lemon), pineapple (Ananus comosus) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) declined, excepting for cash income from the residual. Heavy demands of Agroforestry product mentioned above lay high farm gate prices (50-100 percent) helps surveyed the community to continue livelihood from its sale. Out of the survey samples, 30 households (75 percent) respondents migrated to safe location due to land rupture, ongoing aftershocks, and landslides. Overall food security situation in this community is acute and challenging for the days to come. Immediate and long term both response from a relief agency concerning food, shelter and safe stocking of Agroforestry product is required to keep secured livelihood in Chepang community.

Keywords: Food Security, Earthquake, Agroforestry, Indigenous, livelihood, rupture

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21 Assessment of Indigenous People Living Condition in Coal Mining Region: An Evidence from Dhanbad, India

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav

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Coal contributes a significant role in India’s developmental mission. But, ironically, on the other side it causes large scale population displacement and significant changes in indigenous people’s livelihood mechanism. Dhanbad which is regarded as one of the oldest and large mining area, as well as a “Coal Capital of India”. Here, mining exploration work started nearly a century ago. But with the passage of time, mining brings a lot of changes in the life of local people. In this context, study tries to do comparative situational analysis of the changes in the living condition of dwellers living in mines affected and non-mines affected villages based on livelihood approach. Since, this place has long history of mining so it is very difficult to conduct before and after comparison between mines and non-mines affected areas. Consequently, the present study is based on relative comparison approach to elucidate the actual scenario. By using primary survey data which was collected by the author during the month of September 2014 to March 2015 at Dhanbad, Jharkhand. The data were collected from eight villages, these were categorised broadly into mines and non-mines affected villages. Further at micro level, mines affected villages has been categorised into open cast and underground mines. This categorization will help us to capture the deeper understanding about the issues of mine affected villages group. Total of 400 household were surveyed. Result depicts that in every sphere mining affected villages are more vulnerable. Regarding financial capital, although mine affected villages are engaged in mining work and get higher mean income. But in contrast, non-mine affected villages are more occupationally diversified. They have an opportunity to earn money from diversified extents like agricultural land, working in mining area, selling coal informally as well as receiving remittances. Non-mines affected villages are in better physical capital which comprises of basic infrastructure to support livelihood. They have an access to secured shelter, adequate water supply & sanitation, and affordable information and transport. Mining affected villages are more prone to health risks. Regarding social capital, it shows that in comparison to last five years, law and order has been improved in mine affected villages.

Keywords: Mining, Indigenous, Displacement, livelihood

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20 Indigenous Learning of Animal Metaphors: The ‘Big Five’ in King Shaka’s Praise-Poems

Authors: Ntandoni Gloria Biyela

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During traditional times, there were no formal institutions of learning as they are today, where children attend classes to acquire or develop knowledge. This does not mean that there was no learning in indigenous African societies. Grandparents used to tell their grandchildren stories or teach them educational games around the fireplace, which this study refers to as a ‘traditional classroom’. A story recreated in symbolic or allegorical way, forms a base for a society’s beliefs, customs, accepted norms and language learning. Through folklore narratives, a society develops its own self awareness and education. So narrative characters, especially animals may be mythical products of the pre-literate folklore world and thus show the closeness that the Zulu society had with the wildlife. Oral cultures strive to create new facets of meaning by the use of animal metaphors to reflect the relationship of humans with the animal realm and to contribute to the language learning or literature in cross-cultural studies. Although animal metaphors are widespread in Zulu language because of the Zulu nation’s traditional closeness to wildlife, little field-research has been conducted on the social behavior of animals on the way in which their characteristics were transferred with precision to depictions of King Shaka’s behavior and activities during the amalgamation of Nguni clans into a Zulu kingdom. This study attempts to fill the gap by using first-hand interviews with local informants in areas traditionally linked to the king in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Departing from the conceptual metaphor theory, the study concentrates on King Shaka’s praise-poems in which the praise-poet describes his physical and dispositional characteristics through bold animal metaphors of the ‘Big Five’; namely, the lion, the leopard, the buffalo, the rhinoceros and the elephant, which are often referred to as Zulu royal favorites. These metaphors are still learnt by young and old in the 21st century because they reflect the responsibilities, status, and integrity of the king and the respect in which he is held by his people. They also project the crescendo growth of the Zulu nation, which, through the fulfillment of his ambitions, grew from a small clan to a mighty kingdom.

Keywords: Learning, Animal, Indigenous, Metaphor

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19 Culture and Health Equity: Unpacking the Sociocultural Determinants of Eye Health for Indigenous Australian Diabetics

Authors: Aryati Yashadhana, Ted Fields Jnr., Wendy Fernando, Kelvin Brown, Godfrey Blitner, Francis Hayes, Ruby Stanley, Brian Donnelly, Bridgette Jerrard, Anthea Burnett, Anthony B. Zwi

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Indigenous Australians experience some of the worst health outcomes globally, with life expectancy being significantly poorer than those of non-Indigenous Australians. This is largely attributed to preventable diseases such as diabetes (prevalence 39% in Indigenous Australian adults > 55 years), which is attributed to a raised risk of diabetic visual impairment and cataract among Indigenous adults. Our study aims to explore the interface between structural and sociocultural determinants and human agency, in order to understand how they impact (1) accessibility of eye health and chronic disease services and (2) the potential for Indigenous patients to achieve positive clinical eye health outcomes. We used Participatory Action Research methods, and aimed to privilege the voices of Indigenous people through community collaboration. Semi-structured interviews (n=82) and patient focus groups (n=8) were conducted by Indigenous Community-Based Researchers (CBRs) with diabetic Indigenous adults (> 40 years) in four remote communities in Australia. Interviews (n=25) and focus groups (n=4) with primary health care clinicians in each community were also conducted. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically using grounded theory, comparative analysis and Nvivo 10. Preliminary analysis occurred in tandem with data collection to determine theoretical saturation. The principal investigator (AY) led analysis sessions with CBRs, fostering cultural and contextual appropriateness to interpreting responses, knowledge exchange and capacity building. Identified themes were conceptualised into three spheres of influence: structural (health services, government), sociocultural (Indigenous cultural values, distrust of the health system, ongoing effects of colonialism and dispossession) and individual (health beliefs/perceptions, patient phenomenology). Permeating these spheres of influence were three core determinants: economic disadvantage, health literacy/education, and cultural marginalisation. These core determinants affected accessibility of services, and the potential for patients to achieve positive clinical outcomes at every level of care (primary, secondary, tertiary). Our findings highlight the clinical realities of institutionalised and structural inequities, illustrated through the lived experiences of Indigenous patients and primary care clinicians in the four sampled communities. The complex determinants surrounding inequity in health for Indigenous Australians, are entrenched through a longstanding experience of cultural discrimination and ostracism. Secure and long term funding of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services will be valuable, but are insufficient to address issues of inequity. Rather, working collaboratively with communities to build trust, and identify needs and solutions at the grassroots level, while leveraging community voices to drive change at the systemic/policy level are recommended.

Keywords: Sociology, Anthropology, Diabetes, Culture, Public Health, Primary Care, Indigenous, Health Equity, Australia, Social determinants of health, eye health, aboriginal and Torres strait islander

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18 Understanding Indigenous Perspectives and Critical Knowledge in International Law

Authors: Radhika Jagtap

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Contemporary scholarship in international legal theory is investigating new avenues of providing alternatives to dominant concepts. Indigenous peoples’ philosophies and perspectives developed through them provide a fertile ground to explore similar alternative ideas. This review paper evaluates the theorized accounts of indigenous scholarships which have contributed towards a rich body of knowledge generating alternative visions on dominant notions of ‘post coloniality’, ‘resistance’ and ‘globalization’. Further, it shall assess the relevance of such a project in shaping contemporary international legal thought. Traditional or classical international law has been opined to be highly influenced by the colonial and imperialist history which also left a mark on the way dominant discourses of resistance and globalization are read in mainstream international law. The paper shall first define what do we mean by indigenous philosophy and what kind of indigeneity is that inclusive of. Second, the paper defines the dominant discourse and then counters the same with the alternative indigenous perspective in the case of each concept that is in question. Finally, the paper shall conclude with certain theoretical findings – that the post coloniality, from indigenous perspective, lead to the further marginalization of indigeneity, especially in the third world; that human rights as the sole means of representing resistance in international law ends up making it a very state-centric discipline and last, that globalization from an indigenous, marginalised perspective is not as celebrated as it is in mainstream international law. Major scholarly works that shall be central to the discussion are those of Linda Tuiwahi Smith, Ella Shohat and David Harvey. The nature of the research shall be inductive and involve mostly theoretical review of scholarly works.

Keywords: Globalization, Perspectives, Indigenous, post colonial

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17 Experimental Investigation to Produce an Optimum Mix Ratio of Micro-Concrete

Authors: Shofiq Ahmed, Rakibul Hassan, Raquib Ahsan

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Concrete is one of the basic elements of RCC structure and also the most crucial one. In recent years, a lot of researches have been conducted to develop special types of concrete for special purposes. Micro-concrete is one of them which has high compressive strength and is mainly used for retrofitting. Micro-concrete is a cementitious based composition formulated for use in repairs of areas where the concrete is damaged & the area is confined in movement making the placement of conventional concrete difficult. According to recent statistics, a large number of structures in the major cities of Bangladesh are vulnerable to collapse. Retrofitting may thus be required for a sustainable solution, and for this purpose, the utilization of micro-concrete can be considered as the most effective solution. For that reason, the aim of this study was to produce micro-concrete using indigenous materials in low cost. Following this aim, the experimental data were observed for five mix ratios with varied amount of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, and admixture. The investigation criteria were a compressive strength, tensile strength, slump and the cost of different mix ratios. Finally, for a mix ratio of 1:1:1.5, the compressive strength was achieved as 7820 psi indicating highest strength among all the samples with the reasonable tensile strength of 1215 psi. The slump of 6.9 inches was also found for this specimen indicating it’s high flowability and making it’s convenient to use as micro-concrete. Moreover, comparing with the cost of foreign products of micro-concrete, it was observed that foreign products were almost four to five times costlier than this local product.

Keywords: Indigenous, retrofitting, vulnerable, micro-concrete

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16 Indigenous Nigeria's Oil Sector: Stages, Opportunities, and Obstacles regarding Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: Laura Dumuje

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The ongoing debate in terms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative in Niger Delta originates from existing gap between stated objectives of organizations in the Nigerian oil sector and the activities that threaten the economy. CSR in developing countries is becoming popular, and to contribute to scientific knowledge, we need to research on CSR practices and discourse in indigenous Nigeria that is scarce. Despite governments mandate in terms of unofficial gas blazing, methane is being released into the atmosphere which contributes to global warming. Does this practice apply to indigenous companies? In this context, we need to investigate CSR policies in local Nigeria. To get a better understanding of CSR among indigenous oil companies in Nigeria, our study focuses on discourse and rhetoric in terms of CSR, as well as growth regarding CSR. This current study contribution is twofold: on the one hand, it aims to better understand practitioner’s rationale and fundamentals of CSR in Nigerian oil companies. On the other hand, it intends to identify the stages of CSR initiatives, advantages and difficulties of CSR implementation in indigenous Nigeria oil sector. This study will use the qualitative research as methodological strategy. Instrument for data collection is semi-structured interview. Besides interview, we will conduct some focus group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Participants for this study consist of employees, managers and top level executives of indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. Key informants such as government institutions, environmental organizations and community leaders will take part of our samples. It is important to note that despite significant findings in some studies, there are still some gaps. To help filling this existing gaps, we have formulated some research questions, as follows: ‘What are the stages, opportunities and obstacles of having corporate social responsibility practice in indigenous oil companies in Nigeria?’ This ongoing research sub-questions as follows: What are the CSR discourses and practices among indigenous companies in the Nigerian oil sector? What is the actual status regarding CSR development? What are the main perceptions of opportunities and obstacles with regard to CSR in indigenous Nigerian oil companies? Who are the main stakeholders of indigenous Nigerian oil companies and their different meanings and understandings of CSR practices? Important to note regarding the above questions, the following objectives have been determined: This research conducts a literature review with the aim of uncovering, understanding and identifying importance of CSR practices in western and developing countries; It aims to identify specific characteristics of the national context in respect to CSR engagement in Nigeria; Relevant to perform empirical research with employees, managers, executives, and key informants in indigenous Nigerian oil companies in order to identify different understandings of CSR initiatives and its relevance to the society; To conclude, provide managerial recommendations regarding the adoption of CSR in Nigeria.

Keywords: Organization, Corporate Social Responsibility, Indigenous, Nigeria

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15 Disaggregating Communities and the Making of Factional States: Evidence from Joint Forest Management in Sundarban, India

Authors: Amrita Sen

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In the face of a growing insurgent movement and the perceived failure of the state and the market towards sustainable resource management, a range of decentralized forest management policies was formulated in the last two decades, which recognized the need for community representations within the statutory methods of forest management. The recognition conceded on the virtues of ecological sustainability and traditional environmental knowledge, which were considered to be the principal repositories of the forest dependent communities. The present study, in the light of empirical insights, reflects on the contemporary disjunctions between the preconceived communitarian ethic in environmentalism and the lived reality of forest based life-worlds. Many of the popular as well as dominant ideologies, which have historically shaped the conceptual and theoretical understanding of sociology, needs further perusal in the context of the emerging contours of empirical knowledge, which lends opportunities for substantive reworking and analysis. The image of the community appears to be one of those concepts, an identity which has for long defined perspectives and processes associated with people living together harmoniously in small physical spaces. Through an ethnographic account of the implementation of Joint Forest Management (JFM) in a forest fringe village in Sundarban, the study explores the ways in which the idea of ‘community’ gets transformed through the process of state-making, rendering the necessity of its departure from the standard, conventional definition of homogeneity and internal equity. The study necessitates an attention towards the anthropology of micro-politics, disaggregating an essentially constructivist anthropology of ‘collective identities’, which can render the visibility of political mobilizations plausible within the seemingly culturalist production of communities. The two critical questions that the paper seeks to ask in this context are: how the ‘local’ is constituted within community based conservation practices? Within the efforts of collaborative forest management, how accurately does the depiction of ‘indigenous environmental knowledge’, subscribe to its role of sustainable conservation practices? Reflecting on the execution of JFM in Sundarban, the study critically explores the ways in which the state ceases to be ‘trans-national’ and interacts with the rural life-worlds through its local factions. Simultaneously, the study attempts to articulate the scope of constructing a competing representation of community, shaped by increasing political negotiations and bureaucratic alignments which strains against the usual preoccupations with tradition primordiality and non material culture as well as the amorous construction of indigeneity.

Keywords: Community, Indigenous, identities, environmentalism, JFM, state-making

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14 Technology Transfer of Indigenous Technologies: Emerging Aid to Indian Health Sector

Authors: Tripta Dixit, Smita Sahu, William Selvamurthy, Sadhana Srivastava

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India is battling with the issues of accessibility, affordability and availability of quality health to the masses. Indian medical heritage which dated back to 3000 BC unveils the rich knowledge pool which has undergone a perceptible change over years, such as eradication of many communicable diseases, increasing individual awareness of quality health and import driven medical device market etc. Despite a slew of initiatives the holistic slogan of ‘health for all’ remains elusive and a concern for the nation. The 21st-century projects a myriad of challenges like cultural diversity, large population, demographic dividend and geographical segmentation leading to varied needs of people as per their regional conditions of climate, disease prevalence, nutrition and sanitation. But these challenges are also opportunities for the development of indigenous, low cost and accessible technologies to tackle them. This requires reinforcing the potential of indigenous technologies in coordination with prevailing health issues in various regions of country. This paper emphasis on the strategy for exploring the indigenous technologies with entrusted up-scaling to meet the diverse needs of the people. This review proposes to adopt technology transfer as a strategy to establish a vibrant ecosystem for identifying and up-scaling the indigenous medical technologies with diligent hand-holding for public health.

Keywords: Health, Medical Technology, Technology Transfer, Indigenous

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13 Teachers Handbook: A Key to Imparting Teaching in Multilingual Classrooms at Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS)

Authors: Sushree Sangita Mohanty

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The pedagogic system, which is used to work with indigenous groups, who have equally different socio-economic, socio-cultural & multi-lingual conditions with differing cognitive capabilities, makes the education situation complex. As a result, educating the indigenous people became just the dissemination of facts and information, but advancement in knowledge and possibilities somewhere hides. This gap arises complexities due to the language barrier and the teachers from a conventional background of teaching practices are unable to understand or connect with the students in the schools. This paper presents the research work of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) project that has developed a creative pedagogic endeavor for the students of Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS) for facilitating Multilingual Education (MLE) teaching. KISS is a home for 25,000 indigenous children. The students enrolled here are from 62 different indigenous communities who speak around 24 different languages with geographical articulation. The book contents include concept, understanding languages, similitudes among languages, the need of mother tongue in teaching and learning, skill development (Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writing), teachers activities for teaching in multilingual schools, the process of teaching, training format of multilingual teaching and procedures for basic data collection regarding multilingual schools and classroom handle.

Keywords: Teachers, Indigenous, teaching practices, pedagogic, multi-lingual

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12 Law and Literature: The Testimony in Pedro Casaldaliga's Poetic

Authors: Eliziane Navarro

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It is intended, in this study, from some poems from the work of the poet and Bishop of São Félix do Araguaia-MT Brazil Dom Pedro Casaldáliga, to analyze his poetics from the perspective of the environmental law. In his work, Casaldáliga made a considerable manifest against the oppression experienced especially by Xavante people inside the constryside of the state of Mato Grosso when some government programs benefited a large number of landowners in instead of that minority as a power and control self-affirmation process. The attention which Casaldáliga dismissed to the cause of indigenous eviction of their land called Maraiwatsede resulted in numerous death threats against the poet who was not silenced in face of the landowners’ grievances. His voice contributed significantly to the process of land returning to the indigenous people. Because of the international pressure, the Italian company AGIP, owner of the land, tried to return it to the hands of the indigenous, unfortunately, in the middle of the process, the land was occupied by politicians and big landowners of the region. Another objective of this research is to check the connection of his testimonial literature with the actual legal context of the state in the 50s and also to analyze his poetry as a complaint that led the cause of the state's indigenous to the Eco 92 discussion in Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: Indigenous, Law and Literature, Brazil, Pedro Casaldaliga

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11 Main Cause of Children's Deaths in Indigenous Wayuu Community from Department of La Guajira: A Research Developed through Data Mining Use

Authors: Isaura Esther Solano Núñez, David Suarez

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The main purpose of this research is to discover what causes death in children of the Wayuu community, and deeply analyze those results in order to take corrective measures to properly control infant mortality. We consider important to determine the reasons that are producing early death in this specific type of population, since they are the most vulnerable to high risk environmental conditions. In this way, the government, through competent authorities, may develop prevention policies and the right measures to avoid an increase of this tragic fact. The methodology used to develop this investigation is data mining, which consists in gaining and examining large amounts of data to produce new and valuable information. Through this technique it has been possible to determine that the child population is dying mostly from malnutrition. In short, this technique has been very useful to develop this study; it has allowed us to transform large amounts of information into a conclusive and important statement, which has made it easier to take appropriate steps to resolve a particular situation.

Keywords: Data Mining, Malnutrition, Analytical, Population, Indigenous, descriptive, Wayuu

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10 Indigenous Companies in Nigeria's Oil Sector: Stages, Opportunities, and Obstacles regarding Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: L. U. Dumuje, R. Leite

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There is an ongoing debate in terms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative in Niger Delta, Nigeria, that originates from existing gap between stated objective of organizations in the Nigerian oil sector and their main activities that threaten the society. CSR in developing countries is becoming popular, and to contribute to scientific knowledge, we need to research on CSR practices and discourse in indigenous Nigeria that is scarce. Despite governments mandate in terms of unofficial blazing, methane gas is released into the air around refinery area which contributes to global warming. There is a need to understand if this practice applies to indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. To get a better understanding of CSR among indigenous oil companies in Nigeria, our study focuses on discourse and rhetoric regarding CSR. This current paper contributions is twofold: on the one hand, it aims to better understand practitioner’s rationale and fundamentals of CSR in Nigerian oil companies. On the other hand, it intends to identify the stages of CSR initiatives, advantages and difficulties of CSR implementation in indigenous Nigeria oil sector. This current paper uses the qualitative research as a methodological strategy. Instrument for data collection is semi-structured interview. Besides 28 interviews, we conduct five focus group discussions with stakeholders. Participant for this study consist of: employees, managers and executives of indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. It is relevant to mention, key informants as government institution, environmental organization and community leader/member are part of our sample. It is important that despite significant findings in some studies, there are still some gaps. To help filling this existing gaps, we have formulated some research questions, as follows: ‘What are the stages, opportunities and obstacles of having corporate social responsibility practice in indigenous oil companies in Nigeria’. This ongoing research sub-questions as follows: What are the CSR discourses and practices among indigenous companies in the Nigerian oil sector; what is the actual status regarding CSR development; what are the main perceptions of opportunities and obstacles with regard to CSR in indigenous Nigerian oil companies; who are the main stakeholders of indigenous Nigerian oil companies and their different meanings and understandings of CSR practices. Regarding the above questions, the following objectives have been determined: first, we conduct a literature review with the aim of understanding and identifying importance of CSR practises in western and developing countries. Second, this current paper identify specific characteristics of the national context in terms of CSR engagement in Nigeria, so we perform empirical research with relevant stakeholder in indigenous Nigerian, as well as key informants, in order to identify development of CSR and different perception of this praised initiative, CSR.

Keywords: Practice, Corporate Social Responsibility, Indigenous, Nigeria, oil organizations

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9 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

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According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: Trauma, Human Rights, Culture, Identity, Children, Memory, Indigenous, drama, Australia, audience, stage, setting, aboriginal, home, Jane Harrison, scenic effects, stage directions, Stolen

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8 Indigenous Children Doing Better through Mother Tongue Based Early Childhood Care and Development Center in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

Authors: Meherun Nahar

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Background:The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) is one of the most diverse regions in Bangladesh in terms of geography, ethnicity, culture and traditions of the people and home of thirteen indigenous ethnic people. In Bangladesh indigenous children aged 6-10 years remain out of school, and the majority of those who do enroll drop out before completing primary school. According to different study that the dropout rate of indigenous children is much higher than the estimated national rate, children dropping out especially in the early years of primary school. One of the most critical barriers for these children is that they do not understand the national language in the government pre-primary school. And also their school readiness and development become slower. In this situation, indigenous children excluded from the mainstream quality education. To address this issue Save the children in Bangladesh and other organizations are implementing community-based Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education program (MTBMLE) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) for improving the enrolment rate in Government Primary Schools (GPS) reducing dropout rate as well as quality education. In connection with that Save the children conducted comparative research in Chittagong hill tracts on children readiness through Mother tongue-based and Non-mother tongue ECCD center. Objectives of the Study To assess Mother Language based ECCD centers and Non-Mother language based ECCD centers children’s school readiness and development. To assess the community perception over Mother Language based and Non-Mother Language based ECCD center. Methodology: The methodology of the study was FGD, KII, In-depth Interview and observation. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were followed. The quantitative part has three components, School Readiness, Classroom observation and Headteacher interview and qualitative part followed FGD technique. Findings: The interviews with children under school readiness component showed that in general, Mother Language (ML) based ECCD children doing noticeably better in all four areas (Knowledge, numeracy, fine motor skill and communication) than their peers from Non-mother language based children. ML students seem to be far better skilled in concepts about print as most of them could identify cover and title of the book that was shown to them. They could also know from where to begin to read the book or could correctly point the letter that was read. A big difference was found in the area of identifying letters as 89.3% ML students of could identify letters correctly whereas for Non mother language 30% could do the same. The class room observation data shows that ML children are more active and remained engaged in the classroom than NML students. Also, teachers of ML appeared to have more engaged in explaining issues relating to general knowledge or leading children in rhyming/singing other than telling something from text books. The participants of FGDs were very enthusiastic on using mother language as medium of teaching in pre-schools. They opined that this initiative elates children to attend school and enables them to continue primary schooling without facing any language barrier.

Keywords: Indigenous, chittagong hill tracts, early childhood care and development (ECCD), mother language

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7 Weaving Social Development: An Exploratory Study of Adapting Traditional Textiles Using Indigenous Organic Wool for the Modern Interior Textiles Market

Authors: Seema Singh, Puja Anand, Alok Bhasin

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The interior design profession aims to create aesthetically pleasing design solutions for human habitats but of late, growing awareness about depleting environmental resources, both tangible and intangible, and damages to the eco-system led to the quest for creating healthy and sustainable interior environments. The paper proposes adapting traditionally produced organic wool textiles for the mainstream interior design industry. This can create sustainable livelihoods whereby eco-friendly bridges can be built between Interior designers and consumers and pastoral communities. This study focuses on traditional textiles produced by two pastoral communities from India that use organic wool from indigenous sheep varieties. The Gaddi communities of Himachal Pradesh use wool from the Gaddi sheep breed to create Pattu (a multi-purpose textile). The Kurumas of Telangana weave a blanket called the Gongadi, using wool from the Black Deccani variety of sheep. These communities have traditionally reared indigenous sheep breeds for their wool and produce hand-spun and hand-woven textiles for their own consumption, using traditional processes that are chemical free. Based on data collected personally from field visits and documentation of traditional crafts of these pastoral communities, and using traditionally produced indigenous organic wool, the authors have developed innovative textile samples by including design interventions and exploring dyeing and weaving techniques. As part of the secondary research, the role of pastoralism in sustaining the eco-systems of Himachal Pradesh and Telangana was studied, and also the role of organic wool in creating healthy interior environments. The authors found that natural wool from indigenous sheep breeds can be used to create interior textiles that have the potential to be marketed to an urban audience, and this will help create earnings for pastoral communities. Literature studies have shown that organic & sustainable wool can reduce indoor pollution & toxicity levels in interiors and further help in creating healthier interior environments. Revival of indigenous breeds of sheep can further help in rejuvenating dying crafts, and promotion of these indigenous textiles can help in sustaining traditional eco-systems and the pastoral communities whose way of life is endangered today. Based on research and findings, the authors propose that adapting traditional textiles can have potential for application in Interiors, creating eco-friendly spaces. Interior textiles produced through such sustainable processes can help reduce indoor pollution, give livelihood opportunities to traditional economies, and leave almost zero carbon foot-print while being in sync with available natural resources, hence ultimately benefiting the society. The win-win situation for all the stakeholders in this eco-friendly model makes it pertinent to re-think how we design lifestyle textiles for interiors. This study illustrates a specific example from the two pastoral communities and can be used as a model that can work equally well in any community, regardless of geography.

Keywords: Sustainability, Indigenous, pastoralism, design intervention, eco- friendly, healthy interiors, organic wool

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6 From Indigeneity to Urbanity: A Performative Study of Indian Saang (Folk Play) Tradition

Authors: Shiv Kumar

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In the shifting scenario of postmodern age that foregrounds the multiplicity of meanings and discourses, the present research article seeks to investigate various paradigm shift of contemporary performances concerning Haryanvi Saangs, so-called folk plays, which are being performed widely in the regional territory of Haryana, a northern state of India. Folk arts cannot be studied efficiently by using the tools of literary criticism because it differs from the literature in many aspects. One of the most essential differences is that literary works invariably have an author. Folk works, on the contrary, never have an author. The situation is quite clear: either we acknowledge the presence of folk art as a phenomenon in the social and cultural history of people, or we do not acknowledge it and argue it is a poetical or art of fiction. This paper is an effort to understand the performative tradition of Saang which is traditionally known as Saang, Swang or Svang became a popular source for instruction and entertainment in the region and neighbouring states. Scholars and critics have long been debating about the origin of the word swang/svang/saang and their relationship to the Sanskrit word –Sangit, which means singing and music. But in the cultural context of Haryana, the word Saang means ‘to impersonate’ or ‘to imitate’ or ‘to copy someone or something’. The stories they portray are derived for the most part from the same myths, tales, epics and from the lives of Indian religious and folk heroes. Literally, the use of poetic sense, the implication of prose style and elaborate figurative technique are worthwhile to compile the productivity of a performance. All use music and song as an integral part of the performance so that it is also appropriate to call them folk opera. These folk plays are performed strictly by aboriginal people in the state. These people, sometimes denominated as Saangi, possess a culture distinct from the rest of Indian folk performances. The concerned form is also known with various other names like Manch, Khayal, Opera, Nautanki. The group of such folk plays can be seen as a dynamic activity and performed in the open space of the theatre. Nowadays, producers contributed greatly in order to create a rapidly growing musical outlet for budding new style of folk presentation and give rise to the electronic focus genre utilizing many musicians and performers who had to become precursors of the folk tradition in the region. Moreover, the paper proposes to examine available sources relative to this article, and it is believed to draw some different conclusions. For instance, to be a spectator of ongoing performances will contribute to providing enough guidance to move forward on this root. In this connection, the paper focuses critically upon the major performative aspects of Haryanvi Saang in relation to several inquiries such as the study of these plays in the context of Indian literary scenario, gender visualization and their dramatic representation, a song-music tradition in folk creativity and development of Haryanvi dramatic art in the contemporary socio-political background.

Keywords: Performance, Indigenous, tradition, folk play, Saang

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5 Lessons Learned through a Bicultural Approach to Tsunami Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

Authors: Lucy H. Kaiser, Kate Boersen

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Kura Kaupapa Māori (kura) and bilingual schools are primary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand which operate fully or partially under Māori custom and have curricula developed to include Te Reo Māori and Tikanga Māori (Māori language and cultural practices). These schools were established to support Māori children and their families through reinforcing cultural identity by enabling Māori language and culture to flourish in the field of education. Māori kaupapa (values), Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and Te Reo are crucial considerations for the development of educational resources developed for kura, bilingual and mainstream schools. The inclusion of hazard risk in education has become an important issue in New Zealand due to the vulnerability of communities to a plethora of different hazards. Māori have an extensive knowledge of their local area and the history of hazards which is often not appropriately recognised within mainstream hazard education resources. Researchers from the Joint Centre for Disaster Research, Massey University and East Coast LAB (Life at the Boundary) in Napier were funded to collaboratively develop a toolkit of tsunami risk reduction activities with schools located in Hawke’s Bay’s tsunami evacuation zones. A Māori-led bicultural approach to developing and running the education activities was taken, focusing on creating culturally and locally relevant materials for students and schools as well as giving students a proactive role in making their communities better prepared for a tsunami event. The community-based participatory research is Māori-centred, framed by qualitative and Kaupapa Maori research methodologies and utilizes a range of data collection methods including interviews, focus groups and surveys. Māori participants, stakeholders and the researchers collaborated through the duration of the project to ensure the programme would align with the wider school curricula and kaupapa values. The education programme applied a tuakana/teina, Māori teaching and learning approach in which high school aged students (tuakana) developed tsunami preparedness activities to run with primary school students (teina). At the end of the education programme, high school students were asked to reflect on their participation, what they had learned and what they had enjoyed during the activities. This paper draws on lessons learned throughout this research project. As an exemplar, retaining a bicultural and bilingual perspective resulted in a more inclusive project as there was variability across the students’ levels of confidence using Te Reo and Māori knowledge and cultural frameworks. Providing a range of different learning and experiential activities including waiata (Māori songs), pūrākau (traditional stories) and games was important to ensure students had the opportunity to participate and contribute using a range of different approaches that were appropriate to their individual learning needs. Inclusion of teachers in facilitation also proved beneficial in assisting classroom behavioral management. Lessons were framed by the tikanga and kawa (protocols) of the school to maintain cultural safety for the researchers and the students. Finally, the tuakana/teina component of the education activities became the crux of the programme, demonstrating a path for Rangatahi to support their whānau and communities through facilitating disaster preparedness, risk reduction and resilience.

Keywords: Education, Tsunami, Children, Indigenous, Disaster Preparedness, school safety

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4 Even When the Passive Resistance Is Obligatory: Civil Intellectuals’ Solidarity Activism in Tea Workers Movement

Authors: Moshreka Aditi Huq

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This study shows how a progressive portion of civil intellectuals in Bangladesh contributed as the solidarity activist entities in a movement of tea workers that became the symbol of their unique moral struggle. Their passive yet sharp way of resistance, with the integration of mass tea workers of a tea estate, got demonstrated against certain private companies and government officials who approached to establish a special economic zone inside the tea garden without offering any compensation and rehabilitation for poor tea workers. Due to massive protests and rebellion, the authorized entrepreneurs had to step back and called off the project immediately. The extraordinary features of this movement generated itself from the deep core social need of indigenous tea workers who are still imprisoned in the colonial cage. Following an anthropological and ethnographic perspective, this study adopted the main three techniques of intensive interview, focus group discussion, and laborious observation, to extract empirical data. The intensive interviews were undertaken informally using a mostly conversational approach. Focus group discussions were piloted among various representative groups where observations prevailed as part of the regular documentation process. These were conducted among civil intellectual entities, tea workers, tea estate authorities, civil service authorities, and business officials to obtain a holistic view of the situation. The fieldwork was executed in capital Dhaka city, along with northern areas like Chandpur-Begumkhan Tea Estate of Chunarughat Upazilla and Habiganj city of Habiganj District of Bangladesh. Correspondingly, secondary data were accessed through books, scholarly papers, archives, newspapers, reports, leaflets, posters, writing blog, and electronic pages of social media. The study results find that: (1) civil intellectuals opposed state-sponsored business impositions by producing counter-discourse and struggled against state hegemony through the phases of the movement; (2) instead of having the active physical resistance, civil intellectuals’ strength was preferably in passive form which was portrayed through their intellectual labor; (3) the combined movement of tea workers and civil intellectuals reflected on social security of ethnic worker communities that contrasts state’s pseudo-development motives which ultimately supports offensive and oppressive neoliberal growths of economy; (4) civil intellectuals are revealed as having certain functional limitations in the process of movement organization as well as resource mobilization; (5) in specific contexts, the genuine need of protest by indigenous subaltern can overshadow intellectual elitism and helps to raise the voices of ‘subjugated knowledge’. This study is quite likely to represent two sets of apparent protagonist entities in the discussion of social injustice and oppressive development intervention. On the one, hand it may help us to find the basic functional characteristics of civil intellectuals in Bangladesh when they are in a passive mode of resistance in social movement issues. On the other hand, it represents the community ownership and inherent protest tendencies of indigenous workers when they feel threatened and insecure. The study seems to have the potential to understand the conditions of ‘subjugated knowledge’ of subalterns. Furthermore, being the memory and narratives, these ‘activism mechanisms’ of social entities broadens the path to understand ‘power’ and ‘resistance’ in more fascinating ways.

Keywords: Resistance, Indigenous, civil intellectuals, subjugated knowledge

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3 Youth Health Promotion Project for Indigenous People in Canada: Together against Bullying and Cyber-Dependence

Authors: Mohamed El Fares Djellatou, Fracoise Filion

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The Ashukin program that means bridge in Naskapi or Atikamekw language, has been designed to offer a partnership between nursing students and an indigenous community. The students design a health promotion project tailored to the needs of the community. The issues of intimidation in primary school and cyber-dependence in high school were some concerns in a rural Atikamekw community. The goal of the project was to have a conversation with indigenous youths, aged 10-16 years old, on the challenges presented by intimidation and cyber dependence as well as promoting healthy relationships online and within the community. Methods: Multiple progressive inquiry questions (PIQs) were used to assess the feasibility and importance of this project for the Atikamekw nation, and to determine a plan to follow. The theoretical foundations to guide the conception of the project were the Population Health Promotion Model (PHPM), the First Nations Holistic Lifelong Learning Model, and the Medicine Wheel. A broad array of social determinants of health were addressed, including healthy childhood development, personal health practices, and coping skills, and education. The youths were encouraged to participate in interactive educational sessions, using PowerPoint presentations and pamphlets as the main effective strategies. Additional tools such as cultural artworks and physical activities were introduced to strengthen the inter-relational and team spirit within the Indigenous population. A quality assurance tool (QAT) was developed specifically to determine the appropriateness of these health promotion tools. Improvements were guided by the feedback issued by the indigenous schools’ teachers and social workers who filled the QATs. Post educational sessions, quantitative results have shown that 93.48% of primary school students were able to identify the different types of intimidation, 72.65% recognized more than two strategies, and 52.1% were able to list at least four resources to diffuse intimidation. On the other hand, around 75% of the adolescents were able to name at least three negative effects, and 50% listed three strategies to reduce cyber-dependence. This project was meant to create a bridge with the First Nation through health promotion, a population that is known to be disadvantaged due to systemic health inequity and disparities. Culturally safe care was proposed to deal with the two identified priority issues, and an educational toolkit was given to both schools to ensure the sustainability of the project. The project was self-financed through fundraising activities, and it yielded better results than expected.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Adolescents, Indigenous, Youth, Bullying, School, Community Nursing, Internet Addiction, first nation, cyber-dependence, intimidation

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2 Traditional Medicines Used for the Enhancement of Male Sexual Performance among the Indigenous Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: A. N. Sharma

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A traditional medicine comprises a knowledge system, practices related to the cure of various ailments that developed over generations by indigenous people or populations. The indigenous populations developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-though hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of traditional medicines for the enhancement of male sexual performance among the indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh, India. Madhya Pradesh state is situated more or less in the central part of India. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, traditional health service providers of Sagar district, and other indigenous populations of Madhya Pradesh. It may be concluded that sizable traditional medicines exist in Madhya Pradesh, India, for the enhancement of male sexual performance, which still awaits for scientific exploration and intensive pharmaceutical investigations.

Keywords: Indigenous, Traditional Medicine, Madhya Pradesh, Bharias, sexual performance

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1 A Tribe, a County, and a Casino: Socioeconomic Disparities between the Mohegan Tribe and New London County through Two Decades

Authors: Michaela Wang

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Since British established colonial settlements across the East Coast, Native Americans have suffered stark socio economic disparities in comparison to their neighboring communities. This paper employs the 1990, 2000, and 2010 United States Decennial Census to assess whether and to what extent the casino economy helped to close this socioeconomic gap between the Mohegan tribe and its surrounding community. These three Decennial Censuses cover two decades, from six years prior to the erection of Mohegan Sun casino to 14 years afterwards, including the Great Recession 2007-2009. Income, employment, education and housing parameters are selected as socio economic indicators. The profitable advent of the Mohegan Sun in 1996 dramatically improved the socio economic status of the Mohegan Tribe between 1990 and 2000. In fact, for most of these indicators––poverty, median household income, employment, home ownership, and car ownership––disparities shifted; tribal socioeconomic parameters improved from well below the level of New London County in 1990, to the same level or above the county rates in 2000. However, economic downturn in 2007-2009 Great Recession impacted Mohegan people remarkably. By 2010, disparities for household income, employment, home ownership, and car ownership returned. The casino bridged socio economic inequalities, but at the face of economic crises, the mono-product economy grew vulnerable.

Keywords: Indigenous, disparity, socio economic, native American

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