Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Income Related Abstracts

33 Collective Bargaining Agreement with Its Related Factors and Employees’ Perceived Productivity: The Case of an Academic Institution in Davao City, Philippines

Authors: Amylyn F. Labasano, M. S. Econ

Abstract:

The study predicts the impact of collective bargaining agreement and its related factors on employees’ perceived productivity in terms of union-management relation’s climate, income, fringe benefits, and job satisfaction of the employees. It also determines whether there are significant differences in the employees’ perceived productivity based on the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The results revealed that the relationship climate which exists between the union and the management is found to have significant adverse effect on the average unpaid hours spent by employees working within the college. On the other hand, the total monthly wage earnings of employees have negative effect on the average hours an employee spent in bringing his work home while job satisfaction positively influences the overall productivity level of employees. The result further shows significant differences in the productivity level of employees across civil status and current designation.

Keywords: Income, Job Satisfaction, perceived productivity, collective bargaining agreement, union, union-management relations climate, fringe benefits

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32 Rural Sanitation in India: Special Context in the State of Odisa

Authors: Monalisha Ghosh, Asit Mohanty

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The lack of sanitation increases living costs, decreases spend on education and nutrition, lowers income earning potential, and threatens safety and welfare. This is especially true for rural India. Only 32% of rural households have their own toilets and that less than half of Indian households have a toilet at home. Of the estimated billion people in the world who defecate in the open, more than half reside in rural India. It is empirically established that poor sanitation leads to high infant mortality rate and low income generation in rural India. In India, 1,600 children die every day before reaching their fifth birthday and 24% of girls drop out of school as the lack of basic sanitation. Above all, lack of sanitation is not a symptom of poverty but a major contributing factor. According to census 2011, 67.3% of the rural households in the country still did not have access to sanitation facilities. India’s sanitation deficit leads to losses worth roughly 6% of its gross domestic product (GDP) according to World Bank estimates by raising the disease burden in the country. The dropout rate for girl child is thirty percent in schools in rural areas because of lack of sanitation facilities for girl students. The productivity loss per skilled labors during a year is calculated at Rs.44, 160 in Odisha. The performance of the state of Odisha has not been satisfactory in improving sanitation facilities. The biggest challenge is triggering behavior change in vast section of rural population regarding need to use toilets. Another major challenge is funding and implementation for improvement of sanitation facility. In an environment of constrained economic resources, Public Private Partnership in form of performance based management or maintenance contract will be all the more relevant to improve the sanitation status in rural sector.

Keywords: Income, granger causality, rural sanitation, infant mortality rate, pooled OLS method test public private partnership

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31 Economics of Fish-Plantain Integrated Farm Enterprise in Southern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Obasa, J. A. Soaga, O. I. Afolabi, N. A. Bamidele, O. E. Babalola

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Attempt to improve the income of the rural population is a welcome development in Nigeria. Integrated fish-crop farming has been suggested as a means of raising farm income, reducing wastage and mitigating the risk component in production through the complementarity gain. A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the replacement of maize with fermented unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peel meal in the diet of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The economics of the integrated enterprise was assessed using budgetary analysis techniques. The analysis incorporated the material and labour costs as well as the returns from sale of matured fish and plantain. A total of 60 fingerlings of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1 g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Two iso-nitrogenous diets containing 35% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0/Control diet), and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. Lowest feed conversion ratio of 1.39 in fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the highest 1.42 of fish fed the Control diet. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0, while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings. Profitability assessment shows that the net income from the integration was ₦ 463,000 per hectare and the integration resulted to an increase of ₦ 87,750.00 representing a 12.2% increase than in separate production.

Keywords: Waste Management, Income, Nile tilapia, fish-crop

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30 Economic Determinants of Maize Production in 2013-2014 in the Individual Farm

Authors: Ewa Krasnodębska

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The article presents the costs and income maize cultivation for grain four selected varieties with different numbers of FAO in 2013-2014. Results of the experiments are derived from a field experiment conducted in indywidulnym farm specializing in the production plant located in the eastern part of Mazowieckie voivodship. The experiment examined the profitability of four varieties of maize cultivation: medium early: P8400 (FAO 240) and P8589 (FAO 250), and an average of late: PR38N86 (FAO 270) and P9027 (FAO 260). In order to evaluate the profitability of grain maize production was calculated income from 1 ha of crops in zł and profitability index taking into account the direct payments up to 1 ha. Analyzing the value of crop production can be concluded that the value of the total production of each variety was very much varied and very much depend on the sales price and yield of maize obtained from 1 ha of cultivation. The largest average seed yield of two years at a moisture content of 15% was achieved in a variety PR38N86, which amounted to 12.1 t / ha and the lowest in the variety P8400 - 9.8 t / ha. Income from 1 ha of crops including EU subsidies ranged from 4916.4 zł / ha in 2013 for variety and only 528.7 PR38N86 zł / ha for a variety of P8400 in 2014. Profitability index reached the highest average late PR38N86 variety of FAO 290 over the entire two-year period under study, and the lowest rate of profitability achieved P8400 medium early variety of FAO 240. The profitability of production ranged from 8964.0 zł / ha in 2013 for a variety of PR38N86 to 5616.0 zł / ha for a variety of P8400 in 2014. Cultivation of maize for grain production is attractive and does not require large amounts of work, but its economic rationale is based primarily on the resulting yield and the price of buying.

Keywords: Profitability, Grain, corn, Income

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29 The Effect of Satisfaction with the Internet on Online Shopping Attitude With TAM Approach Controlled By Gender

Authors: Velly Anatasia

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In the last few decades extensive research has been conducted into information technology (IT) adoption, testing a series of factors considered to be essential for improved diffusion. Some studies analyze IT characteristics such as usefulness, ease of use and/or security, others focus on the emotions and experiences of users and a third group attempts to determine the importance of socioeconomic user characteristics such as gender, educational level and income. The situation is similar regarding e-commerce, where the majority of studies have taken for granted the importance of including these variables when studying e-commerce adoption, as these were believed to explain or forecast who buys or who will buy on the internet. Nowadays, the internet has become a marketplace suitable for all ages and incomes and both genders and thus the prejudices linked to the advisability of selling certain products should be revised. The objective of this study is to test whether the socioeconomic characteristics of experienced e-shoppers such as gender rally moderate the effect of their perceptions of online shopping behavior. Current development of the online environment and the experience acquired by individuals from previous e-purchases can attenuate or even nullify the effect of these characteristics. The individuals analyzed are experienced e-shoppers i.e. individuals who often make purchases on the internet. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was broadened to include previous use of the internet and perceived self-efficacy. The perceptions and behavior of e-shoppers are based on their own experiences. The information obtained will be tested using questionnaires which were distributed and self-administered to respondent accustomed using internet. The causal model is estimated using structural equation modeling techniques (SEM), followed by tests of the moderating effect of socioeconomic variables on perceptions and online shopping behavior. The expected findings of this study indicated that gender moderate neither the influence of previous use of the internet nor the perceptions of e-commerce. In short, they do not condition the behavior of the experienced e-shopper.

Keywords: Gender, Electronic Commerce, Income, internet shopping, age groups

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28 Dynamics of Agricultural Information and Effect on Income of Melon Farmers in Enugu Ezike Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Ekeh G. Madukwe, M. C., Asadu A. N.

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Melon has significant importance of easy to plant, early maturing, low nutrient requirement and high yielding. Yet many melon farmers in the study area are either diversifying or abandoning this enterprise probably because of lack of agricultural knowledge/information and consequent reduction in output and income. The study was therefore carried out to asses effects of agricultural information on income of melon farmers in Enugu-Ezike Agricultural zone of Enugu state, Nigeria. Three blocks, nine circles and ninety melon farmers who were purposively selected constituted the sample for the study..Data were collected with interview schedule. Percentage and chart were used to present some of the data while some were analysed with mean score and correlation. The findings reveal that. average annual income of these respondents from melon was about seven thousand and five hundred Naira (approximately forty five Dollars). while their total average monthly income (income from melon and other sources) was about one thousand and two hundred Naira (approximately seven Dollars). About 42.% and 62% of the respondents in their respective order did not receive information on agricultural matters and melon production. Among the minority that received information on melon production, most of them sourced it from neighbours/friends/relatives. Majority of the respondents needed information on how to plant melon through interpersonal contact (face to face) using Igbo language as medium of communication and extension agent as teacher or resource person. The study also reveal a significant and positive relationship between number of times respondents received information on agriculture and their total monthly income. There was also a strong, positive and significant relationship between number of times respondents received information on melon and their annual income on melon production. The study therefore recommends that governmental and non-governmental organizations/ institutions should strengthen these farmers access to information on agriculture and melon specifically so as to boost their output and income.

Keywords: Information, Income, farmers, Melon

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27 Sericulture a Way for Bio-Diversity Conservation, Employment Generation and Socio-Economic Change: A-Comparison of Two Tribal Block of Raigarh, India

Authors: S. K. Dewangan, K. R. Sahu, S. Soni

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Unemployment is today’s basic socio-economic problem eroding national income and living standards, aggravating national development and poverty alleviation. The farmers are encouraged to take up non-agriculture practices which are integrated with Sericulture. Sericulture is one of the primary occupations for livelihood of poor people in tribal area. Most of tribal are involved in Sericulture. Tasar, Eri are the main forest-based cultivation. Among these sericultures is the major crop adopted by the Tribal’s and practiced in respective areas. Out of the 6, 38,588 villages in India, sericultures are practiced in about 69000 villages providing employment to about 7.85 million people. Sericulture is providing livelihood for 9, 47,631 families. India continues to be the second largest producer of silk in the World. Among the four varieties of silk produced, as in 2012-13, Mulberry accounts for 18,715 MT, Eri 3116 MT, Tasar 1729 MT and Muga 119MT of the total raw silk production in the country. Sericulture with its unique features plays an important role in upgrading the socio-economic conditions of the rural folk and with employment opportunities to the educated rural youth and women. In view of the importance of sericulture enterprise for the biodiversity conservation as well as its cultural bondage, the paper tries to enlighten and discuss the significance of sericulture and strategies to be taken for the employment generation in Indian sericulture industry. The present paper explores the possible employment opportunities derived from problem analysis and strategies to be adopted aiming at revolutionary biodiversity conservation in the study area. The paper highlights the sericulture is a way for biodiversity conservation, employment generation in Raigarh district, their utilization and needs as they act as a tool for socio-economic change for tribal. The study concludes with some suggestions to improve the feasibility of sericulture in long term.

Keywords: Employment, Sericulture, Bio-diversity, Income, socio-economic, tribal

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26 Determinants and Impact on Income: Special Reference to Household Level Coir Yarn Labourers

Authors: G. H. B. Dilhari, A. A. D. T. Saparamadu

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The coir is one of the by-products of the coconut and the coir industry can be identified as one of the traditional industries in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is one of the prominent countries for the coir production. Due to the labour insensitiveness, the labourers are the significant factor in the coir production process. The study has analyzed the determinants and its impact on income of the household level coir yarn labourers. The study was conducted in the Kumarakanda Grama Niladhari division, Galle, Sri Lanka. Simple random sampling was used to generate the sample of 100 household level coir yarn labourers and structured questionnaire, personal interviews and discussion were performed to gather the required data. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were carried out. The findings revealed that the household level coir yarn industry is dominated by the female workers and fewer amounts of workers have engaged this industry as the main occupation. In addition to that, elderly participation of the industry is greater than younger participation and most of them engaged as an extra income source. Level of education, the methods of engagement, satisfaction, labour’s children employment in the coir industry, support from the government, method of government support, working hours per day, employed as a main job, no of completed units per day, suffering any job related diseases and type of the diseases were related with income level of household level coir yarn labourers. The recommendations were formulated in respect to these problems including technological transformation for coir yarn production, strengthening of the raw material base and regulating the raw material supply, introduction of new technologies, markets and training programs, the establishment of the labourers association, the initiation of micro credit schemes, better consideration about the job oriented diseases.

Keywords: Income, coir, coir yarn labourers, Galle

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25 Analysis of the Effect of Farmers’ Socio-Economic Factors on Net Farm Income of Catfish Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Olanike A. Ojo, Akindele M. Ojo, Jacob H. Tsado, Ramatu U. Kutigi

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The study was carried out on analysis of the effect of farmers’ socio-economic factors on the net farm income of catfish farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from selected catfish farmers with the aid of well-structured questionnaire and a multistage sampling technique was used to select 102 catfish farmers in the area. The analytical techniques involved the use of descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The findings of the analysis of socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers reveal that 60% of the catfish farmers in the study area were male gender which implied the existence of gender inequality in the area. The mean age of 47 years was an indication that they were at their economically productive age and could contribute positively to increased production of catfish in the area. Also, the mean household size was five while the mean year of experience was five. The latter implied that the farmers were experienced in fishing techniques, breeding and fish culture which would assist in generating more revenue, reduce cost of production and eventual increase in profit levels of the farmers. The result also revealed that stock capacity (X3), accessibility to credit (X7) and labour (X4) were the main determinants of catfish production in the area. In addition, farmer’s sex, household size, no of ponds, distance of the farm from market, access to credit were the main socio-economic factors influencing the net farm income of the catfish farmers in the area. The most serious constraints militating against catfish production in the study area were high mortality rate, insufficient market, inadequate credit facilities/ finance and inadequate skilled labour needed for daily production routine. Based on the findings, it is therefore recommended that, to reduce the mortality rate of catfish extension agents should organize training workshops on improved methods and techniques of raising catfish right from juvenile to market size.

Keywords: Credit, Mortality, Income, stock

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24 The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment

Authors: El Harbi Sana, Ben Afia Neila

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In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.

Keywords: Income, panel data, military endeavor, emissions of CO2

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23 Determinants of the Income of Household Level Coir Yarn Labourers in Sri Lanka

Authors: G. H. B. Dilhari, A. A. D. T. Saparamadu

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is one of the prominent countries for the coir production. The coir is one of the by-products of the coconut and the coir industry is considered to be one of the traditional industries in Sri Lanka. Because of the inherent nature of the coir industry, labourers play a significant role in the coir production process. The study has analyzed the determinants of the income of the household level coir yarn labourers. The study was conducted in the Kumarakanda Grama Niladhari division. Simple random sampling was used to generate a sample of 100 household level coir yarn labourers and structured questionnaire, personal interviews, and discussion were performed to gather the required data. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for mean comparison. The findings revealed that the household level coir yarn industry is dominated by the female workers and it was identified that fewer numbers of workers have engaged in this industry as the main occupation. In addition to that, elderly participation in the industry is higher than the younger participation and most of them have engaged in the industry as a source of extra income. Level of education, the methods of engagement, satisfaction, engagement in the industry by the next generation, support from the government, method of government support, working hours per day, employed as a main job, number of completed units per day, suffering from job related diseases and type of the diseases were related with income level of household level coir yarn laboures. The recommendations as to flourish in future includes, technological transformation for coir yarn production, strengthening the raw material base and regulating the raw material supply, introduction of new technologies, markets and training programmes, the establishment of the labourers’ association, the initiation of micro credit schemes and better consideration about the job oriented diseases.

Keywords: Income, determinants, Sri Lanka, coir yarn

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22 Income Analysis of Beef Cattle Breeders for Traditional Profit-Sharing System, Tesang, in South Sulawesi Province

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Muh. Aminawar, Siti Nurlaelah, Amidah Amrawaty

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This study aimed to determine the income of beef cattle breeders from the traditional profit-sharing system named Tesang. This study was conducted in the province of South Sulawesi start from April to July 2014, used quantitative methods and data analysis is of income. The population is all beef cattle breeders who perform for the traditional profit-sharing system (Tesang) in Barru Regency and Bone Regency, province of South Sulawesi. Samples are beef cattle breeders who breeding the cattle with the traditional profit-sharing system (Tesang) in Barru Regency and Bone Regency using breeding system and cattle enlargement system (expense) by fifty breeders. The results showed beef cattle breeder’s income from the profit-sharing system (Tesang) where enlargement system (expense) at6th month maintenance periods higher than the profit-sharing system (Tesang) with using breeding the cattle.

Keywords: Income, beef cattle, profit-sharing system, Teseng

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21 Economic Analysis of the Impact of Commercial Agricultural Credit Scheme (CACS) on Farmers Income in Nigeria

Authors: Titus Wuyah Yunana

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This study analyzed the impact of commercial agricultural credit scheme on income of beneficiary farmers in Kaduna State using the Net farm income and double difference method. A questionnaire was used to source the data from 306 farmers comprising of 153 beneficiaries and 153 non-beneficiaries. The results indicated that the net farm income of the commercial agricultural credit scheme beneficiaries increases from N15,006,352.00 before scheme to N24,862,585.00 after the first and the second phases of the scheme. There was also an increase in the net farm income of the non-beneficiaries from N9, 670,385.40 to N14, 391,469.00 during the scheme. The double difference method analysis indicated a positive mean income difference value between beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries after the first and the second phases of the scheme. The study recommends expansion in the number of beneficiaries and efficient allocation and utilization of the resources. The government should also introduce more programs that will assist the farmers to increase their productivity, income and the economy as a whole.

Keywords: Agriculture, Income, farmers, credit scheme, beneficiary

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20 Corruption and Income: Case of Independent Turkish Republic

Authors: Rahime Hülya Öztürk

Abstract:

Along with the development of globalization, the relationship between economic, politic and commercial behaviors became unlimited. The liberalization of capital has many advantages for countries, but it also has some disadvantages. In these disadvantages the most important one is corruption. Especially in Developing Countries and Underdeveloped countries, corruption is very extensive. Corruption causes inefficient use of resources and promotes income inequality. Especially in the transition period of economies corruption increases and sometimes governments don’t interfere. To fight against corruption domestic and international measures are taken. Corruption is an economic problem, but it also has social and moral effects. The aim of this study is to define the relationship between corruption and income in Independent Turkish State. In the first part of the study, the concept of corruption is examined. In the second part of the study, information about The Independent Turkish Republic is given. In the third part of the study, country’s relationship between corruption and income is analyzed with panel data analysis.

Keywords: Corruption, Income, independent Turkish Republic, distribution of income

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19 Science Subjects Studied and Relation to Income after University Graduation: An Empirical Analysis in Japan

Authors: Kazuo Nishimura, Junichi Hirata, Tadashi Yagi, Junko Urasaka

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This paper is an investigation of the effect of science education during the high school education how science graduates of universities are appreciated in the labor market in Japan. We conducted a survey utilizing the internet and analyzed the subjects they were good at and their annual income. The results confirm that among science graduates, workers adept at physics tend to have higher incomes compared to workers good at other subjects. Generational analysis based on the curriculum guideline amendments reveals that the generational difference is small among science majors who are good at physics.

Keywords: Physics, Science, Curriculum, Income

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18 Perceived Effect of Livelihood Diversification on the Welfare of Rural Households in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Oladipo Joseph Ajayi, Yakubu Muhammed, Raufu Olusola Sanusi

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This study determined the perceived effect of livelihood diversification on welfare of rural household in Niger state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for sampling the respondents. Data used for the study were obtained from primary source. Structured questionnaire with interview schedule was administered to 180 randomly selected rural farmers in the study area. Descriptive statistics analysis and z-test statistics were used to analyse the data collected. The study revealed the mean age of the household to be 43 years, mean years of schooling was 8.5, mean household size was 6 people, mean farming experience of 17.5 years and mean farm size of 1.8 hectares. The effect of livelihood diversification revealed that livelihood diversification had positive and significant effect on food security (65.6%) and income generation (66.8%) in the study area. The major constraints to diversification in the study area were poor infrastructure, unavailability of credit and climatic risk and uncertainty. The study, therefore, recommended that rural household should be sensitised to diversify their income source into non-farm activities.

Keywords: welfare, Income, livelihood diversification, rural household

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17 Affordability and Expenditure Patterns towards Sustainable Consumption in Malaysia

Authors: Affordability, Expenditure Patterns towards Sustainable Consumption in Malaysia

Abstract:

Safe drinking water is needed for survival. Households have to pay the water bill monthly. However, lower income households are sometimes unable to afford the cost. This study examines water access and affordability among households in Malaysia and the determinants of water affordability using cross-sectional data and multiple regression. The paper expects that the bill for basic water consumption is inversely related to average income. This means that policy makers need to redesign the water tariff to improve the quality of life of lower income households.

Keywords: Sustainable Consumption, Income, affordability, water tariff

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16 Towards Islamic Sustainable Consumption: Micro Evidence from Muslim Household in Malaysia

Authors: Noorhaslinda Kulub Abd. Rashid, Zuraini Anang, Bayu Taufiq Possumah, Suriyani Muhamad, Fauziah Abu Hasan, Hairunnizam Wahid

Abstract:

Reality of Malaysian lives today, especially the households, are not exempted from using a variety of good products and services that are particularly materialistic. In fact, the pace and sophistication of the technology is seen as a major catalyst to the pattern of community life. In facing the challenges of the current economy, the key role to be played by household is managing the pattern of expenditure, income and loan debts regularly and blessed by Allah. Unfortunately, the world today is witnessing the average household could owe solely to meet their needs with existing spending limits. This study aims to measure the ‘Religious Index of Household Expenditure’ (IKM) and analyze how far the religious influence to the pattern of household expenditure based on the 441 Muslim households. The results showed only a 5-item spending, food, housing, transportation, education, and recreation and entertainment that has a significant relationship with IKM. Therefore, Islamic consumer education is a must to establish sustainable consumptions in order to speed up the internalization of sustainable lifestyle among Malaysians.

Keywords: Income, ‘Religious Index of Household Expenditure’ (IKM), sustainable consumptions, household expenditure

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15 Supermarket Shoppers Perceptions to Genetically Modified Foods in Trinidad and Tobago: Focus on Health Risks and Benefits

Authors: Safia Hasan Varachhia, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh

Abstract:

Genetic modification of food is an innovative technology that offers a host of benefits and advantages to consumers. Consumer attitudes towards GM food and GM technologies can be identified a major determinant in conditioning market force and encouraging policy makers and regulators to recognize the significance of consumer influence on the market. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the extent of consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks and benefit in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. The specific objectives of this study were to (determine consumer awareness to GM foods, ascertain their perspectives on health and safety risks and ethical issues associated with GM foods and determine whether labeling of GM foods and ingredients will influence consumers’ willingness to purchase GM foods. A survey comprising of a questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, both open-ended and close-ended was administered to 240 shoppers in small, medium and large-scale supermarkets throughout Trinidad between April-May, 2015 using convenience sampling. This survey investigated consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks/benefits. The data was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. One-way ANOVA investigated the effects categories of supermarkets and knowledge scores on shoppers’ awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods. Linear Regression tested whether demographic variables (category of supermarket, age of consumer, level of were useful predictors of consumer’s knowledge of GM foods). More than half of respondents (64.3%) were aware of GM foods and GM technologies, 28.3% of consumers indicated the presence of GM foods in local supermarkets and 47.1% claimed to be knowledgeable of GM foods. Furthermore, significant associations (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (age, income, and education), and consumer knowledge of GM foods. Also, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (education, gender, and income) and consumer knowledge of GM foods. In addition, age, education, gender and income (P < 0.05) were useful predictors of consumer knowledge of GM foods. There was a contradiction as whilst 35% of consumers considered GM foods safe for consumption, 70% of consumers were wary of the unknown health risks of GM foods. About two-thirds of respondents (67.5%) considered the creation of GM foods morally wrong and unethical. Regarding GM food labeling preferences, 88% of consumers preferred mandatory labeling of GM foods and 67% of consumers specified that any food product containing a trace of GM food ingredients required mandatory GM labeling. Also, despite the declaration of GM food ingredients on food labels and the reassurance of its safety for consumption by food safety and regulatory institutions, the majority of consumers (76.1%) still preferred conventionally produced foods over GM foods. The study revealed the need to inform shoppers of the presence of GM foods and technologies, present the scientific evidence as to the benefits and risks and the need for a policy on labeling so that informed choices could be taken.

Keywords: Policy, Genetically modified foods, ingredients, Income, labeling consumer awareness, morality and ethics

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14 Correlates of Income Generation of Small-Scale Fish Processors in Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Motunrayo Omoare

Abstract:

Economically fish provides an important source of food and income for both men and women especially many households in the developing world and fishing has an important social and cultural position in river-rine communities. However, fish is highly susceptible to deterioration. Consequently, this study was carried out to correlate income generation of small-scale women fish processors in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. Eighty small-scale women fish processors were randomly selected from five communities as the sample size for this study. Collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 31.75 years with average household size of 4 people while 47.5% of the respondents had primary education. Most (86.3%) of the respondents were married and had spent more than 11 years in fish processing. The respondents were predominantly Yoruba tribe (91.2%). Majority (71.3%) of the respondents used traditional kiln for processing their fish while 23.7% of the respondents used hot vegetable oil to fry their fish. Also, the result revealed that respondents sourced capital from Personal Savings (48.8%), Cooperatives (27.5%), Friends and Family (17.5%) and Microfinance Banks (6.2%) for fish processing activities. The respondents generated an average income of ₦7,000.00 from roasted fish, ₦3,500.00 from dried fish, and ₦5,200.00 from fried fish daily. However, inadequate processing equipment (95.0%), non-availability of credit facility from microfinance banks (85.0%), poor electricity supply (77.5%), inadequate extension service support (70.0%), and fuel scarcity (68.7%) were major constraints to fish processing in the study area. Results of chi-square analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between personal characteristics (χ2 = 36.83, df = 9), processing methods (χ2 = 15.88, df = 3) and income generated at p < 0.05 level of significance. It can be concluded that significant relationship existed between processing methods and income generated. The study, therefore, recommends that modern processing equipment should be made available to the respondents at a subsidized price by the agro-allied companies.

Keywords: Women, Income, correlates, fish processors, small-scale

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13 Evaluating the Nexus between Energy Demand and Economic Growth Using the VECM Approach: Case Study of Nigeria, China, and the United States

Authors: Rita U. Onolemhemhen, Saheed L. Bello, Akin P. Iwayemi

Abstract:

The effectiveness of energy demand policy depends on identifying the key drivers of energy demand both in the short-run and the long-run. This paper examines the influence of regional differences on the link between energy demand and other explanatory variables for Nigeria, China and USA using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. This study employed annual time series data on energy consumption (ED), real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (RGDP), real energy prices (P) and urbanization (N) for a thirty-six-year sample period. The utilized time-series data are sourced from World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI, 2016) and US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results from the study, shows that all the independent variables (income, urbanization, and price) substantially affect the long-run energy consumption in Nigeria, USA and China, whereas, income has no significant effect on short-run energy demand in USA and Nigeria. In addition, the long-run effect of urbanization is relatively stronger in China. Urbanization is a key factor in energy demand, it therefore recommended that more attention should be given to the development of rural communities to reduce the inflow of migrants into urban communities which causes the increase in energy demand and energy excesses should be penalized while energy management should be incentivized.

Keywords: Economic growth, Urbanization, Energy demand, Income, real GDP, VECM

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12 The Relationship between Renewable Energy, Real Income, Tourism and Air Pollution

Authors: Eyup Dogan

Abstract:

One criticism of the energy-growth-environment literature, to the best of our knowledge, is that only a few studies analyze the influence of tourism on CO₂ emissions even though tourism sector is closely related to the environment. The other criticism is the selection of methodology. Panel estimation techniques that fail to consider both heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence across countries can cause forecasting errors. To fulfill the mentioned gaps in the literature, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions for the top 10 most-visited countries around the world. This study focuses on the top 10 touristic (most-visited) countries because they receive about the half of the worldwide tourist arrivals in late years and are among the top ones in 'Renewables Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI)'. By looking at Pesaran’s CD test and average growth rates of variables for each country, we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. Hence, this study uses second generation econometric techniques (cross-sectionally augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF), and cross-sectionally augmented IPS (CIPS) unit root test, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, and the DOLS and the FMOLS estimators) which are robust to the mentioned issues. Therefore, the reported results become accurate and reliable. It is found that renewable energy mitigates the pollution whereas real GDP and tourism contribute to carbon emissions. Thus, regulatory policies are necessary to increase the awareness of sustainable tourism. In addition, the use of renewable energy and the adoption of clean technologies in tourism sector as well as in producing goods and services play significant roles in reducing the levels of emissions.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Air Pollution, Tourism, Income, panel data

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11 The Impact of Agricultural Product Export on Income and Employment in Thai Economy

Authors: Anucha Wittayakorn-Puripunpinyoo

Abstract:

The research objectives were 1) to study the situation and its trend of agricultural product export of Thailand 2) to study the impact of agricultural product export on income of Thai economy 3) the impact of agricultural product export on employment of Thai economy and 4) to find out the recommendations of agricultural product export policy of Thailand. In this research, secondary data were collected as yearly time series data from 1990 to 2016 accounted for 27 years. Data were collected from the Bank of Thailand database. Primary data were collected from the steakholders of agricultural product export policy of Thailand. Data analysis was applied descriptive statistics such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation. The forecasting of agricultural product was applied Mote Carlo Simulation technique as well as time trend analysis. In addition, the impact of agricultural product export on income and employment by applying econometric model while the estimated parameters were utilized the ordinary least square technique. The research results revealed that 1) agricultural product export value of Thailand from 1990 to 2016 was 338,959.5 Million Thai baht with its growth rate of 4.984 percent yearly, in addition, the forecasting of agricultural product export value of Thailand has increased but its growth rate has been declined 2) the impact of agricultural product export has positive impact on income in Thai economy, increasing in agricultural product export of Thailand by 1 percent would lead income increased by 0.0051 percent 3) the impact of agricultural product export has positive impact on employment in Thai economy, increasing in agricultural product export of Thailand by 1 percent would lead income increased by 0.079 percent and 4) in the future, agricultural product export policy would focused on finished or semi-finished agricultural product instead of raw material by applying technology and innovation in to make value added of agricultural product export. The public agricultural product export policy would support exporters in private sector in order to encourage them as agricultural exporters in Thailand.

Keywords: Employment, Income, Thai economy, agricultural product export

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10 Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status and Individuals' Educational Achievement on Their Socio-Economic Status: A Study of South Korea

Authors: Eun-Jeong Jang

Abstract:

Inequality has been considered as a core issue in public policy. Korea is categorized into one of the countries in the high level of inequality, which matters to not only current but also future generations. The relationship between individuals' origin and destination has an implication of intergenerational inequality. The previous work on this was mostly conducted at macro level using panel data to our knowledge. However, in this level, there is no room to track down what happened during the time between origin and destination. Individuals' origin is represented by their parents' socio-economic status, and in the same way, destination is translated into their own socio-economic status. The first research question is that how origin is related to the destination. Certainly, destination is highly affected by origin. In this view, people's destination is already set to be more or less than a reproduction of previous generations. However, educational achievement is widely believed as an independent factor from the origin. From this point of view, there is a possibility to change the path given by parents by educational attainment. Hence, the second research question would be that how education is related to destination and also, which factor is more influential to destination between origin and education. Also, the focus lies in the mediation of education between origin and destination, which would be the third research question. Socio-economic status in this study is referring to class as a sociological term, as well as wealth including labor and capital income, as an economic term. The combination of class and wealth would be expected to give more accurate picture about the hierarchy in a society. In some cases of non-manual and professional occupations, even though they are categorized into relatively high class, their income is much lower than those who in the same class. Moreover, it is one way to overcome the limitation of the retrospective view during survey. Education is measured as an absolute term, the years of schooling, and also as a relative term, the rank of school. Moreover, all respondents were asked the effort scaled by time intensity, self-motivation, before and during the course of their college based on a standard questionnaire academic achieved model provides. This research is based on a survey at an individual level. The target for sampling is an individual who has a job, regardless of gender, including income-earners and self-employed people and aged between thirties and forties because this age group is considered to reach the stage of job stability. In most cases, the researcher met respondents person to person visiting their work place or home and had a chance to interview some of them. One hundred forty individual data collected from May to August in 2017. It will be analyzed by multiple regression (Q1, Q2) and structural equation modeling (Q3).

Keywords: Class, socio-economic status, Income, effort, educational achievement, origin, destination, South Korea

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9 Income Diversification of Small Holder Farmers in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Oladipo Joseph Ajayi, Yakubu Muhammed, Caleb Galadima

Abstract:

This study was conducted to examine the income diversification of smallholder farmers in Bosso Local Government area of Niger state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, identify the sources of income among the farmers, determine the pattern of income diversification and evaluate the determinants of income diversification of farmers in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 94 respondents for the study. Primary data were used, and these were collected with aid of a well structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, diversity index, and Tobit regression model were employed to analyze the data. The mean age of the farmers was 44 years. The average household size was 8 members per household, and the average farming experience was 12 years. 21.27 percent did not have formal education. It was further found that 69.1 percent of the respondents had an income diversity index of 0.3-0.4. This indicated that their level of income diversification was moderately low. The determinants of income diversification in the study area were education, household size, marital status, and primary income. These variables were positively related to income diversification. The study revealed that diversification into various income sources has helped to increase household income to sustain the family demands even though their level of income diversification was low within the study area.

Keywords: Income, households, diversification, smallholder farmers

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8 The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Citizens’ Perceptions of Social Justice in China

Authors: Yan Liu

Abstract:

The Gini coefficient indicates that the inequality of income distribution is rising in China. How individuals viewing the equality of current society is an important predicator of social turbulence. Perceptions of social justice may vary according to the social stratification. People usually use socioeconomic status to identify divisions between social stratifications. The objective of this study is to explore the potential influence of socioeconomic status on citizens’ perceptions of social justice in China. Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually reflected by either an SES indicator or a composite of three core dimensions: education, income and occupation. With data collected in the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), this study uses OLS regression analyses to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and citizens’ perceptions of social justice. This study finds that most Chinese citizens believe that the current society is fair or more than fair. Socioeconomic status (SES) has a positive impact on citizens’ perceptions of social justice, which means individuals with higher indicator of socioeconomic status prefer to believe current society is fair. However, the three core dimensions which are used to measure socioeconomic status (SES) have different influences on perceptions of social justice: First, income helps enhance citizens’ sense of social justice. Second, education weakens citizens’ sense of social justice. Third, compared to the middle occupational status, people of both higher occupational status and lower occupational status have higher levels of perceptions of social justice. Though education creates a negative influence on perceptions of social justice, its effect is much weaker than that of income, which indicates income is a determining factor for enhancing people’s perceptions of social justice in China’s market society. Policy implications are discussed.

Keywords: Education, Socioeconomic Status, Income, Social Stratification, occupation, perceptions of social justice

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7 Quality of Life among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Asma Alsaleh, Kara Makara

Abstract:

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties with communication and interaction. Besides presenting challenges for the ASD individual, the condition can entail negative outcomes for those who care for them, most often mothers. While this issue has been studied substantially in Western society, less is known about how mothers in the Arab world are affected by raising an ASD child. This study sought to gain insights into this area by assessing quality of life and stress in mothers with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) ASD children in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) by using, respectively, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). Data pertaining to income and education were also attained to investigate how socioeconomic factors interact with the above-mentioned variables. The analysis revealed that total stress scores and scores on the individual subscales of the PSI-SF were significantly higher for the mothers with an ASD child compared to those without an ASD child, though the opposite was true of quality of life scores. Moreover, increased income was associated with increased quality of life and decreased stress. While there were not main effects of education, there were interactions between education, whether children were ASD or non-ASD, and the outcome variables. These results suggest that mothers of ASD children in an Arab culture are at increased risk of negative outcomes relative to mothers of typically developing children, and, therefore, this study may act as a foundation for the delivery of interventions to assist mothers in this position.

Keywords: Education, autism, Quality of Life, stress, Income, Mothers

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6 Using “Eckel” Model to Measure Income Smoothing Practices: The Case of French Companies

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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Income smoothing represents an attempt on the part of the company's management to reduce variations in earnings through the manipulation of the accounting principles. In this study, we aimed to measure income smoothing practices in a sample of 30 French joint stock companies during the period (2007-2009), we used Dummy variables method and “ECKEL” model to measure income smoothing practices and Binomial test accourding to SPSS program, to confirm or refute our hypothesis. This study concluded that there are no significant statistical indicators of income smoothing practices in the sample studied of French companies during the period (2007-2009), so the income series in the same sample studied of is characterized by stability and non-volatility without any intervention of management through accounting manipulation. However, this type of accounting manipulation should be taken into account and efforts should be made by control bodies to apply Eckel model and generalize its use at the global level.

Keywords: Income, smoothing, French companies, 'Eckel'

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5 Contribution of Home Gardens to Rural Household Income in Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: K. Alaka, A. Obi

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Home garden has proved to be significant to rural inhabitants by providing a wide range of useful products such as fruits, vegetables and medicine. There is need for quantitative information on its benefits and contributions to rural household. The main objective of this study is to investigate contributions of home garden to income of rural households in Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality, formerly Nkonkobe Local Municipality of Eastern Cape Province South Africa. The stratified random sampling method was applied in order to choose a sample of 160 households.The study was conducted among 80 households engaging in home gardens and 80 non- participating households in the study area. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics with the use of frequency table and one way sample T test to show actual contributions. The overall model shows that social grant has the highest contribution to total household income for both categories while income generated from home garden has the second largest share to total household income, this shows that the majority of rural households in the study area rely on social grant as their source of income. However, since most households are net food buyers, it is essential to have policies that are formulated with an understanding that household food security is not only a function of the food that farming households produce for their own consumption but more so a function of total household income. The results produced sufficient evidence that home gardens contribute significantly to income of rural household.

Keywords: Food Security, Income, household, home gardening

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4 Effect of Micro Credit Access on Poverty Reduction among Small Scale Women Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Oladapo, C. A. Afolami

Abstract:

The study analyzed the effect of micro credit access on poverty reduction among small scale women entrepreneurs in Ondo state, Nigeria. Primary data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 100 randomly selected woman entrepreneurs. These were drawn in multistage sampling process covering four local government areas (LGAS). Data collected include socio economics characteristics of respondents, access to micro credit, sources of micro credit, and constraints faced by the entrepreneur in sourcing for micro credit. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) index of poverty measure, Gini coefficients and probit regression analysis. The study found that respondents sampled for the survey were within the age range of 31-40 years with mean age 38.6%. Mostly (56.0%) of the respondents were educated to the tune of primary school. Majority (87.0%) of the respondents were married with fairly large household size of (4-5). The poverty index analysis revealed that most (67%) of the sample respondents were poor. The result of the Probit regression analyzed showed that income was a significant variable in micro credit access, while the result of the Gini coefficient revealed a very high income inequality among the respondents. The study concluded that most of the respondents were poor and return on investment (income) was an important variable that increased the chance of respondents in sourcing for micro-credit loan and recommended that income realized by entrepreneur should be properly documented to facilitate loan accessibility.

Keywords: Poverty, Entrepreneurs, Income, micro-credit

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