Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Inclusive Education Related Abstracts

41 Curricular Reforms for Inclusive Education: Equalization of Opportunities for the Physically Challenged Persons

Authors: Ede Jairus Adagba

Abstract:

The National Policy on Education has made elaborate and fascinating provisions for the education of the people with Special Needs. This category of people includes the physically challenged, the disadvantaged, the gifted and talented. However, the focus of this paper is people that are physically challenged. The paper reasons that in spite of the commendable provisions, the present curricular and learning conditions are not conducive enough to cater for the interest of the physically challenged persons. As a panacea, some curricular and physical condition reforms are proposed. These are hoped to facilitate access to inclusive education and equalization for opportunities of the physically challenged.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, curricular reforms, equalization, physically challenged persons

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40 Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Laraba Bala Mohammed

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Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Inclusive Education, national policy, special needs

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39 Awareness and Attitudes of Primary Grade Teachers (1-4th Grade) Towards Inclusive Education

Authors: Maheshwari Payal, Shapurkar Mayaan

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The present research aimed at studying the awareness and attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education. The sample consisted of 60 teachers, teaching in the primary section (1st – 4th) of regular schools affiliated to the SSC board in Mumbai. The sample was selected by Multi-stage cluster sampling technique. A semi-structured self-constructed interview schedule and a self-constructed attitude scale were used to study the awareness of teachers about disability and Inclusive education, and their attitudes towards inclusive education respectively. Themes were extracted from the interview data and quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results revealed that teachers had some amount of awareness but an inadequate amount of information on disabilities and inclusive education. Disability to most (37) teachers meant “an inability to do something”. The difference between disability and handicap was stated by most as former being cognitive while handicap being physical in nature. With regard to Inclusive education, a large number (46) stated that they were unaware of the term and did not know what it meant. The majority (52) of them perceived maximum challenges for themselves in an inclusive set up, and emphasized on the role of teacher training courses in the area of providing knowledge (49) and training in teaching methodology (53). Although, 83.3% of teachers held a moderately positive attitude towards inclusive education, a large percentage (61.6%) of participants felt that being in inclusive set up would be very challenging for both children with special needs and without special needs. Though, most (49) of the teachers stated that children with special needs should be educated in a regular classroom, but they further clarified that only those should be in a regular classroom who have physical impairments of mild or moderate degree.

Keywords: Teachers, Inclusive Education, awareness, attitude

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38 The Implementation of Inclusive Education in Collaboration between Teachers of Special Education Classes and Regular Classes in a Preschool

Authors: Chiou-Shiue Ko

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As is explicitly stipulated in Article 7 of the Enforcement Rules of the Special Education Act as amended in 1998, "in principle, children with disabilities should be integrated with normal children for preschool education". Since then, all cities and counties have been committed to promoting preschool inclusive education. The Education Department, New Taipei City Government, has been actively recruiting advisory groups of professors to assist in the implementation of inclusive education in preschools since 2001. Since 2011, the author of this study has been guiding Preschool Rainbow to implement inclusive education. Through field observations, meetings, and teaching demonstration seminars, this study explored the process of how inclusive education has been successfully implemented in collaboration with teachers of special education classes and regular classes in Preschool Rainbow. The implementation phases for inclusive education in a single academic year include the following: 1) Preparatory stage. Prior to implementation, teachers in special education and regular classes discuss ways of conducting inclusive education and organize reading clubs to read books related to curriculum modifications that integrate the eight education strategies, early treatment and education, and early childhood education programs to enhance their capacity to implement and compose teaching plans for inclusive education. In addition to the general objectives of inclusive education, the objective of inclusive education for special children is also embedded into the Individualized Education Program (IEP). 2) Implementation stage. Initially, a promotional program for special education is implemented for the children to allow all the children in the preschool to understand their own special qualities and those of special children. After the implementation of three weeks of reverse inclusion, the children in the special education classes are put into groups and enter the regular classes twice a week to implement adjustments to their inclusion in the learning area and the curriculum. In 2013, further cooperation was carried out with adjacent hospitals to perform development screening activities for the early detection of children with developmental delays. 3) Review and reflection stage. After the implementation of inclusive education, all teachers in the preschool are divided into two groups to record their teaching plans and the lessons learned during implementation. The effectiveness of implementing the objective of inclusive education is also reviewed. With the collaboration of all teachers, in 2015, Preschool Rainbow won New Taipei City’s “Preschool Light” award as an exceptional model for inclusive education. Its model of implementing inclusive education can be used as a reference for other preschools.

Keywords: Collaboration, Teachers, Inclusive Education, preschool, special education classes, regular classes

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37 Homosexuality and Inclusion: Experiences of Learners and Teachers within South African School's Contex

Authors: Tsediso Makoelle

Abstract:

South Africa like in other parts of the world has acknowledged the prevalence of the phenomenon of homosexuality in the society. Due to the number of homosexuality cases in the South African society, questions have been asked about the impact of homosexuality in schools and how teachers and learners deal with homosexuality within the context of an emerging inclusive education system. This qualitative study analysis the experiences of teachers and learners in selected secondary schools in relation to prevalence of transgender in schools. Interviews were conducted with principals, teachers and focus group of learners in schools were cases homosexuality have been reported. Data was analysed using an inductive analysis framework. Among the findings was that homosexuality is still viewed as a taboo in Black-African dominated school communities and that the need to create all-embracing and inclusive environment was evident. The study suggests a needs to open communications in communities about homosexuality in order to develop an all-inclusive environment for all learners regardless of their sexual orientation.

Keywords: Sexual Orientation, Inclusive Education, Homosexuality, Transgender

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36 Learning from Inclusive Education of Exceptional and Normal Children in Primary School for Architectural Design

Authors: T. Pastraporn, J. Panida, P. Gasamapong, N. Jintana

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The study of inclusive educational environment of exceptional and normal children at the regional centre for special education aimed to establish guidelines for creating an environment for inclusive education. Buildings utilization of thirty-five elementary schools providing inclusive educational program in Bangkok were analyzed to study the following aspects: 1) The environment of exceptional and normal students’ inclusive classes at the regional centre for special education 2) The patterns of the environment suited to the exceptional and normal students’ inclusive classes 3) Environmental management policies for the inclusive classes of exceptional and normal students. Information was gathered from surveys, observations, questionnaires, document analysis, interviews, and non-experimental research. The findings showed that the usable spaces in school buildings were designated to enhance the three kinds of social learning experience: 1) Support class control 2) Help developing students’ personality consisting of physical, verbal and emotional expressions that are socially accepted 3) Recognition and learning, which are needed for the increasing of learning experience, were caused by having an interaction with the environment. Thus, the school buildings’ space designation positively affected the environmental management of exceptional and normal students’ inclusive classes.

Keywords: Learning Environment, Inclusive Education, school buildings, exceptional and normal children

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35 Inclusive Education of Roma Students from Socially Disadvantaged Background as a Determinant of Their Social Inclusion in the Slovak Republic

Authors: L. Horňák

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The aim of the paper is to analyze a longstanding problem in Slovakia – the effective education of Roma students coming from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. Although it is a relatively small country, there are over 630 communities in the Slovak Republic. The efficiency of the projects was verified by interviews with participants; questionnaires; and direct observations. Evaluation reports which summarized and evaluated the outcomes of the projects only confirmed their success. Slovakia realizes that appropriate social inclusion of marginalized citizens coming from the Roma ethnic group can only be achieved through education based on equality of all students and acceptance of diversity.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Social Inclusion, marginalized communities, Roma pupil, equity in education, socially disadvantaged backgrounds

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34 Otherness of Roma in Inclusive Education of Roma Pupils in Slovakia

Authors: Bibiana Hlebova

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The Slovak Republic is a democratic and plural society consisting of people differing in language and culture, and its citizens should already be well prepared for the coexistence of multiple nations, nationalities or ethnic groups. Reflection on culture, art and literature of the Roma minority has taken on a new dimension in Slovakia in the past two decades when it comes to social, cultural and arts integration of this ethnic group with the plural society. Non-Roma view Roma as a specific ethnic group with their own culture, language, customs and traditions, social norms and coexistence that has retained archetypal qualities of Roma identity (romipen) in their real lives as well as in the literary world. Roma characters in works of art are specific and distinguishable from other literary characters simply by being Roma, that is, of a different origin and social status, they represent a different way of life, a distinctive hierarchy of values. The portrayal of Roma and the life of Roma ethnic group in the most dominant genre of Roma literature for children and youth, a Roma fairy tale (paramisi), can work as a suitable means to learn about, accept and tolerate the otherness of Roma in the conditions of school inclusion of students coming from the Roma ethnic group, and to support their identification with their own ethnic group and its cultural traditions. The paper aims to point out not only the specific nature of Roma identity (romipen) through the selected Roma fairy tale (paramisa) – Children of the Sun, but also the diversity of its uses in the educational process within primary education of pupils at elementary schools, advocating the philosophy of inclusive education. Through the suggestions of multi-cultural, emotional, and language and communication education of pupils through the work with the selected Roma fairy tale (paramisa), the author is exploring ways to overcome the issues stemming from the coexistence of Roma and Non-Roma pupils, which are burdened with prejudice, intolerance, aggression and racism on both sides, in the education process.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, otherness, ROMA, Roma fairy tale, Roma identity

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33 Perception of the Frequency and Importance of Peer Social Support by Students with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Lucia Hrebeňárová, Jarmila Žolnová, Veronika Palková

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Inclusive education of students with special educational needs has been on the increase in the Slovak Republic, facing many challenges. Preparedness of teachers for inclusive education is one of the most frequent issues; teachers lack skills when it comes to the use of effective instruction depending on the individual needs of students, improvement of classroom management and social skills, and support of inclusion within the classroom. Social support is crucial for the school success of students within inclusive settings. The aim of the paper is to analyse perception of the frequency and importance of peer social support by students with special educational needs in inclusive education. The data collection tool used was the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). The research sample consisted of 953 fourth grade students – 141 students with special educational needs educated in an inclusive setting and 812 students of the standard population. No significant differences were found between the students with special educational needs and the students without special educational needs in an inclusive setting when it comes to the perception of frequency and importance of social support of schoolmates and friends. However, the perception of frequency and importance of a friend’s social support was higher than the perception of frequency and importance of a classmate’s social support in both groups of students.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, peer, peer social support, student with special eEducational needs

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32 The Place of Inclusive Education in the Transformative Education of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Olabisi

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The society has bastion of people with diverse kinds of special needs which invariably affect the kind of education that is provided to this category of children. Most schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities seem not to be achieving the objectives it was set out to achieve. Hence, there is the need to provide transformative education for these children with intellectual disabilities which can only be achieved in an inclusive educational setting. However, achieving this has been a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper, however, dealt with the urgent need for transformative teaching for persons with intellectual disabilities in readiness for them to be accepted in the society and also enhance their self-concept and perception which in turn will make a way for their self-sustenance. Suggestions and recommendations that will better enhance the full implementation of transformative teaching for pupils with intellectual disabilities in an inclusive environment were also made.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Intellectual Disabilities, Transformative Education, Nigeria, Oyo State

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31 The Importance of Awareness and Appropriate Management in Inclusive Education in India

Authors: Lusia Ndahafa Nghitotelwa

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India is a home to many languages, cultures, traditions, castes and religions. This diversity, when observed in education, appears to be challenging and difficult to manage with respect to including everyone in the educational system. But in order to achieve this, attempts to understand the complexity of the issue and find some solutions for including everyone in education has been made in India since independence, regardless of the students’ background. Despite that, the challenge is still topical. Plenty of students are left out of the system due to the lack of awareness and appropriate management of these diversities. Therefore, the present paper makes an attempt to study the awareness and management of diversity in Indian schools. Existing studies on diversity in Indian schools, along with how measures and which measures have been taken to accommodate and retain everyone in school, have been looked at, and a thorough critical analysis of findings has been narrated. It was found that a lot of efforts have been conjugated to include and educate children of all castes, religions, and linguistic backgrounds. Furthermore, the awareness of inclusive education among teachers and society members is moderate, but teachers lack the necessary skills and knowledge on how to deal with students with special educational needs in regular classes. Also, the management is aware of inclusive education, but the management does not include teachers in decision-making. Moreover, it was found that the poor management of inclusion services and retention of special needs students in Indian schools results in their poor effective integration into the workforce. Finally, the management was found to have stringent admission criteria, which has the effect of hindering some students from entering the educational system. Based on the results of the study, it is clear that the implementation of inclusive education is still a challenge in India. However, there are promising results in tackling the issue. All children should be given an opportunity to learn together with other children in order to broaden their interest and challenge their potential.

Keywords: Management, Inclusive Education, awareness, students

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30 Developing Human Resources through Inclusive Education: A Study of Effectiveness of Government Policies in India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Rajesh Srivastava

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Human resource is the key point of success of any economy. From the past few decades, policies started to move in the route of expanding inclusive education with effective involvement of government.Governments of developing nations are generating policies for educational upliftment. Applying educational policies, the motive of the government is to maintain and develop the effective human resource within a society. The attention of the government includes primary education to higher education. It also involves professional training programmes related to every discipline. The aim of this paper is to find out the government policies in terms of expenditure and achievements for inclusive education to develop human resources in developing countries. A case of Indian experience has been taken into consideration. This approach generates a picture as to how India is enriching its educational system for human resource development and this research study will be useful for the policy makers to determine the appropriate level of overall spending of government and achievements in the education system for human resource development. Analytical research methodology has been adopted.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, government policies, National Educational Policy, NCERT

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29 Toba Batak Education Stakeholders' Perspectives towards Education of Children with Disabilities in Toba Samosir North Sumatra Indonesia

Authors: Tryastuti I. B. Manullang, Juang Sunanto

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This study aimed to find the perspectives of the Toba Batak education stakeholders towards the education of children with disabilities in Toba Samosir North Sumatra Indonesia. The education stakeholders consist of a head of the education department in Toba Samosir, head of the H foundation, two principals and three teachers from the Special Primary Schools. This study uses qualitative a descriptive approach and research data obtained through interviews. The results of this study demonstrate that the education stakeholders knowledge about disabilities needs improvement in accordance with the development of science. The cultural views towards disability and its implications, and the education services available for children with disabilities, in addition, to encountered its problem in Toba Samosir are known. The education concept considered appropriate is the special school and the CBR (Community Based Rehabilitation) strategy, also inclusive education because it represents the Toba Batak philosophy.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, community based rehabilitation, education concept, education stakeholders

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28 An Evaluation of Education Provision for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland: The Role of the Special Needs Assistant

Authors: Claire P. Griffin

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The education provision for students with special educational needs, including students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has undergone significant national and international changes in recent years. In particular, an increase in resource-based provision has occurred across educational settings in an effort to support inclusive practices. This paper seeks to explore the role of the Special Needs Assistant (SNA) in supporting children with ASD in Irish schools. This research stems from the second national evaluation of ‘Education Provision for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland’ (NCSE, 2016). This research was commissioned by the National Council for Special Education (NCSE) in Ireland and conducted by a team of researchers from Mary Immaculate College, Limerick from February to July 2014. This study involved a multiple case study research strategy across 24 educational sites, as selected through a stratified sampling process. Research strategies included semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, documentary review and child conversations. Data analysis was conducted electronically using Nvivo software, with use of an additional quantitative recording mechanism based on scaled weighting criteria for collected data. Based on such information, key findings from the NCSE national evaluation will be presented and critically reviewed, with particular reference to the role of the SNA in supporting pupils with ASD. Examples of positive practice inherent within the SNA role will be outlined and contrasted with discrete areas for development. Based on such findings, recommendations for the evolving role of the SNA will be presented, with the aim of informing both policy and best practice within the field.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Autism spectrum disorder, paraprofessional, special needs assistant

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27 Disaster Capitalism, Charter Schools, and the Reproduction of Inequality in Poor, Disabled Students: An Ethnographic Case Study

Authors: Sylvia Mac

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This ethnographic case study examines disaster capitalism, neoliberal market-based school reforms, and disability through the lens of Disability Studies in Education. More specifically, it explores neoliberalism and special education at a small, urban charter school in a large city in California and the (re)production of social inequality. The study uses Sociology of Special Education to examine the ways in which special education is used to sort and stratify disabled students. At a time when rhetoric surrounding public schools is framed in catastrophic and dismal language in order to justify the privatization of public education, small urban charter schools must be examined to learn if they are living up to their promise or acting as another way to maintain economic and racial segregation. The study concludes that neoliberal contexts threaten successful inclusive education and normalize poor, disabled students’ continued low achievement and poor post-secondary outcomes. This ethnographic case study took place at a small urban charter school in a large city in California. Participants included three special education students, the special education teacher, the special education assistant, a regular education teacher, and the two founders and charter writers. The school claimed to have a push-in model of special education where all special education students were fully included in the general education classroom. Although presented as fully inclusive, some special education students also attended a pull-out class called Study Skills. The study found that inclusion and neoliberalism are differing ideologies that cannot co-exist. Successful inclusive environments cannot thrive while under the influences of neoliberal education policies such as efficiency and cost-cutting. Additionally, the push for students to join the global knowledge economy means that more and more low attainers are further marginalized and kept in poverty. At this school, neoliberal ideology eclipsed the promise of inclusive education for special education students. This case study has shown the need for inclusive education to be interrogated through lenses that consider macro factors, such as neoliberal ideology in public education, as well as the emerging global knowledge economy and increasing income inequality. Barriers to inclusion inside the school, such as teachers’ attitudes, teacher preparedness, and school infrastructure paint only part of the picture. Inclusive education is also threatened by neoliberal ideology that shifts the responsibility from the state to the individual. This ideology is dangerous because it reifies the stereotypes of disabled students as lazy, needs drains on already dwindling budgets. If these stereotypes persist, inclusive education will have a difficult time succeeding. In order to more fully examine the ways in which inclusive education can become truly emancipatory, we need more analysis on the relationship between neoliberalism, disability, and special education.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, neoliberalism, Case study, disaster capitalism

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26 Embracing Inclusive Education: The Issues, Challenges, Dilemmas and Future Plans for Inclusive Secondary Schools in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Rinda Kurnia

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Despite the differences and additional needs in the learning process, every individual has the right to receive educational services in order to enhance her/his abilities and potentials. This notion underlies the principle of inclusive education system, something many countries in the world are striving for since the UNESCO Salamanca Statement in 1994. This paper will consider different views that many theorists have published of the term inclusive, the issues, challenges, and dilemmas encountered during the practice, as well as some possible ways forward. It is being described, criticized and analyzed using the standpoint of a shadow teacher in an inclusive secondary school in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, inclusive education challenges, inclusive education dilemmas, inclusive education future plans, inclusive education issues

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25 Creating an Inclusive Classroom: Country Case Studies Analysis on Mainstream Teachers’ Teaching-Efficacy and Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Japan and Singapore

Authors: Yei Mian Adrian Yap

Abstract:

How we idealize the regular schools to be inclusive as much as possible hinges on mainstream teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular schools. This research studies the Japanese and Singaporean mainstream teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms by investigating what key variables influence their attitudes and teaching-efficacy and how they strategize to address their challenges to include their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. In order to understand the nature of teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusive education, a mixed-method research methodology was carried out in Japan and Singapore; it involved an explanatory sequential method of employing quantitative research first before qualitative research. In the quantitative research, 189 Japanese and 183 Singaporean teachers were invited to participate in the questionnaires and out of these participants, 38 Japanese and 15 Singaporean teachers shared their views during their semi-structured interviews. Based on the empirical findings, Japanese teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were more likely to be influenced by their experiences in teaching students with special needs, knowledge about disability legislation, presence of their disabled family members and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. On the other hand, Singaporean teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were affected by gender, educational level, received trainings in special needs education, knowledge about disability legislation and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. Both country results also demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between their teaching-efficacy and attitude. Narrative findings further expanded the reasons behind these quantitative factors that shaped teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy. Also it discussed the various problems faced by Japanese and Singaporean teachers and how they identified their coping strategies to circumvent their challenges in including their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. The significance of this research manifests in necessary educational reforms in both countries especially in the context of inclusive education. These findings may not be as definitive as expected but it is believed that it could provide useful information on the current situation about teachers’ concerns towards the inclusive education. In conclusion, this research could potentially make its positive contribution to the body of literature on teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy in the context of Asian developed countries and these findings could posit that regular teachers’ positive attitudes and strong sense of teaching self-efficacy could directly improve the success rate of inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms.

Keywords: Special Education, attitudes, Inclusive Education, teaching-efficacy

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24 Creating an Inclusive Classroom: Country Case Studies Analysis on Mainstream Teachers' Teaching-Efficacy and Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Japan and Singapore

Authors: Yei Mian Adrian Yap

Abstract:

This study aims to assess the Japanese and Singaporean mainstream teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms by investigating what kind of key variables influence their attitudes and teaching-efficacy. It also further investigates how they strategize to address their challenges to include their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. In order to understand the nature of teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy towards the inclusive education, a mixed-method research methodology was carried out in Japan and Singapore; it involved an explanatory sequential method of employing quantitative research first before qualitative research. In the quantitative research, 189 Japanese and 183 Singaporean teachers were invited to participate in the questionnaires and out of these participants, 38 Japanese and 15 Singaporean teachers shared their views during their semi-structured interviews. Based on the empirical findings, Japanese teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were more likely to be influenced by their experiences in teaching students with special needs, knowledge about disability legislation, presence of their disabled family members and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. On the other hand, Singaporean teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy were affected by gender, educational level, received trainings in special needs education, knowledge about disability legislation and level of confidence to teach students with special needs. Both country results also demonstrated that there was a positive correlation between their teaching-efficacy and attitude. Narrative findings further expanded the reasons behind these quantitative factors that shaped teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy. Also, it discussed the various problems faced by Japanese and Singaporean teachers and how they identified their coping strategies to circumvent their challenges in including their students with special needs in their regular classrooms. The significance of this research manifests in necessary educational reforms in both countries especially in the context of inclusive education. These findings may not be as definitive as expected but it is believed that it could provide useful information on the current situation about teachers’ concerns towards the inclusive education. In conclusion, this research could potentially make its positive contribution to the body of literature on teachers’ attitudes and teaching-efficacy in the context of Asian developed countries. Further, these findings could posit that regular teachers’ positive attitudes and strong sense of teaching self-efficacy could directly improve the success rate of inclusion of students with special needs in the regular classrooms.

Keywords: Special Education, attitudes, Inclusive Education, teaching-efficacy

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23 A Case Study on Expanding Access to Higher Education of Students with Hearing Impairment

Authors: Afaf Manzoor, Abdul Hameed

Abstract:

Children with hearing impairment face several challenges in accessing primary and secondary education in general and higher education in particular in Pakistan. A large number of these children are excluded from formal education system through segregated special institutions. The enrollment rate of these children at school level is very low and it continues decreasing as they move on the ladder of education. Negligible number of students with hearing impairment gets any chance to be enrolled at tertiary or higher education institutes. The segregated system of education at primary and secondary level makes it even more difficult to adjust in an inclusive classroom at a higher level not only for students with hearing impairment but for their teachers and peers as well. A false belief of teachers and parents about low academic profile of students with hearing impairment is one of the major challenges to overcome for their participation at higher education. This case study was conducted to document an innovative step taken by the Department of Special Education Needs, University of Management & Technology, Lahore Pakistan. The prime objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of students with hearing impairment in BS 4 Years and MA Special Education programs at Lahore campus. Structured interviews were of 40 students with hearing impairment to assess the satisfaction on service delivery (admission process, classroom pedagogy, content, assessment/results, access to other services centers i.e. library, cafeteria, hostel, co-curricular activities) and campus life. Their peers without disabilities were also interviewed to assess their acceptance level. The findings of the study revealed positive results about their educational as well as social inclusion in the university. The students also shared their fears at the time of admission and how fear eventually faded out with the passage of time due to the proper academic support system. The findings of the study will be shared in detail with the audience during the presentation.

Keywords: Higher Education, Inclusive Education, Marginalization, students with hearing impairment

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22 Riding the Crest of the Wave: Inclusive Education in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Perry

Abstract:

In 1996, the New Zealand government and the Ministry of Education announced that they were setting up a "world class system of inclusive education". As a parent of a son with high and complex needs, a teacher, school Principal and Disability studies Lecturer, this author will track the changes in the journey towards inclusive education over the last 20 years. Strategies for partnering with families to ensure educational success along with insights from one of those on the crest of the wave will be presented. Using a narrative methodology the author will illuminate how far New Zealand has come towards this world class system of inclusion promised and share from personal experience some of the highlights and risks in the system. This author has challenged the old structures and been part of the setting up of new structures particularly for providing parent voice and insight; this paper provides a unique view from an insider’s voice as well as a professional in the system.

Keywords: Special Education, Inclusive Education, Disability Studies, working with families with children with disability

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21 Inclusive Education in Jordanian Double-Shift Schools: Attitudes of Teacher and Students

Authors: David Ross Cameron

Abstract:

In an attempt to alleviate the educational planning problem, double-shift schools have been created throughout various regions in Jordan, namely communities closer to the Syrian border, where a large portion of the refugee population settled, allowing Jordanians to attend the morning-shift and Syrians to attend the afternoon-shift. Subsequently, overcrowded classrooms have added a significant amount of stress on school facilities and teacher capacities. Established national policies and the implementation of inclusive educational practices have been jeopardized. In particular, teachers’ and student’s attitudes of the importance of inclusive education provisions in the classroom have deteriorated. To have a more comprehensive understanding of the current situation and possible plan for intervention, a focus study was carried out at a double-shift Jordanian/Syrian girls’ public school in Irbid, Jordan. Interviews and surveys of 29 students with physical, learning, emotional and behavioral disabilities, 33 students without any special needs and nine teachers were included with a mixed-method social research approach to highlight the current attitudes that students and teachers held and factors that contributed to shaping their inclinations and beliefs of inclusive education.

Keywords: Development, Planning, pedagogy, Policy, Special Education, Capacity building, Inclusive Education, jordan, special needs, refugee, double-shift, Irbid, vulnerable population

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20 Foundation Phase Teachers' Experiences of School Based Support Teams: A Case of Selected Schools in Johannesburg

Authors: Ambeck Celyne Tebid, Harry S. Rampa

Abstract:

The South African Education system recognises the need for all learners including those experiencing learning difficulties, to have access to a single unified system of education. For teachers to be pedagogically responsive to an increasingly diverse learner population without appropriate support has been proven to be unrealistic. As such, this has considerably hampered interest amongst teachers, especially those at the foundation phase to work within an Inclusive Education (IE) and training system. This qualitative study aimed at investigating foundation phase teachers’ experiences of school-based support teams (SBSTs) in two Full-Service (inclusive schools) and one Mainstream public primary school in the Gauteng province of South Africa; with particular emphasis on finding ways to supporting them, since teachers claimed they were not empowered in their initial training to teach learners experiencing learning difficulties. Hence, SBSTs were created at school levels to fill this gap thereby, supporting teaching and learning by identifying and addressing learners’, teachers’ and schools’ needs. With the notion that IE may be failing because of systemic reasons, this study uses Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecosystemic as well as Piaget’s (1980) maturational theory to examine the nature of support and experiences amongst teachers taking individual and systemic factors into consideration. Data was collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, document analysis and observation with 6 foundation phase teachers drawn from 3 different schools, 3 SBST coordinators, and 3 school principals. Data was analysed using the phenomenological data analysis method. Amongst the findings of the study is that South African full- service and mainstream schools have functional SBSTs which render formal and informal support to the teachers; this support varies in quality depending on the socio-economic status of the relevant community where the schools are situated. This paper, however, argues that what foundation phase teachers settled for as ‘support’ is flawed; as well as how they perceive the SBST and its role is problematic. The paper conclude by recommending that, the SBST should consider other approaches at foundation phase teacher support such as, empowering teachers with continuous practical experiences on how to deal with real classroom scenarios, as well as ensuring that all support, be it on academic or non-academic issues should be provided within a learning community framework where the teacher, family, SBST and where necessary, community organisations should harness their skills towards a common goal.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, learning difficulties, foundation phase, full- service schools, school-based support teams, teacher support

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19 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Digital Game-Based Learning on Educational Outcomes of Students with Special Needs in an Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Shafaq Rubab

Abstract:

The inclusion of special needs students in a classroom is prevailing gradually in developing countries. Digital game-based learning is one the most effective instructional methodology for special needs students. Digital game-based learning facilitates special needs students who actually face challenges and obstacles in their learning processes. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digital game-based learning on the educational progress of special needs students in developing countries. The quasi-experimental research was conducted by using purposively selected sample size of eight special needs students. Results of both experimental and control group showed that performance of the experimental group students was better than the control group students and there was a significant difference between both groups’ results. This research strongly recommended that digital game-based learning can help special needs students in an inclusive classroom. It also revealed that special needs students can learn efficiently by using pedagogically sound learning games and game-based learning helps a lot for the self-paced fast-track learning system.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, special needs, digital game-based learning, fast-track learning

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18 An Exploration of Inclusive Education Settings in the Context of Saudi Arabia: Stakeholder Perspectives

Authors: Nourah Alshalhoub

Abstract:

As Saudi Arabia is one of the countries moving toward more inclusive schools, there are few researchers who have examined the new model of inclusive practice; that is, a model introduced by the Tatweer project. Tatweer is an initiative supported by the Saudi government to develop education with a particular focus on inclusion. This on-going doctoral work aims to find out the nature of inclusive practice that Taweer introduced to create effective practice to include students with different abilities. While stakeholders are important elements to the implementation of inclusive education practice, the study’s goal is to find out and explore their understandings and perspectives. This study considers the perspectives of stakeholders, who are involved and influential on the implementation of the practice, from different dimensions. Tatweer project’s managers, head teachers, teachers and teaching assistants will be interviewed to find out how do they understand inclusive education concept and what perspective do they hold. Reliant on this material, this work seeks to inquire into what meaning inclusion and inclusive practice holds in Tatweer and to what extent this educational models let students with different abilities be more included. Four primary schools in Riyadh were purposively selected and data will be collected through semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interview was selected as a study tool because it is a relevant and helpful method in understanding the thoughts, views, and beliefs of the stakeholders individually, and investigating issues more thoroughly in the context of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Inclusion, understanding, Definition, Inclusive Education, perspective

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17 Implementation of Inclusive Education in DepEd-Dasmarinas: Basis for Inclusion Program Framework

Authors: Manuela S. Tolentino, John G. Nepomuceno

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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the implementation of inclusive education (IE) in 6 elementary and 5 secondary public schools in the City Schools Division of Dasmarinas. Participants in this study were 11 school heads, 73 teachers, 22 parents and 22 students (regular and with special needs) who were selected using purposive sampling. A 30-item questionnaire was used to gather data on the extent of the implementation of IE in the division while focus group discussion (FGD) was used to gather insights on what facilitate and hinder the implementation of the IE program. This study assessed the following variables: school culture and environment, inclusive education policy implementation, and curriculum design and practices. Data were analyzed using frequency count, mean and ranking. Results revealed that participants have similar assessment on the extent of the implementation of IE. School heads rated school culture and environment as highest in terms of implementation while teachers and pupils chose curriculum design and practices. On the other hand, parents felt that inclusive education policies are implemented best. School culture and environment are given high ratings. Participants perceived that the IE program in the division is making everyone feel welcome regardless of age, sex, social status, physical, mental and emotional state; students with or without disability are equally valued, and students help each. However, some aspects of the IE program implementation are given low ratings namely: partnership between staff, parents and caregivers, school’s effort to minimize discriminatory practice, and stakeholders sharing the philosophy of inclusion. As regards education policy implementation, indicators with the highest ranks were school’s effort to admit students from the locality especially students with special needs, and the implementation of the child protection policy and anti-bullying policy. The results of the FGD revealed that both school heads and teachers possessed the welcoming gesture to accommodate students with special needs. This can be linked to the increasing enrolment of SNE in the division. However, limitations of the teachers’ knowledge on handling learners, facilities and collaboration among stakeholders hinder the implementation of IE program. Based on the findings, inclusion program framework was developed for program enhancement. This will be the basis for the improvement of the program’s efficiency, the relationship between stakeholders, and formulation of solutions.

Keywords: Inclusion, Special Education, Inclusive Education, framework

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16 Factors that Contribute to the Improvement of the Sense of Self-Efficacy of Special Educators in Inclusive Settings in Greece

Authors: Sotiria Tzivinikou, Dimitra Kagkara

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Teacher’s sense of self-efficacy can affect significantly both teacher’s and student’s performance. More specific, self-efficacy is associated with the learning outcomes as well as student’s motivation and self-efficacy. For example, teachers with high sense of self-efficacy are more open to innovations and invest more effort in teaching. In addition to this, effective inclusive education is associated with higher levels of teacher’s self-efficacy. Pre-service teachers with high levels of self-efficacy could handle student’s behavior better and more effectively assist students with special educational needs. Teacher preparation programs are also important, because teacher’s efficacy beliefs are shaped early in learning, as a result the quality of teacher’s education programs can affect the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service teachers. Usually, a number of pre-service teachers do not consider themselves well prepared to work with students with special educational needs and do not have the appropriate sense of self-efficacy. This study aims to investigate the factors that contribute to the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators by using an academic practicum training program. The sample of this study is 159 pre-service special educators, who also participated in the academic practicum training program. For the purpose of this study were used quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Teacher’s self-efficacy was assessed by the teachers themselves with the completion of a questionnaire which was based on the scale of Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale. Pre and post measurements of teacher’s self-efficacy were taken. The results of the survey are consistent with those of the international literature. The results indicate that a significant number of pre-service special educators do not hold the appropriate sense of self-efficacy regarding teaching students with special educational needs. Moreover, a quality academic training program constitutes a crucial factor for the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators, as additional for the provision of high quality inclusive education.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Self-efficacy, pre-service, training program

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15 Educators’ Perceived Capacity to Create Inclusive Learning Environments: Exploring Individual Competencies and District Policy

Authors: Thuy Phan, Stephanie Luallin

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Inclusive education policies have demonstrated benefits for students with and without disabilities in the US. There are several laws that relate to inclusive education, such as 'No Child Left Behind', 'The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act'. However, the application of these inclusive education laws and policies vary per state and school district. Classroom teachers in an inclusive classroom often experience confusion as to how to apply these policies in order to create appropriate inclusive learning environments that meet the abilities and needs of their diverse student population. The study aims to investigate teachers’ perspective of their capacities to create an appropriate learning environment for their diverse student population including students with disabilities. Qualitative method is implemented in this study, using open-end interview questions to investigate teachers’ perspective of their capacities to create an appropriate inclusive learning environment for all students based on current inclusive education laws and district policies in the state of Colorado, USA. These findings may indicate a lack of confidence in teachers’ capacity to create appropriate inclusive learning environments based on laws and district policies; including challenges that classroom teachers may experience in creating inclusive learning environments. The purpose of this study is to examine the adequate preparation of classroom teachers in creating inclusive classrooms with the intent of determining implications for developing policies in inclusive education.

Keywords: Policy, Inclusive Education, educator’s capacity, inclusive learning environment

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14 Exploring Thai Early Childhood Teachers’ Experience and Concerns regarding Teaching Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong

Abstract:

In view of the Thailand government policy creating increasing awareness of opportunity for children with special needs, the number of children with disabilities enrolled in kindergartens in Thailand has increased. This study explores early childhood teachers’ experiences and concerns of teaching children with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The population of the study was private early childhood teachers who teach in inclusive classrooms in Thailand. Quantitative data obtained through a questionnaire were supplemented by early childhood teachers’ interviews to identify key experiences and concerns of the teachers when teaching children with and without disabilities in the same classrooms. The results of this study indicated that many teachers face challenges including lack of professional development opportunities, difficulty identifying the needs of all children and how to use effective strategies to support inclusive practices in their classrooms. Teachers also expressed concern about parents’ lack of willingness to accept children without disabilities studying together with those with disabilities in the same classrooms. Findings from this study can inform program support for parents and professional support needs of teachers in the provision of high-quality inclusive programs for all students.

Keywords: Experience, Early Childhood, Inclusive Education, Thailand, the concern

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13 A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers

Authors: M. D. Nghiteke, A. Mji, G. T. Molepo

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Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.

Keywords: training, Inclusive Education, resources, classrooms and schools

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12 Overcoming Reading Barriers in an Inclusive Mathematics Classroom with Linguistic and Visual Support

Authors: A. Noll, J. Roth, M. Scholz

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The importance of written language in a democratic society is non-controversial. Students with physical, learning, cognitive or developmental disabilities often have difficulties in understanding information which is presented in written language only. These students suffer from obstacles in diverse domains. In order to reduce such barriers in educational as well as in out-of-school areas, access to written information must be facilitated. Readability can be enhanced by linguistic simplifications like the application of easy-to-read language. Easy-to-read language shall help people with disabilities to participate socially and politically in society. The authors state, for example, that only short simple words should be used, whereas the occurrence of complex sentences should be avoided. So far, these guidelines were not empirically proved. Another way to reduce reading barriers is the use of visual support, for example, symbols. A symbol conveys, in contrast to a photo, a single idea or concept. Little empirical data about the use of symbols to foster the readability of texts exist. Nevertheless, a positive influence can be assumed, e.g., because of the multimedia principle. It indicates that people learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. A qualitative Interview and Eye-Tracking-Study, which was conducted by the authors, gives cause for the assumption that besides the illustration of single words, the visualization of complete sentences may be helpful. Thus, the effect of photos, which illustrate the content of complete sentences, is also investigated in this study. This leads us to the main research question which was focused on: Does the use of easy-to-read language and/or enriching text with symbols or photos facilitate pupils’ comprehension of learning tasks? The sample consisted of students with learning difficulties (N = 144) and students without SEN (N = 159). The students worked on the tasks, which dealt with introducing fractions, individually. While experimental group 1 received a linguistically simplified version of the tasks, experimental group 2 worked with a variation which was linguistically simplified and furthermore, the keywords of the tasks were visualized by symbols. Experimental group 3 worked on exercises which were simplified by easy-to-read-language and the content of the whole sentences was illustrated by photos. Experimental group 4 received a not simplified version. The participants’ reading ability and their IQ was elevated beforehand to build four comparable groups. There is a significant effect of the different setting on the students’ results F(3,140) = 2,932; p = 0,036*. A post-hoc-analyses with multiple comparisons shows that this significance results from the difference between experimental group 3 and 4. The students in the group easy-to-read language plus photos worked on the exercises significantly more successfully than the students who worked in the group with no simplifications. Further results which refer, among others, to the influence of the students reading ability will be presented at the ICERI 2018.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Inclusive Education, Special Educational Needs, symbols, easy-to-read language, photos

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