Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

incidence Related Abstracts

21 Progression Rate, Prevalence, Incidence of Black Band Disease on Stony (Scleractinia) in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

Authors: Baso Hamdani, Arniati Massinai, Jamaluddin Jompa


Coral diseases are one of the factors affect reef degradation. This research had analysed the progression rate, incidence, and prevalence of Black Band Disease (BBD) on stony coral (Pachyseris sp.) in relation to the environmental parameters (pH, nitrate, phospate, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), and turbidity). The incidence of coral disease was measured weekly for 6 weeks using Belt Transect Method. The progression rate of BBD was measured manually. Furthermore, the prevalence and incidence of BBD were calculated each colonies infected. The relationship between environmental parameters and the progression rate, prevalence and incidence of BBD was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed the average of progression rate is 0,07 ± 0,02 cm/ hari. The prevalence of BBD increased from 0,92% - 19,73% in 7 weeks observation with the average incidence of new infected colonies coral 0,2 - 0,65 colony/day The environment factors which important were pH, Nitrate, Phospate, DOM, and Turbidity.

Keywords: Prevalence, progression rate, incidence, Black Band Disease, Barranglompo

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20 Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Kuala Lumpur: A Mixed Method Study on Incidence, Adherence to Protocol, and Issues

Authors: Mohd Said Nurumal, Sarah Sheikh Abdul Karim


Information regarding out of hospital cardiac arrest incidence include outcome in Malaysia is limited and fragmented. This study aims to identify incidence and adherence to protocol of out of hospital cardiac arrest and also to explore the issues faced by the pre-hospital personnel in regards managing cardiac arrest victim in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A mixed method approach combining the qualitative and quantitative study design was used. The 285 pre-hospital care data sheet of out of hospital cardiac arrest during the year of 2011 were examined by using checklists for identify the incidence and adherence to protocol. Nine semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions were performed. For the incidence based on the overall out of hospital cardiac arrest cases that occurred in 2011 (n=285), the survival rates were 16.8%. For adherence to protocol, only 89 (41.8%) of the cases adhered to the given protocol and 124 did not adhere to such protocol. The qualitative information provided insight about the issues related to out of hospital cardiac arrest in every aspect. All the relevant qualitative data were merged into few categories relating issues that could affect the management of out of hospital cardiac arrest performed by pre-hospital care team. One of the essential elements in the out of hospital cardiac arrest handling by pre-hospital care is to ensure increase of survival rates and excellent outcomes by adhering to given protocols based on international standard benchmarks. Measures are needed to strengthen the quick activation of the pre-hospital care service, prompt bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation and timely advanced cardiac life support and also to tackle all the issues highlighted in qualitative results.

Keywords: incidence, pre-hospital care, out of hospital cardiac arrest, protocol, mixed method research

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19 Incidence and Etiology of Neonatal Calf Diarrhea in the Region of Blida, Algeria

Authors: A. Dadda, D. Khelef, K. Ait-Oudia, R. Kaidi


Neonatal calf diarrhea is the most important disease of neonatal calves and results in the greatest economic losses due to disease in this age group in both dairy and beef calves. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the morbidity and the mortality of neonatal diarrhea in dairy calves also to determine aetiology and risk factors were caused diarrhea in dairy veal under 60 days old. A total of 324 claves, housed in 30 dairy breeding were followed during two velage season from January to Juan 2013. The total mortality was 5,9% and was significantly higher in calves had less than 15 days of age. The incidence rate of diarrhea was 31,5% and peaked in the first two weeks after velage. The main causes were breeding controls, defect of passive immunity, old of calf, production season, and nutrient of pregnant cattle, veal’s housing and infectious agents. ELISA test on 22 fecal samples revealed that the 31, 82% of dairy breeding were infected, by cryptosporidium parvum in 13, 6% of study population, E.Coli F5 in 9% and Rotavirus with rate of 4, 5%.

Keywords: Aetiology, Neonatal, Mortality, Risk Factors, incidence, diarrhoea

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18 Incidence of Dermatophilosis in Cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria: A Review

Authors: Adamu Garba, Saidu Idi


This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Dermatophilosis in cattle in Bauchi State and suggest possible control measures. Data were obtained from the State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Veterinary Division and monthly reports from Local Government Area Veterinary Offices for a period of three years ranging from 1996-1998. The result revealed that the disease is more prevalent in the rainy season which coincides with preponderance of the predisposing factors. Of the total 17,252 infected cattle in the State, Western zone had the highest cases with 8,298 (50.0%), followed by Central zone with 5,211 (30.0%) and the least was in the Northern zone with 3,753 (20.0%) cases. Rainfall pattern within the zones could be responsible for the variation in the prevalence rate. Analysis of variance revealed that there is no significant difference in the prevalence of Dermatophilosis between the years (P<0.212) while there is significant difference within the zones (P<0.012). Correlation analysis carried out showed that there is positive relationship between rainfall and Dermatophilosis (r<0.909). Since the disease is more prevalent during the rainy season, efforts should be exerted on thorough preventive measures during the period to control the disease in the State, particularly in the Western zone.

Keywords: Cattle, incidence, Bauchi State, dermatophilosis

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17 Breast Cancer Incidence Estimation in Castilla-La Mancha (CLM) from Mortality and Survival Data

Authors: C. Romero, R. Ortega, P. Sánchez-Camacho, P. Aguilar, V. Segur, J. Ruiz, G. Gutiérrez


Introduction: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in CLM. (2.8% of all deaths in women and 13,8% of deaths from tumors in womens). It is the most tumor incidence in CLM region with 26.1% from all tumours, except nonmelanoma skin (Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X, IARC). Cancer registries are a good information source to estimate cancer incidence, however the data are usually available with a lag which makes difficult their use for health managers. By contrast, mortality and survival statistics have less delay. In order to serve for resource planning and responding to this problem, a method is presented to estimate the incidence of mortality and survival data. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of breast cancer by age group in CLM in the period 1991-2013. Comparing the data obtained from the model with current incidence data. Sources: Annual number of women by single ages (National Statistics Institute). Annual number of deaths by all causes and breast cancer. (Mortality Registry CLM). The Breast cancer relative survival probability. (EUROCARE, Spanish registries data). Methods: A Weibull Parametric survival model from EUROCARE data is obtained. From the model of survival, the population and population data, Mortality and Incidence Analysis MODel (MIAMOD) regression model is obtained to estimate the incidence of cancer by age (1991-2013). Results: The resulting model is: Ix,t = Logit [const + age1*x + age2*x2 + coh1*(t – x) + coh2*(t-x)2] Where: Ix,t is the incidence at age x in the period (year) t; the value of the parameter estimates is: const (constant term in the model) = -7.03; age1 = 3.31; age2 = -1.10; coh1 = 0.61 and coh2 = -0.12. It is estimated that in 1991 were diagnosed in CLM 662 cases of breast cancer (81.51 per 100,000 women). An estimated 1,152 cases (112.41 per 100,000 women) were diagnosed in 2013, representing an increase of 40.7% in gross incidence rate (1.9% per year). The annual average increases in incidence by age were: 2.07% in women aged 25-44 years, 1.01% (45-54 years), 1.11% (55-64 years) and 1.24% (65-74 years). Cancer registries in Spain that send data to IARC declared 2003-2007 the average annual incidence rate of 98.6 cases per 100,000 women. Our model can obtain an incidence of 100.7 cases per 100,000 women. Conclusions: A sharp and steady increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the period 1991-2013 is observed. The increase was seen in all age groups considered, although it seems more pronounced in young women (25-44 years). With this method you can get a good estimation of the incidence.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, incidence, cancer registries, castilla-la mancha

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16 Analysis of Sickle Cell Disease and Maternal Mortality in United Kingdom

Authors: Basma Hassabo, Sarah Ahmed, Aisha Hameed


Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of maternal mortality amongst pregnant women with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United Kingdom and to determine exact cause of death in these women. Background: SCD is caused by the ‘sickle’ gene and is characterized by episodes of severe bone pain and other complications like acute chest syndrome, chronic pulmonary hypertension, stroke, retinopathy, chronic renal failure, hepato-splenic crises, avascular bone necrosis, sepsis and leg ulcers. SCD is a continual cause of maternal mortality and fetal complications, and it comprises 1.5% of all Direct and Indirect deaths in the UK. Sepsis following premature rupture of membranes with ascending infection, post-partum infection and pre-labour overwhelming septic shock is one of its leading causes of death. Over the last fifty years of maternal mortality reports in UK, between 1 to 4 pregnant women died in each triennium. Material and Method: This is a retrospective study that involves pregnant women who died from SCD complications in the UK between 1952-2012. Data were collected from the UK Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Death and its causes between 1952–2012. Prior to 1985, exact cause of death in this cohort was not recorded. Results: 33 deaths reported between 1964 and 1984. 17 deaths were reported due to sickle cell disease between 1985 and 2012. Five women in this group died of sickle cell crisis, one woman had liver sequestration crisis, two women died of venous thromboembolism, two had myocardial fibrosis and three died of sepsis. Remaining women died of amniotic fluid embolism, SUDEP, myocardial ischemia and intracranial haemorrhage. Conclusion: The leading causes of death in sickle cell sick pregnant women are sickle cell crises, sepsis, venous thrombosis and thromboembolism. Prenatal care for women with SCD should be managed by a multidisciplinary team that includes an obstetrician, nutritionist, primary care physician, and haematologist. In every sick Sickle Cell woman Sickle Cell crises should be on the top of the list of differential diagnosis. Aggressive treatment of complications with low threshold to commence broad-spectrum antibiotics and LMWH contribute to better outcomes.

Keywords: incidence, maternal mortality, sickle cell disease (SCD)

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15 Epidemiology of Gestational Choriocarcinoma: A Systematic Review

Authors: Farah Amalina Mohamed Affandi, Redhwan Ahmad Al-Naggar, Seok Mui Wang, Thanikasalam Kathiresan


Gestational choriocarcinoma is a condition in which there is an abnormal growth or a tumor inside the women’s uterus after conception. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease which is relatively rare and malignant. The current epidemiological data of this disease are inadequate. The purposes of this study are to examine the epidemiology of choriocarcinoma and their risk factors based on all available population-based and hospital-based data of the disease. In this study, we searched The MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases using the keywords ‘choriocarcinoma’, ‘gestational’, ‘gestational choriocarcinoma’ and ‘epidemiology’. We included only human studies published in English between 1995 and 2015 to ensure up to date evidence. Case studies, case reports, animal studies, letters to the editor, news, and review articles were excluded. Retrieved articles were screened in three phases. In the first phase, any articles that did not match the inclusion criteria based solely on titles were excluded. In the second phase, the abstracts of remaining articles were screened thoroughly; any articles that did not meet our inclusion criteria were excluded. In the final phase, full texts of the remaining articles were read and assessed to exclude articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria or any articles that fulfilled the exclusion criteria. Duplicates articles were also removed. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis were excluded. Extracted data were summarized in table and figures descriptively. The reference lists of included studies were thoroughly reviewed in search for other relevant studies. A total of ten studies met all the selection criteria. Nine were retrospective studies and one was cohort study. Total numbers of 4563 cases of choriocarcinoma were reviewed from several countries which are Korea, Japan, South Africa, USA, New Mexico, Finland, Turkey, China, Brazil and The Netherlands. Different studies included different range of age with their mean age of 28.5 to 30.0 years. All studies investigated on the disease’s incidence rate, only two studies examined on the risk factors or associations of the disease. Approximately 20% of the studies showed a reduction in the incidence of choriocarcinoma while the other 80% showed inconsistencies in rate. Associations of age, fertility age, occupations and socio-demographic with the status remains unclear. There is limited information on the epidemiological aspects of gestational choriocarcinoma. The observed results indicated there was a decrease in the incidence rate of gestational choriocarcinoma globally. These could be due to the reduction in the incidence of molar pregnancy and the efficacy of the treatment, mainly by chemotherapy.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Prevalence, incidence, risk factor, gestational choriocarcinoma

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14 Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Challenges in Young Children in Dubai: A Qualitative Study, 2016

Authors: Kadhim Alabady


Background: Autism poses a particularly large public health challenge and an inspiring lifelong challenge for many families; it is a lifelong challenge of a different kind. Purpose: Therefore, it is important to understand what the key challenges are and how to improve the lives of children who are affected with autism in Dubai. Method: In order to carry out this research we have used a qualitative methodology. We performed structured in–depth interviews and focus groups with mental health professionals working at: Al Jalila hospital (AJH), Dubai Autism Centre (DAC), Dubai Rehabilitation Centre for Disabilities, Latifa hospital, Private Sector Healthcare (PSH). In addition to that, we conducted quantitative approach to estimate ASD prevalence or incidence data due to lack of registry. ASD estimates are based on research from national and international documents. This approach was applied to increase the validity of the findings by using a variety of data collection techniques in order to explore issues that might not be highlighted through one method alone. Key findings: Autism is the most common of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Dubai Autism Center estimates it affects 1 in 146 births (0.68%). If we apply these estimates to the total number of births in Dubai for 2014, it is predicted there would be approximately 199 children (of which 58 were Nationals and 141 were Non–Nationals) suffering from autism at some stage. 16.4% of children (through their families) seek help for ASD assessment between the age group 6–18+. It is critical to understand and address factors for seeking late–stage diagnosis, as ASD can be diagnosed much earlier and how many of these later presenters are actually diagnosed with ASD. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a public health concern in Dubai. Families do not consult GPs for early diagnosis for a variety of reasons including cultural reasons. Recommendations: Effective school health strategies is needed and implemented by nurses who are qualified and experienced in identifying children with ASD. There is a need for the DAC to identify and develop a closer link with neurologists specializing in Autism, to work alongside and for referrals. Autism can be attributed to many factors, some of those are neurological. Currently, when families need their child to see a neurologist they have to go independently and search through the many that are available in Dubai and who are not necessarily specialists in Autism. Training of GP’s to aid early diagnosis of Autism and increase awareness. Since not all GP’s are trained to make such assessments increasing awareness about where to send families for a complete assessment and the necessary support. There is an urgent need for an adult autism center for when the children leave the safe environment of the school at 18 years. These individuals require a day center or suitable job training/placements where appropriate. There is a need for further studies to cover the needs of people with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Keywords: autism, Pervasive developmental disorders, Autism spectrum disorder, incidence

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13 Effect of Feeding Varying Levels of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on the Performance of Transition Sahiwal Cattle

Authors: Farhan Ahmad Atif, Abd Ur Rehman, Muhammad Babir


Dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) is an important aspect of dairy nutrition, especially in the transition period. Sahiwal cattle is the highest milk producing breed among Zebu cattle. We planned first study on transition Sahiwal cattle to determine the effects of feeding varying levels of negative DCAD. For this purpose, twenty pregnant cows (at the 250th day of gestation) were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups comprising four animals each. Five iso-caloric (2100 Kcal) and iso-nitrogenous (12%) diets were formulated and each diet was allotted to each group. The animals received positive DCAD diet served as control. Diets were supplemented with NutriCAB® to attain 0, -15, -30 and -45 DCAD levels. Experimental diets were fed at ad-libitum upto parturition and data regarding feed intake were recorded on daily. Post-partum incidence of milk fever, dystocia, retention of placenta (RP), mastitis as well as milk production, milk fat percentage and serum Ca levels were recorded. Urine and blood pH were determined weekly during the last month of pregnancy. Results showed that prepartum feed intake and blood pH were not affected (P > 0.05), while urine pH was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by lowering DCAD levels. Post parturient blood calcium level linearly increased (P < 0.05) with decreasing DCAD. Pre-partum negative DCAD feeding had no effect (P > 0.05) on post-parturient milk production and fat percentage. However, parturient related problems decreased with decreasing DCAD feeding. It was concluded that negative DCAD feeding raised serum calcium level and reduced the incidence of post-parturient problems in Sahiwal cattle.

Keywords: Transition, Dairy Cattle, metabolic diseases, reproductive disorders, incidence

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12 Pattern of Deliberate Self-Harm Repetition in Rural Sri Lanka

Authors: P. H. G. J. Pushpakumara, Andrew Dawson


Introduction: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health problem globally. Suicide rates of Sri Lanka are being among the highest national rates in the world, since 1950. Previous DSH is the most important independent predictor of repetition. The estimated 1 year non-fatal repeat self-harm rate was 16.3%. Asian countries had considerably lower rate, 10.0%. Objectives: To calculate incidence of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) and suicides, repetition rate of DSP in Kurunegala District (KD). To determine the pattern of repeated DSP in KD. Methods: Study had two components. In the first component, demographic and event related details of, DSP admission in 46 hospitals and suicides in 28 police stations of KD were collected for 3 years from January 2011. Demographic details of cohort of DSP patients admitted to above hospitals in 2011 were linked with hospital admissions and police records of next two years period from the index admission. Records were screened for links with high sensitivity using the computer then did manual matching which would have been much more specific. In the second component, randomly selected DSP patients (n=438), who admitted to main referral centre which receives 60% of DSP cases of the district, were interviewed to assess life-time repetition. Results: There were 16,993 DSP admissions and 1078 suicides for the three year period. Suicide incidences in KD were, 21.6, 20.7 and 24.3 per 100,000 population in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Average male to female ratio for suicide incidences was 5.5. DSP incidences were 205.4, 248.3 and 202.5 per 100,000 population. Male incidences were slightly greater than the female incidences, male: female ratio was 1.1:1. Highest age standardized male and female incidence was reported in 20-24 years age group, 769.6/100,000, and 15-19 years age group 1304.0/100,000. Male to female ratio of the incidence increased with the age. There were 318 (179 male and 139 female) patients attempted DSH within two years. Female repetitive patients were ounger compared to the males, p < 0.0001, median age: males 28 and females 19 years. 290 (91.2%) had only one repetitive attempt, 24 (7.5%) had two, 3 (0.9%) had three and one (0.3%) had four in that period. One year repetition rate was 5.6 and two year repetition rate was 7.9%. Average intervals between indexed events and first repetitive DSP events were 246.8 (SD:223.4) and 238.5 (SD:207.0) days among males and females. One fifth of first repetitive events occurred within first two weeks in both males and females. Around 50% of males and females had the second event within 28 weeks. Within the first year of the indexed event, around 70% had the second event. First repetitive event was fatal for 28 (8.8%) individuals. Ages of those who died, mean 49.7 years (SD:15.3), were significantly higher compared to those who had non-fatal outcome, p<0.0001. 9.5% had life time history of DSH attempts. Conclusions: Both, DSP and suicide incidences were very high in KD. However, repetition rates were lesser compared regional values. Prevention of repetition alone may not produce significant impact on prevention of DSH.

Keywords: Suicide, deliberate self-harm, Sri Lanka, incidence, repetition

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11 Healthcare Associated Infections in an Intensive Care Unit in Tunisia: Incidence and Risk Factors

Authors: Nabiha Bouafia, Asma Ben Cheikh, Asma Ammar, Olfa Ezzi, Mohamed Mahjoub, Khaoula Meddeb, Imed Chouchene, Hamadi Boussarsar, Mansour Njah


Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAI) cause significant morbidity, mortality, length of stay and hospital costs, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU), because of the debilitated immune systems of their patients and exposure to invasive devices. The aims of this study were to determine the rate and the risk factors of HAI in an ICU of a university hospital in Tunisia. Materials/Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the 8-bed adult medical ICU of a University Hospital (Sousse Tunisia) during 14 months from September 15th, 2015 to November 15th, 2016. Patients admitted for more than 48h were included. Their surveillance was stopped after the discharge from ICU or death. HAIs were defined according to standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Risk factors were analyzed by conditional stepwise logistic regression. The p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: During the study, 192 patients had admitted for more than 48 hours. Their mean age was 59.3± 18.20 years and 57.1% were male. Acute respiratory failure was the main reason of admission (72%). The mean SAPS II score calculated at admission was 32.5 ± 14 (range: 6 - 78). The exposure to the mechanical ventilation (MV) and the central venous catheter were observed in 169 (88 %) and 144 (75 %) patients, respectively. Seventy-three patients (38.02%) developed 94 HAIs. The incidence density of HAIs was 41.53 per 1000 patient day. Mortality rate in patients with HAIs was 65.8 %( n= 48). Regarding the type of infection, Ventilator Associated Pneumoniae (VAP) and central venous catheter Associated Infections (CVC AI) were the most frequent with Incidence density: 14.88/1000 days of MV for VAP and 20.02/1000 CVC days for CVC AI. There were 5 Peripheral Venous Catheter Associated Infections, 2 urinary tract infections, and 21 other HAIs. Gram-negative bacteria were the most common germs identified in HAIs: Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter Baumanii (45%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.96%) were the most frequently isolated. Univariate analysis showed that transfer from another hospital department (p= 0.001), intubation (p < 10-4), tracheostomy (p < 10-4), age (p=0.028), grade of acute respiratory failure (p=0.01), duration of sedation (p < 10-4), number of CVC (p < 10-4), length of mechanical ventilation (p < 10-4) and length of stay (p < 10-4), were associated to high risk of HAIS in ICU. Multivariate analysis reveals that independent risk factors for HAIs are: transfer from another hospital department: OR=13.44, IC 95% [3.9, 44.2], p < 10-4, duration of sedation: OR= 1.18, IC 95% [1.049, 1.325], p=0.006, high number of CVC: OR=2.78, IC 95% [1.73, 4.487], p < 10-4, and length of stay in ICU: OR= 1.14, IC 95% [1.066,1.22], p < 10-4. Conclusion: Prevention of nosocomial infections in ICUs is a priority of health care systems all around the world. Yet, their control requires an understanding of epidemiological data collected in these units.

Keywords: Risk Factors, incidence, intensive care unit, healthcare associated infections

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10 Epidemiology of Healthcare-Associated Infections among Hematology/Oncology Patients: Results of a Prospective Incidence Survey in a Tunisian University Hospital

Authors: Ammar Asma, Bouafia Nabiha, Ben Cheikh Asma, Ezzi Olfa, Mahjoub Mohamed, Njah Mansour, Bannour Wadiaa, Achour Bechir, Khelif Abderrahim


Background: In hematology/oncology, health care improvement has allowed increasingly aggressive management in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Nevertheless, these intensified procedures have been associated with higher risk of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). We undertook this study to estimate the burden of HAIs in the cancer patients in an onco -hematology unit in a Tunisian university hospital. Materials/Methods: A prospective, observational study, based on active surveillance for a period of 06 months from Mars through September 2016, was undertaken in the department of onco-hematology in a university hospital in Tunisia. Patients, who stayed in the unit for ≥ 48 h, were followed until hospital discharge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (CDC) for site-specific infections were used as standard definitions for HAIs. Results: One hundred fifty patients were included in the study. The gender distribution was 33.3% for girls and 66.6% boys. They have a mean age of 23.12 years (SD = 18.36 years). The main patient’s diagnosis is: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): 48.7 %( n=73). The mean length of stay was 21 days +/- 18 days. Almost 8% of patients had an implantable port (n= 12), 34.9 % (n=52) had a lumber puncture and 42.7 % (n= 64) had a medullary puncture. Chemotherapy was instituted in 88% of patients (n=132). Eighty (53.3%) patients had neutropenia at admission. The incidence rate of HAIs was 32.66 % per patient; the incidence density was 15.73 per 1000 patient-days in the unit. Mortality rate was 9.3% (n= 14), and 50% of cases of death were caused by HAIs. The most frequent episodes of infection were: infection of skin and superficial mucosa (5.3%), pulmonary aspergillosis (4.6%), Healthcare associated pneumonia (HAP) (4%), Central venous catheter associated infection (4%), digestive infection (5%), and primary bloodstream infection (2.6%). Finally, fever of unknown origin (FUO) incidence rate was 14%. In case of skin and superficial infection (n= 8), 4 episodes were documented, and organisms implicated were Escherichia.coli, Geotricum capitatum and Proteus mirabilis. For pulmonary aspergillosis, 6 cases were diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and one was proved by positive aspergillus antigen in bronchial aspiration. Only one patient died due this infection. In HAP (6 cases), four episodes were diagnosed clinically and radiologically. No bacterial etiology was established in these cases. Two patients died due to HAP. For primary bloodstream infection (4 cases), implicated germs were Enterobacter cloacae, Geotricum capitatum, klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion: This type of prospective study is an indispensable tool for internal quality control. It is necessary to evaluate preventive measures and design control guides and strategies aimed to reduce the HAI’s rate and the morbidity and mortality associated with infection in a hematology/oncology unit.

Keywords: incidence, healthcare associated infections, cohort prospective studies, hematology oncology department

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9 Incidence and Risk Factors of Traumatic Lumbar Puncture in Newborns in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Ramesh AGARWAL, Heena Dabas, Anju Paul, Suman Chaurasia, M. Jeeva Sankar, Anurag Bajpai, Manju Saksena


Background: Traumatic lumbar puncture (LP) is a common occurrence and causes substantial diagnostic ambiguity. There is paucity of data regarding its epidemiology. Objective: To assess the incidence and risk factors of traumatic LP in newborns. Design/Methods: In a prospective cohort study, all inborn neonates admitted in NICU and planned to undergo LP for a clinical indication of sepsis were included. Neonates with diagnosed intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade III and IV were excluded. The LP was done by operator - often a fellow or resident assisted by bedside nurse. The unit has policy of not routinely using any sedation/analgesia during the procedure. LP is done by 26 G and 0.5-inch-long hypodermic needle inserted in third or fourth lumbar space while the infant is in lateral position. The infants were monitored clinically and by continuous measurement of vital parameters using multipara monitor during the procedure. The occurrence of traumatic tap along with CSF parameters and other operator and assistant characteristics were recorded at the time of procedure. Traumatic tap was defined as presence of visible blood or more than 500 red blood cells on microscopic examination. Microscopic trauma was defined when CSF is not having visible blood but numerous RBCs. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. A written informed consent from the parents and the health care providers involved was obtained. Neonates were followed up till discharge/death and final diagnosis was assigned along with treating team. Results: A total of 362 (21%) neonates out of 1726 born at the hospital were admitted during the study period (July 2016 to January, 2017). Among these neonates, 97 (26.7%) were suspected of sepsis. A total of 54 neonates were enrolled who met the eligibility criteria and parents consented to participate in the study. The mean (SD) birthweight was 1536 (732) grams and gestational age 32.0 (4.0) weeks. All LPs were indicated for late onset sepsis at the median (IQR) age of 12 (5-39) days. The traumatic LP occurred in 19 neonates (35.1%; 95% C.I 22.6% to 49.3%). Frank blood was observed in 7 (36.8%) and in the remaining, 12(63.1%) CSF was detected to have microscopic trauma. The preliminary risk factor analysis including birth weight, gestational age and operator/assistant and other characteristics did not demonstrate clinically relevant predictors. Conclusion: A significant number of neonates requiring lumbar puncture in our study had high incidence of traumatic tap. We were not able to identify modifiable risk factors. There is a need to understand the reasons and further reduce this issue for improving management in NICUs.

Keywords: Newborn, incidence, traumatic, lumbar puncture

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8 Effect of Palm Bunch Ash and Neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) Leaf Powder on Termite Infestation in Groundnut Field

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, C. P. Ekwe, G. O. Ihejirika, S. A. Dialoke, O. P. Onyewuchi, C. P. Anyanwu, I. E. Kalu


As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development, especially during prolonged dry spell. Effect of palm bunch ash and neem(Azardirachta indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0tons/ha and three rates of neem leaf powder at 0.0(control), 1.0, 2.0 tons/ha respectively. Data were collected on percentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result shows that there were no significant (P= 0.05) differences in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch ash and neem leaf powder applications. Contrarily, palm bunch ash at 2.0 tons/ha recorded the least termite incidence especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) and 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm bunch ash at 2.0tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively. Control plots on the other hand consistently maintained highest termite severity throughout the trial with the highest value at 2 and 12WAP (1.56). Conclusively, palm bunch ash exhibited highest depressive action against termite on groundnut especially at higher application value (2.0tons/ha).

Keywords: severity, incidence, termites, palm, groundnut, neem

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7 HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men Measured by Pooling Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Its Comparison with HIV Incidence Estimated by BED-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Observed in a Prospective Cohort

Authors: Bo Zhang, Chao Zhou, Mei Han, Jinkou Zhao, Yuan Yao, Liangui Feng, Xianbin Ding, Guohui Wu, Lin Ouyang, Rongrong Lu


To compare the HIV incidence estimated using BED capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (BED-CEIA) and observed in a cohort against the HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) measured by pooling polymerase chain reaction (pooling-PCR). A total of 617 MSM subjects were included in a respondent driven sampling survey in Chongqing in 2008. Among the 129 that were tested HIV antibody positive, 102 were defined with long-term infection, 27 were assessed for recent HIV infection (RHI) using BED-CEIA. The remaining 488 HIV negative subjects were enrolled to the prospective cohort and followed-up every 6 months to monitor HIV seroconversion. All of the 488 HIV negative specimens were assessed for acute HIV infection (AHI) using pooling-PCR. Among the 488 negative subjects in the open cohort, 214 (43.9%) were followed-up for six months, with 107 person-years of observation and 14 subjects seroconverted. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI=9.1-15.7). Among the 488 HIV negative specimens, 5 were identified with acute HIV infection using pooling-PCR at an annual rate of 14.02% (95% CI=1.73-26.30). The estimated HIV-1 incidence was 12.02% (95% CI=7.49-16.56) based on BED-CEIA. The HIV incidence estimated with three different approaches was different among subgroups. In the highly HIV prevalent MSM, it costs US$ 1724 to detect one AHI case, while detection of one case of RHI with BED assay costs only US$ 42. Three approaches generated comparable and high HIV incidences, pooling PCR and prospective cohort are more close to the true level of incidence, while BED-CEIA seemed to be the most convenient and economical approach for at-risk population’s HIV incidence evaluation at the beginning of HIV pandemic. HIV-1 incidences were alarmingly high among MSM population in Chongqing, particularly within the subgroup under 25 years of age and those migrants aged between 25 to 34 years.

Keywords: HIV, incidence, prospective cohort, BED-CEIA, pooled PCR

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6 Incidences and Factors Associated with Perioperative Cardiac Arrest in Trauma Patient Receiving Anesthesia

Authors: Visith Siriphuwanun, Yodying Punjasawadwong, Suwinai Saengyo, Kittipan Rerkasem


Objective: To determine incidences and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients who received anesthesia for emergency surgery. Design and setting: Retrospective cohort study in trauma patients during anesthesia for emergency surgery at a university hospital in northern Thailand country. Patients and methods: This study was permitted by the medical ethical committee, Faculty of Medicine at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We clarified data of 19,683 trauma patients receiving anesthesia within a decade between January 2007 to March 2016. The data analyzed patient characteristics, traumas surgery procedures, anesthesia information such as ASA physical status classification, anesthesia techniques, anesthetic drugs, location of anesthesia performed, and cardiac arrest outcomes. This study excluded the data of trauma patients who had received local anesthesia by surgeons or monitoring anesthesia care (MAC) and the patient which missing more information. The factor associated with perioperative cardiac arrest was identified with univariate analyses. Multiple regressions model for risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to conduct factors correlated with perioperative cardiac arrest. The multicollinearity of all variables was examined by bivariate correlation matrix. A stepwise algorithm was chosen at a p-value less than 0.02 was selected to further multivariate analysis. A P-value of less than 0.05 was concluded as statistically significant. Measurements and results: The occurrence of perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 170.04 per 10,000 cases. Factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients were age being more than 65 years (RR=1.41, CI=1.02–1.96, p=0.039), ASA physical status 3 or higher (RR=4.19–21.58, p < 0.001), sites of surgery (intracranial, intrathoracic, upper intra-abdominal, and major vascular, each p < 0.001), cardiopulmonary comorbidities (RR=1.55, CI=1.10–2.17, p < 0.012), hemodynamic instability with shock prior to receiving anesthesia (RR=1.60, CI=1.21–2.11, p < 0.001) , special techniques for surgery such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypotensive techniques (RR=5.55, CI=2.01–15.36, p=0.001; RR=6.24, CI=2.21–17.58, p=0.001, respectively), and patients who had a history of being alcoholic (RR=5.27, CI=4.09–6.79, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Incidence of perioperative cardiac arrest in trauma patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was very high and correlated with many factors, especially age of patient and cardiopulmonary comorbidities, patient having a history of alcoholic addiction, increasing ASA physical status, preoperative shock, special techniques for surgery, and sites of surgery including brain, thorax, abdomen, and major vascular region. Anesthesiologists and multidisciplinary teams in pre- and perioperative periods should remain alert for warning signs of pre-cardiac arrest and be quick to manage the high-risk group of surgical trauma patients. Furthermore, a healthcare policy should be promoted for protecting against accidents in high-risk groups of the population as well.

Keywords: Anesthesia, incidence, perioperative cardiac arrest, trauma patients, emergency surgery, factors risk

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5 Comparison of Incidence and Risk Factors of Early Onset and Late Onset Preeclampsia: A Population Based Cohort Study

Authors: Sadia Munir, Diana White, Aya Albahri, Pratiwi Hastania, Eltahir Mohamed, Mahmood Khan, Fathima Mohamed, Ayat Kadhi, Haila Saleem


Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy. Prediction and management of preeclampsia is a challenge for obstetricians. To our knowledge, no major progress has been achieved in the prevention and early detection of preeclampsia. There is very little known about the clear treatment path of this disorder. Preeclampsia puts both mother and baby at risk of several short term- and long term-health problems later in life. There is huge health service cost burden in the health care system associated with preeclampsia and its complications. Preeclampsia is divided into two different types. Early onset preeclampsia develops before 34 weeks of gestation, and late onset develops at or after 34 weeks of gestation. Different genetic and environmental factors, prognosis, heritability, biochemical and clinical features are associated with early and late onset preeclampsia. Prevalence of preeclampsia greatly varies all over the world and is dependent on ethnicity of the population and geographic region. To authors best knowledge, no published data on preeclampsia exist in Qatar. In this study, we are reporting the incidence of preeclampsia in Qatar. The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence and risk factors of both early onset and late onset preeclampsia in Qatar. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using data from the hospital record of Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), from May 2014-May 2016. Data collection tool, which was approved by HMC, was a researcher made extraction sheet that included information such as blood pressure during admission, socio demographic characteristics, delivery mode, and new born details. A total of 1929 patients’ files were identified by the hospital information management when they apply codes of preeclampsia. Out of 1929 files, 878 had significant gestational hypertension without proteinuria, 365 had preeclampsia, 364 had severe preeclampsia, and 188 had preexisting hypertension with superimposed proteinuria. In this study, 78% of the data was obtained by hospital electronic system (Cerner) and the remaining 22% was from patient’s paper records. We have gone through detail data extraction from 560 files. Initial data analysis has revealed that 15.02% of pregnancies were complicated with preeclampsia from May 2014-May 2016. We have analyzed difference in the two different disease entities in the ethnicity, maternal age, severity of hypertension, mode of delivery and infant birth weight. We have identified promising differences in the risk factors of early onset and late onset preeclampsia. The data from clinical findings of preeclampsia will contribute to increased knowledge about two different disease entities, their etiology, and similarities/differences. The findings of this study can also be used in predicting health challenges, improving health care system, setting up guidelines, and providing the best care for women suffering from preeclampsia.

Keywords: Maternal, Risk Factors, incidence, preeclampsia

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4 Reducing the Incidence of Hyperphosphatemia in Patients Receiving Dialysis

Authors: Tsai Su Hui


Background: Hyperphosphatemia in patients receiving dialysis can cause hyperparathyroidism, which can lead to renal osteodystrophy, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Data showed that 26% of patients receiving dialysis had blood phosphate levels of >6.0 mg/dl at this unit from January to March 2017, higher than the Taiwan Society of Nephrology evaluation criteria of < 20%. After analysis, possible reasons included: 1. Incomprehensive education for nurse and lack of relevant training. 2. Insufficient assistive aids for nursing health education instruction. 3. Patients were unsure which foods are high or low in phosphate. 4. Patients did not have habits of taking medicine with them and how to correctly administer the medication. Purpose: To reduce the percentage of patients receiving dialysis with blood phosphate levels of >6.0 mg/dl to less than 20% at this unit. Method: (1) Improve understanding of hyperphosphatemia and food for patients receiving dialysis and their families, (2) Acquire more nursing instruction assistive aids and improve knowledge of hyperphosphatemia for nurse. Results: After implementing the project, the percentage of patients receiving dialysis with blood phosphate levels of >6.0 mg/dl decreased from 26.0% to 18.8% at this unit. By implementing the project, the professional skills of nurse improved, blood phosphate levels of patients receiving dialysis were reduced, and the quality of care for patients receiving dialysis at this unit was enhanced.

Keywords: hemodialysis, incidence, hyperphosphatemia, reducing

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3 Influence of Variety, Season and Location on the Distribution of Botryodiplodia Theobromae Associated with the Coconut Fruit Rot Disease

Authors: O. E. Ekhorutomwen, M. E. Udoh, D. E. Esiegbuya


Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an important economic crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Just like other fruits, the pre and post-harvest diseases are major problems encountered by coconut farmers in their plantations. Botryodiplodia theobromae is a pathogen that has been established to be responsible for pre and post-harvest coconut fruit rot disease. In this study, an extensive survey on pre-harvest fruit rot disease of coconut was conducted between July 2017 and June 2019 in order to assess the incidence and distribution of the fruit rot disease across growing seasons in 2 major coconut production areas in Nigeria, precisely Badagry and Benin City. Fruit rot disease incidence was recorded weekly from green dwarf (GD), yellow dwarf (YD), red dwarf (RD), and orange dwarf (OD) coconut in both locations in the coconut production fields. A total of 2158 (between July 2018 to June 2019) and 1171 (between July 2017 to June 2018) coconut fruits from 87 coconut palms randomly selected were examined for this study. Laboratory examination of the infected fruits revealed the presence of Botryodiplodia theobromae. In this study, it was observed that the relative disease incidence and distribution of fruit rot in each sampling location significantly explained the proportion of disease incidence in coconut fruit varieties across the growing seasons. The percentage disease incidence (PDI) of the fruit rot peak in the 2nd and 3rd quarter in both locations and years, was higher in Badagry than Benin City. Botryodiplodia theobromae fruit rot disease show a high percentage occurrence in green dwarf coconut compared to the other coconut varieties in both locations. The incidence and relative abundance of Botryodiplodia theobromae associated with fruit rot disease appear to be influenced by varieties, season, and location in coconut production areas.

Keywords: Distribution, incidence, coconut, varieties, seasons, Botryodiplodia theobromae, rot

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2 Estimating the Timing Interval for Malarial Indoor Residual Spraying: A Modelling Approach

Authors: Levicatus Mugenyi, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Niel Hens, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey


Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduces vector densities and malaria transmission, however, the most effective spraying intervals for IRS have not been well established. We aim to estimate the optimal timing interval for IRS using a modeling approach. Methods: We use a generalized additive model to estimate the optimal timing interval for IRS using the predicted malaria incidence. The model is applied to post IRS cohort clinical data from children aged 0.5–10 years in selected households in Tororo, historically a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda. Six rounds of IRS were implemented in Tororo during the study period (3 rounds with bendiocarb: December 2014 to December 2015, and 3 rounds with actellic: June 2016 to July 2018). Results: Monthly incidence of malaria from October 2014 to February 2019 decreased from 3.25 to 0.0 per person-years in the children under 5 years, and 1.57 to 0.0 for 5-10 year-olds. The optimal time interval for IRS differed between bendiocarb and actellic and by IRS round. It was estimated to be 17 and 40 weeks after the first round of bendiocarb and actellic, respectively. After the third round of actellic, 36 weeks was estimated to be optimal. However, we could not estimate from the data the optimal time after the second and third rounds of bendiocarb and after the second round of actellic. Conclusion: We conclude that to sustain the effect of IRS in a high-medium transmission setting, the second rounds of bendiocarb need to be applied roughly 17 weeks and actellic 40 weeks after the first round, and the timing differs for subsequent rounds. The amount of rainfall did not influence the trend in malaria incidence after IRS, as well as the IRS timing intervals. Our results suggest that shorter intervals for the IRS application can be more effective compared to the current practice, which is about 24 weeks for bendiocarb and 48 weeks for actellic. However, when considering our findings, one should account for the cost and drug resistance associated with IRS. We also recommend that the timing and incidence should be monitored in the future to improve these estimates.

Keywords: Malaria, incidence, generalized additive model, indoor residual spraying

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1 Climate Impact on Spider Mite (Tetranychus Sp. Koch) Infesting Som Plant Leaves (Machilus Bombycina King) and Their Sustainable Management

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh


Som plant (Machilus bombycina King) is an important plant in agroforestry system. It is cultivated in north -east part of India. It is cultivated in agricultural land by the marginal farmers for multi-storeyed cultivation with intercropping. Localized cottage industries are involved with this plant like sericulture industry (muga silk worm cultivation). Clothes are produced from this sericulture industry. Leaves of som plants are major food of muga silk worm ( Antherea assama ). Nutritional value of leaves plays an important role in the larval growth and silk productivity. The plant also has timber value. The plant is susceptible to mite pest (Tetranychus sp.) causes heavy damage to tender leaves. Lower population was recorded during 7th to 38th standard week, during 3rd week of February to 4th week of September and higher population was during 46th to 51st standard week, during 3rd week of November to 3rd week of December and peak population (6.06/3 leaves) was recorded on 46th standard week that is on 3rd week of November. Correlation studies revealed that mite population had a significant negative correlation with temperature and non-significant positive correlation with relative humidity. This indicates that activity of mites population increase with the rise of relative humidity and decrease with the rise of temperature. Tobacco leaf extracts was found most effective against mite providing 40.51% suppression, closely followed by extracts of Spilanthes (39.06% suppression). Extracts of Garlic and extracts of Polygonum plant gave moderate results, recording about 38.10% and 37.78% mite suppression respectively. The polygonum (Polygonum hydropiper) plant (floral parts), pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) leaves, garlic (Allium sativum), spilanthes (Spilanthes paniculata) (floral parts) were extracted in methanol. Synthetic insecticides contaminate plant leaves with the toxic chemicals. Plant extracts are of biological origin having low or no hazardous effect on health and environment and so can be incorporated in organic cultivation.

Keywords: Organic Cultivation, incidence, abiotic factors, botanical extracts, silk industry

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