Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

In vitro Related Abstracts

30 Callus Induction of Segmented Corm Explant of Gladiolus cv. White Prosperity and Regeneration in vitro Condition

Authors: M. Sepahvand, M. Khorushy


Gladiolus, being a cormous plant, it is principally propagated by the natural multiplication of new corms and cormels. In order to obtain callus from segmented corm which was obtained from in vitro culture, callus formation media were MS media supplemented with 4 levels of hormones such as 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, 0.5 mg l-1 NAA + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP, 1.0 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, and 0.5 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP. The results showed that the most weight of callus (2.28 g) was produced in MS callus formation media which were supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP. This experiment was carried out in randomized completely design with 3 replications and each treatment with six jars. In second experiment for regeneration of callus, a factorial experiment in the form of randomized complete design with 12 treatments and 3 replications and each replication with six jars was carried out. The treatments consisted of callus culture media in 4 levels and regeneration culture media in 3 levels [control (no PGRs), MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA, and MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.05 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA]. The results showed that the best regeneration media were MS media which were supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin. + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA that had the highest number of shoots (7/83 N), and shoot length (7/3 cm).

Keywords: Regeneration, In vitro, Segmented corm explant, callus, gladiolus cv. white prosperity

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29 In vitro Culture of Flowers of Maerua crassiflia

Authors: Abobkar Abrahem Mohamed Saad, Asma Abud Alsalam


Closed flowers of Maerua crassifolia were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyl amino purine BA (1.0 mg/l). The colour of flowers changed from green to pale brown after one week. They opened after two weeks. The anthers became clear which was observed after 3 weeks. Calluses are induced from sepals after one month. 19 anthers were observed with average length of 1.9 cm. The amount of calluses increased after 40 days. These calluses were fragmented and subcultured on MS+ 2-4D (1.0 mg/l) in order to increase growth.

Keywords: Culture, In vitro, Flowers, Maerua

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28 In vitro and invivo Antioxidant Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N.Ukwuani, A. K. Abdulfatah


G. crenata is used locally for the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves of G. crenata were assessed. The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An in vitro quantitative analysis of phenols, flavonoids and tannins respectively were (164±1.20, 199±0.88 and 88.67±0.88 mg/100g FW). In vivo studies of hydromethanolic extract demonstrated a dose dependent increase in hepatic superoxide dismutase (1.14±0.14, 2.13±0.11, 2.55±0.11 U/mg Protein) with improvement in hepatic glutathione (6.98±0.42, 8.91±0.37, 11.07±0.46 µM/mg Protein) and Catalase (4.47±0.05, 6.24±0.02, 7.17±0.04 U/mg Protein) and Total protein (6.18±0.08, 6.69±0.18, 7.27±0.16 mg/ml) respectively at 100-300mg/kg body weight Grewia crenata leaves when compared to the control and standard drug. It can be concluded from the present findings of that G. crenata leaves possess antioxidant potential.

Keywords: in vivo, In vitro, antioxidant, Grewia crenata, hydromethanolic extract

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27 A Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of in vivo and in vitro Raised Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn.

Authors: Gayatri Nahak, Satyajit Kanungo, Rajani Kanta Sahu


Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn. (Apocynaceae) is a typical Indian medicinal plant popularly known as “Indrajav”. Traditionally the plant has been considered a popular remedy for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea, intestinal worms and the seeds of this plant are also used as an anti-diabetic remedy. In the present study axillary shoot multiplication, callus induction and shoot regeneration from callus culture were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Then in vivo and in vitro grown healthy plants were selected for study of antioxidant activity through DPPH and OH methods. Significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenol contents were observed in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants. The findings indicated the greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown in in vitro raised plant in comparison to in vivo plants which showed the ability to utilize tissue culture techniques towards development of desired bioactive metabolites from in vitro culture as an alternative way to avoid using endangered plants in pharmaceutical purposes.

Keywords: in vivo, In vitro, antioxidant activity, Holarrhena antidysenterica

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26 Comparative in silico and in vitro Study of N-(1-Methyl-2-Oxo-2-N-Methyl Anilino-Ethyl) Benzene Sulfonamide and Its Analogues as an Anticancer Agent

Authors: Pamita Awasthi, Kirna, Shilpa Dogra, Manu Vatsal, Ritu Barthwal


Doxorubicin, also known as adriamycin, is an anthracycline class of drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute leukemias, breast cancer, lung cancer, endometrium cancer and ovary cancers. It functions via intercalating DNA and ultimately killing cancer cells. The major side effects of doxorubicin are hair loss, myelosuppression, nausea & vomiting, oesophagitis, diarrhoea, heart damage and liver dysfunction. The minor modifications in the structure of compound exhibit large variation in the biological activity, has prompted us to carry out the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives. Sulfonamide is an important feature with broad spectrum of biological activity such as antiviral, antifungal, diuretics, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Structure of the synthesized compound N-(1-methyl-2-oxo-2-N-methyl anilino-ethyl)benzene sulfonamide confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR),13C NMR, Mass and FTIR spectroscopic tools to assure the position of all protons and hence stereochemistry of the molecule. Further we have reported the binding potential of synthesized sulfonamide analogues in comparison to doxorubicin drug using Auto Dock 4.2 software. Computational binding energy (B.E.) and inhibitory constant (Ki) has been evaluated for the synthesized compound in comparison of doxorubicin against Poly (dA-dT).Poly (dA-dT) and Poly (dG-dC).Poly (dG-dC) sequences. The in vitro cytotoxic study against human breast cancer cell lines confirms the better anticancer activity of the synthesized compound over currently in use anticancer drug doxorubicin. The IC50 value of the synthesized compound is 7.12 µM where as for doxorubicin is 7.2 µ.

Keywords: In vitro, doxorubicin, auto dock, in silco

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25 Morphological Interaction of Porcine Oocyte and Cumulus Cells Study on in vitro Oocyte Maturation Using Electron Microscopy

Authors: M. Areekijseree, M. Pumipaiboon, T. Chuen-Im, W. Pongsawat, C. Thepsithar, S. Sengsai


Morphological interaction of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (pCOCs) was investigated on in vitro condition using electron microscope (SEM and TEM). The totals of 1,923 oocytes were round in shape, surrounded by zona pellucida with layer of cumulus cells ranging between 59.29-202.14 µm in size. They were classified into intact-, multi-, partial cumulus cell layer oocyte, and completely denuded oocyte, at the percentage composition of 22.80% 32.70%, 18.60%, and 25.90 % respectively. The pCOCs classified as intact- and multi cumulus cell layer oocytes were further culturing at 37°C with 5% CO2, 95% air atmosphere and high humidity for 44 h in M199 with Earle’s salts supplemented with 10% HTFCS, 2.2 mg/mL NaHCO3, 1 M Hepes, 0.25 mM pyruvate, 15 µg/mL porcine follicle-stimulating hormone, 1 µg/mL LH, 1µg/mL estradiol with ethanol, and 50 µg/mL gentamycin sulfate. On electron microscope study, cumulus cells were found to stick their processes to secrete substance from the sac-shape end into zona pellucida of the oocyte and also communicated with the neighboring cells through their microvilli on the beginning of incubation period. It is believed that the cumulus cells communicate with the oocyte by inserting the microvilli through this gap and embedded in the oocyte cytoplasm before secreting substance, through the sac-shape end of the microvilli, to inhibit primary oocyte development at the prophase I. Morphological changes of the complexes were observed after culturing for 24-44 h. One hundred percentages of the cumulus layers were expanded and cumulus cells were peeling off from the oocyte surface. In addition, the round-shape cumulus cells transformed themselves into either an elongate shape or a columnar shape, and no communication between cumulus neighboring cells. After 44 h of incubation time, diameter of oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells was larger than 0 h incubation. The effect of hormones in culture medium is exerted by their receptors present in porcine oocyte. It is likely that all morphological changes of the complexes after hormone treatment were to allow maturation of the oocyte. This study demonstrated that the association of hormones in M199 could promote porcine follicle activation in 44 h in vitro condition. This culture system should be useful for studying the regulation of early follicular growth and development, especially because these follicles represent a large source of oocytes that could be used in vitro for cell technology.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, In vitro, cumulus cells, porcine oocyte

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24 Nanoparticle Induced Neurotoxicity Mediated by Mitochondria

Authors: Nandini Nalika, Suhel Parvez


Nanotechnology has emerged to play a vital role in developing all through the industrial world with an immense production of nanomaterials including nanoparticles (NPs). Many toxicological studies have confirmed that due to unique small size and physico-chemical properties of NPs (1-100nm), they can be potentially hazardous. Metallic NPs of small size have been shown to induce higher levels of cellular oxidative stress and can easily pass through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and significantly accumulate in brain. With the wide applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) in day-to-day life in form of cosmetics, paints, sterilisation and so on, there is growing concern regarding the deleterious effects of TNPs on central nervous system and mitochondria appear to be important cellular organelles targeted to the pro-oxidative effects of NPs and an important source that contribute significantly for the production of reactive oxygen species after some toxicity or an injury. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of TNPs in anatase form with different concentrations (5-50 µg/ml) following with various oxidative stress markers in isolated brain mitochondria as an in vitro model. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the different oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation as well as the protein carbonyl content which was found to be significantly increased. Reduced glutathione content and major glutathione metabolizing enzymes were also modulated signifying the role of glutathione redox cycle in the pathophysiology of TNPs. The study also includes the mitochondrial enzymes (Complex 1, Complex II, complex IV, Complex V ) and the enzymes showed toxicity in a relatively short time due to the effect of TNPs. The study provide a range of concentration that were toxic to the neuronal cells and data pointing to a general toxicity in brain mitochondria by TNPs, therefore, it is in need to consider the proper utilization of NPs in the environment.

Keywords: Brain, Nanoparticles, Mitochondria, In vitro

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23 Evaluation of Naringenin Role in Inhibiton of Lung Tumor Progression in Mice

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingamjagannathan, M. N. Sathishkumar, K. S. Lakhsmi, D. Satheeshkumar, Srividyaammayappanrajam


Background:Naringenin, aglycone flavonoid possess certain activities like anti-oxidant, anti-estrogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-obesity,anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and also have anti-cancer characteristics like carcinogenic inactivation, cell cycle arrest, anti-proliferation, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis and enhances anti-oxidant activity. Methodology:The inhibitory effect of Naringenin in lung tumor progression estimated with adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines (in vitro) and C57BL/6 mice injected with 5 X 106A549 cell lines (in vivo) in a tri-dose manner (Naringenin 100mg/kg,150mg/kg, and 200mg/kg) compared with standard chemotherapy drug cisplatin (7mg/kg). Results:The results of the present study revealed a dose-dependent activity in Naringenin and combination with cisplatin at a higher dose which showed decreased tumor progression in mice. In vitro studies carried out for estimation of cell survival and Nitric Oxide (NO) level, shows dose dependent action of Naringenin with IC50 value of 42µg/ml. In vivo studies were carried out in C57BL/6 mice. Naringenin satisfied the condition of an anti-cancer molecule with its characteristics in fragmentation assay, Zymography assay, anti-oxidant, and myeloperoxidase studies, than cisplatin which failed in anti-oxidant and myeloperoxidase effect. Both in vitro and in vivo establishes dose dependent decrease in NO levels. But whereas, Naringenin showed adverse results in Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic levels with increase in dose levels. Conclusion:From the present study, Naringenin could suppress the lung tumor progression when given individually and also in combinatorial with standard chemotherapy drug.

Keywords: In vitro, cell line, anticancer, naringenin

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22 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil, O. Kahraman


In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: standardization, In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test

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21 Induction of Callus and Expression of Compounds in Capsicum Frutescens Supplemented with of 2, 4-D

Authors: Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Muhammad Aiman Ramli


Cili padi or Capsicum frutescens is one of capsicum species from nightshade family, Solanaceae. It is famous in Malaysia and is widely used as a food ingredient. Capsicum frutescens also possess vast medicinal properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the most optimum 2,4-D hormone concentration for callus induction from stem explants C. frutescens and the effects of different 2,4-D concentrations on expression of compounds from C. frutescens. Seeds were cultured on MS media without hormones (MS basal media) to yield aseptic seedlings of this species, which were then used to supply explant source for subsequent tissue culture experiments. Stem explants were excised from aseptic seedlings and cultured on MS media supplemented with various concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L) of 2,4-D to induce formation of callus. Fresh weight, dry weight and callus growth percentage in all samples were recorded. The highest mean of dry weight was observed in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, where 0.4499 ± 0.106 g of callus was produced. The highest percentage of callus growth (16.4%) was also observed in cultures supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. The callus samples were also subjected to HPLC-MS to evaluate the effect of hormone concentration on expression of bio active compounds in different samples. Results showed that caffeoylferuloylquinic acids were present in all samples, but was most abundant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 & 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Interestingly, there was an unknown compound observed to be highly expressed in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, but its presence was less significant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Furthermore, there was also a compound identified as octadecadienoic acid, which was uniquely expressed in callus supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, but absent in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D. The results obtained in this study indicated that plant growth regulators played a role in expression of secondary metabolites in plants. The increase or decrease of these growth regulators may have triggered a change in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, thus causing differential expression of compounds in this plant.

Keywords: In vitro, callus, secondary metabolite

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20 Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity in in vivo and in vitro Samples of Purple Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L).

Authors: Rosna Mat Taha, Sakinah Abdullah


Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite which result in oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. Natural antioxidant are in high demand because of their potential in health promotion and disease prevention and their improved safety and consumer acceptability. Plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. Dioscorea alata L. known as 'ubi badak' in Malaysia were well known for their antioxidant content, but this plant was seasonal. Thus, tissue culture technique was used to mass propagate this plant. In the present work, a comparative study between in vitro (from tissue culture) and in vivo (from intact plant) samples of Dioscorea alata L. for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenil -1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were carried out. All samples had better radical scavenging activity but in vivo samples had the strongest radical scavenging activity compared to in vitro samples. Furthermore, tubers from in vivo samples showed the greatest free radical scavenging effect and comparatively greater phenolic content than in vitro samples.

Keywords: Tissue Culture, in vivo, In vitro, DPPH, antioxidant, Dioscorea alata

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19 Dynamics of Antioxidant and Anti-Radical Activity of the Extracts of Certain Plants of Kazakhstan

Authors: A. Kazbekova, A. Kudaibergenov, G. Atazhanova, S. Adekenov


In recent years, it achieved some progress such a direction as to study the possibility of correlation between different types of biological activity. In particular, in our work, we consider questions such as: the impact of the qualitative composition of total substances in the example of plant extracts on antioxidant and antiradical activity, the presents of correlation between these types of activity, etc. It is known that there is a relationship between the values of optical density of working solutions of extracts and corresponding bioactivity in vitro, in particular, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we have identified that among some studied species of wormwood (Artemisia viridis Wild, Artemisia jacutica Drob, Artemisia annua L, Artemisia siversiana Wild, Artemisia adamsii Bess, Artemisia tianschanica, Artemisia obtusiloba Ledeb., Artemisia heptopotamica), as well as extracts of Inula caspica, Аjania tenuifolia, Abies sibirica, Galatella songorica, Mentha asiatica and Thymus mugodzharicus it was identified that the highest content of polyphenol compounds is in Thymus mugodzharicus. At the same time, we determined the antioxidant and antiradical activity, which was the highest for the Thymus mugodzharicus. Butylhydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid were used as comparison substances. Also, it was established that antioxidant and anti-radical activities depend on the concentration of the of all investigated samples. Based on obtained data, we believe that the extract of Thymus mugodzharicus can be recommended for further study on the antioxidant and antiradical activity in vivo, as well as the opportunity of this sample to demonstrate hepatoprotective effect. The study was sponsored by SANTO academic program.

Keywords: in vivo, In vitro, hepatoprotective effect, antioxidant

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18 In vitro Antioxidant Scavenging of Root Fraction of Bryonia dioica

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Yamani Amal, Lazaae Jamila


Plants and their active agents – especially polyphenols – may have a principal role in the treatment of diseases that result from the defect of physiological antioxidant mechanisms. Bryonia dioica is well known in Moroccan traditional medicine for alleviatin pain and traiting many diseases. We have focused on plant belonging to Cucurbitaceae Family from around the world to understand their therapeutic uses and their potential antioxidant activities Although several biological activities and Chemical composition of Bryonia dioica are well characterized, no direct, in vitro study, of this natural product examined the antioxydant effect of the extract from the roots of Bryonia dioica. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro antioxidant activity of the B.dioica root, using antioxidant analysis methods based on determination of Hydroxyradical Scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging, Hydrogenperoxide Scavenging and Nitric Oxide Scavenging. In this study, it was demonstrated, that, B. dioica root extract showed excellent antioxidant properties. This investigation showed that the roots of this plant contain potent natural scavengers R. It may represent an interesting source of antioxidant phenolics that may favour the extension of their cultivation as new source of natural antioxidants in addition to containing high quality proteins for human or animal nutrition. Therefore, there is need for all stakeholders on the Morocco to strive towards taking advantage of our enormous biodiversity resources to free our people from diseases, abject poverty and stagnation.

Keywords: In vitro, Morocco, bryoniadioica, antioxydant

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17 Feed Value of Selected Nigerian Browse Plants: Chemical Composition and in vitro Digestibility

Authors: Isaac Samuel


A study was conducted to determine the in-vitro degradation of selected Nigerian browse plants consumed by small ruminants on free range in northern guinea savannah region of Nigeria using in vitro gas production, proximate composition, fibre components, methane gas production and dry matter degradation as tools. The leaves samples of the selected browse plants were collected, processed and incubated using in vitro gas dry matter degradation techniques. Results obtained showed variation in the rate of degradation. The result obtained from chemical analysis showed that the CP content of A. occidentale (26.49%) was higher than F. thonningi (23.58%), M. indica (20.58%) and T. catappa (18.61%). Both ADF and NDF of A. occidentale (40.00 and 50.00) were as well higher than F. thonningi (20.00 and 40.00), M. indica (20.00 and 40.00) and T.catappa (20.00 and 42.00). Results from in vitro gas production however showed that T. catappa (23.67ml/DM) has a significantly higher (p<0.05) value than F.thonningi (20.67ml/DM), A. occidentale (16.67ml/DM), and M. indica(14.00ml/DM) at 72 hours of incubation. Methane gas production and in vitro gas production can be used to predict dry matter degradation and nutritive value of feedstuff for small ruminants. A. occidentale with the least methane gas production and highest crude protein (CP) content might have the most nutritive value among the browse plants investigated.

Keywords: In vitro, degradation, browse, gas production

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16 The Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Brown Iranian Propolis Extracts on Ruminal Nitrogen Ammonia Concentration in in Vitro

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Shahab Ehtesham, Mahdi Paktinat


The goal of this study is to determine the chemical compounds of brown Iranian propolis(BIP) extracts and to show flavonoids and phenol effects on nitrogen ammonia (NH3-N) in in vitro. Experimental samples were including two diets with different concentrate: forage ratio (80:20 and 60:40) with eight treatments (1:Control diet 60:40 without BIP,2: 60:40 diet with 25% BIP, 3:60:40 diet with 50% BIP, 4: 60:40 diet with 75% BIP,5: Control diet 80:20 without BIP,6: 80:20 diet with 25% BIP,7: 80:20 diet with 50% BIP and 8: 80:20 diet with 75% BIP) and eight repeats. The trial was analyzed considering a completely randomized design by the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatment were compared by Tukey test. The results of this study showed that in food with 80:20 (concentrate: forage), adding BIP 25% did not statistically change NH3-N (p > 0.05) compared to the control treatment but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the effect of BIP 50% on NH3-N compared to the BIP 25% and the control. In diet with 60:40 (concentrate: forage), there was no significant difference between the effect of BIP 25% on NH3-N and the control, nor was there a significant difference between the effect of BIP 50% and 75%, while a significant difference (p < 0.05) between BIP 50% and 75% and the rest was observed. The propolis extract makes nitrogen ammonia decrease. This may help the nitrogen retain longer in ruminants.

Keywords: In vitro, ruminant, brown Iranian propolis, nitrogen ammonia

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15 Anatomy Study of Seeds of Calligonium comosum in Vitro

Authors: Abobkar Saad, Qasmia Abdalla, Fatma Emhemed


Eighty-four of Calligonum comosum were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium on every combination supplemented with different concentrations of IAA, BA, Zeatin, and GA3. When 84 seeds were inoculated on MS free hormones, different types of cells contain dense cytoplasm were observed ater 23 days and long thick wall cells arranged in layers. In case of using MS +BA(0.5mg/L), different types and shapes of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm were detected after four weeks. In the case of using MS + BA(1mg/L) + GA3 (3mg/L), thick wall parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 19 days, but many layers of parenchyma cells contain dense cytoplasm after 28 days. When MS +kin(0.5mg/L) a thick cells wall as Sclereids were observed after 29 days. No any response were observed on Zeatin (0.5, 1 mg/L).

Keywords: Anatomy, In vitro, Calligonum comosum, aeeds

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14 In vitro Larvicidal Activity of Varying Concentrations of Madre De Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) Concentrated Crude Ethanolic Extract against Larvae of Horn Fly (Haematobia irritans)

Authors: Antonio B.Tangayan Jr., Hershey P. Mondejar, Pet Roey Pascual, Zeam Voltaire E. Amper


A study on in vitro larvicidal acitivity of different levels of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) concentrated crude ethanolic extract (CCEE) against horn fly larvae (Haematobia irritans) was conducted. The air-dried leaves of Gliricidia sepium were infused in a 1:3 ratio (w/v) using ethanol as solvent and concentrated in a rotary evaporator (60°C). A total of 120 larvae of Haematobia irritans were exposed in various concentration: 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ppm. Based on the result after 5 hours of exposure, CCE G. sepium extract at 200 ppm showed less effect with 30% mortality compared to 400 ppm, 800 ppm and 1000 ppm with 70%, 83%, and 100% mortality, respectively. Findings also revealed that CCE of G. sepium extract at 1000 ppm, 800 ppm, and commercial larvicide were comparable in causing mortality of H. irritans larvae from the first hour up to the fifth hours of exposure. However, on the fifth hour, 400 ppm was also found to be effective. This suggests that the higher the concentration of CCE G. sepium extract and the longer the time of exposure, the higher is the percentage mortality of the larvae. Thus, CCE G. sepium extract can be used as an alternative for commercial larvicide.

Keywords: In vitro, larvicidal, horn fly, Madre de Cacao

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13 In vitro Culture of Stem Node Segments of Maerua crassifolia

Authors: Abobaker Abrahem M. Saad, Asma Abudasalam


The stem node segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. In the case of using MS+ Zeatin (1 mg/l), small shoot buds were formed directly in 70% of explants after 15 days, their length range between 0.1 to 0.3 cm after two weeks and reached 0.3 cm in length and three shoots in numbers after 4 weeks. When those small shoots were sub cultured on the same medium, they increased in length, number and reached 0.4 cm with 4 shoots, 0.4 cm with 5 shoots after six, eight and ten weeks respectively. In the case of using MS free hormones, MS+IAA (0.2mg/l) +BA (0.5mg/l), MS + kin(0.5mg/l), MS + kin (3mg/l) and MS +NAA (3mg/l) +BA (1mg/l), no sign of responses were noticed and only change in color in some cases. Different types of parenchyma cells and many layers of thick wall sclerenchyma cells were observed on MS+BA (1mg/l).

Keywords: In vitro, Maerua, buds, stem node, shoots

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12 Formulation of Sun Screen Cream and Sun Protecting Factor Activity from Standardized–Partition Compound of Mahkota Dewa Leaf (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.)

Authors: Abdul Karim Zulkarnain, Marchaban, Subagus Wahyono, Ratna Asmah Susidarti


Mahkota Dewa contains phalerin which has activity as sun screen. In this study, 13 formulations of cream oil in water (o/w) were prepared and tested for their physical characteristics. The physical characteristics were then used for determining the optimum formula. This study aimed to explore the physical stability of optimized formulation of cream, its sun protecting factor (SPF) values using in vitro and in vivo tests. The optimum formula of o/w cream were prepared based on Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) method using software Design Expert®. The formulation of o/w cream were varied based on the proportion of cetyl alcohol, mineral oil and tween 80. The difference of physical characteristic of optimum and predicted formula was tested using t-test with significant level of 95%. The optimum formula of o/w cream was the formula which consists of cetyl alcohol 9.71%, mineral oil, 29%, and tween 80 3.29. Based on t-test, there was no significant difference of physical characteristics of optimum and predicted formulation. Viscosity, spread power, adhesive power, and separation volume ratio of o/w at week 0-4 were relatively stable. The o/w creams were relatively stable at extreme temperature. The o/w creams from mahkota dewa, phalerin, and benzophenone have SPF values of 21.32, 33.12, and 42.49, respectively. The formulas did not irritate the skin based on in vivo test.

Keywords: Stability, in vivo, In vitro, cream

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11 In vitro Evaluation of Capsaicin Patches for Transdermal Drug Delivery

Authors: Berina Pilipović, Saša Pilipović, Alija Uzunovic, Aida Sapcanin, Zahida Ademovic


Capsaicin is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from capsicum fruit extracts of different of Capsicum species. It has been employed topically to treat many diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cancer pain and nerve pain in diabetes. The high degree of pre-systemic metabolism of intragastrical capsaicin and the short half-life of capsaicin by intravenous administration made topical application of capsaicin advantageous. In this study, we have evaluated differences in the dissolution characteristics of capsaicin patch 11 mg (purchased from market) at different dissolution rotation speed. The proposed patch area is 308 cm2 (22 cm x 14 cm; it contains 36 µg of capsaicin per square centimeter of adhesive). USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) is used for transdermal patch testing. The dissolution study was conducted using USP apparatus 5 (n=6), ERWEKA DT800 dissolution tester (paddle-type) with addition of a disc. The fabricated patch of 308 cm2 is to be cut into 9 cm2 was placed against a disc (delivery side up) retained with the stainless-steel screen and exposed to 500 mL of phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. All dissolution studies were carried out at 32 ± 0.5 °C and different rotation speed (50± 5; 100± 5 and 150± 5 rpm). 5 ml aliquots of samples were withdrawn at various time intervals (1, 4, 8 and 12 hours) and replaced with 5 ml of dissolution medium. Withdrawn were appropriately diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). A Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (RP-LC) method has been developed, optimized and validated for the separation and quantitation of capsaicin in a transdermal patch. The method uses a ProntoSIL 120-3-C18 AQ 125 x 4,0 mm (3 μm) column maintained at 600C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: water (50:50 v/v), the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, the injection volume 10 μL and the detection wavelength 222 nm. The used RP-LC method is simple, sensitive and accurate and can be applied for fast (total chromatographic run time was 4.0 minutes) and simultaneous analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in a transdermal patch. According to the results obtained in this study, we can conclude that the relative difference of dissolution rate of capsaicin after 12 hours was elevated by increase of dissolution rotation speed (100 rpm vs 50 rpm: 84.9± 11.3% and 150 rpm vs 100 rpm: 39.8± 8.3%). Although several apparatus and procedures (USP apparatus 5, 6, 7 and a paddle over extraction cell method) have been used to study in vitro release characteristics of transdermal patches, USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) could be considered as a discriminatory test. would be able to point out the differences in the dissolution rate of capsaicin at different rotation speed.

Keywords: In vitro, patch, Capsaicin, transdermal, RP-LC

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10 Paper-Based Detection Using Synthetic Gene Circuits

Authors: Vanessa Funk, Steven Blum, Stephanie Cole, Jorge Maciel, Matthew Lux


Paper-based synthetic gene circuits offer a new paradigm for programmable, fieldable biodetection. We demonstrate that by freeze-drying gene circuits with in vitro expression machinery, we can use complimentary RNA sequences to trigger colorimetric changes upon rehydration. We have successfully utilized both green fluorescent protein and luciferase-based reporters for easy visualization purposes in solution. Through several efforts, we are aiming to use this new platform technology to address a variety of needs in portable detection by demonstrating several more expression and reporter systems for detection functions on paper. In addition to RNA-based biodetection, we are exploring the use of various mechanisms that cells use to respond to environmental conditions to move towards all-hazards detection. Examples include explosives, heavy metals for water quality, and toxic chemicals.

Keywords: Detection, In vitro, cell-free lysates, gene circuits

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9 Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia

Authors: Rosa Suryantini, Reine Suci Wulandari


Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.

Keywords: In vitro, propagation, endophytic fungi, Albizia

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8 Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Vijay R. Patil, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, K. R. Mahadik


Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.

Keywords: Stability, In vitro, andrographolide, andrographis paniculata, gastric, Intestinal HPLC-PDA

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7 In vitro Effects of Porcine Follicular Fluid Proteins on Cell Culture Growth in Luteal Phase Porcine Oviductal Epithelial Cells

Authors: Supanyika Sengsai, Mayuree Pumipaiboon, Chanikarn Srinark, Mayuva Youngsabanant, Soratorn Kerdkriangkrai, Nongnuch Gumlungpat


The follicular fluid proteins of healthy medium size follicles (4-6 mm in diameters) and large size follicles (7-8 mm in diameter) of large white pig ovaries were collected by using sterile technique. They were used for testing the effect on primary in vitro cell culture growth of porcine oviductal epithelial cells (pOEC). Porcine oviductal epithelial cells of luteal phase was culture in M199 and added with 10% fetal calf serum 2.2 mg/mL, NaHCO₃, 0.25 mM pyruvate, 15 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL, gentamycin sulfate at high humidified atmosphere with 5% CO₂ in 95% air atmosphere at 37°C for 96 h before testing. The optimized concentration of pFF of two follicle sizes (at concentration of 2, 4, 20, 40, 200, 400, 500, and 600 µg proteins) in culture medium was observed for 24 h using MTT assay. Results were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA in SPSS statistic. Moreover, pOEC was also studied in morphological characteristic on long-term culture. The results of long-term study revealed that pOEC showed 70-80 percentage of healthy morphology on epithelial-like character and contained 30 percentage of an elongated shape (fibroblast-like morphology) at 4 weeks of culture time. MTT assay reviewed an increase in the percentage of viability of pOEC in 2 treated of follicular fluid groups. Two treatment concentration groups were higher than control group (p < 0.05) but not in positive control group. Interestingly, at 200 µg protein of 2 treated follicular fluid groups were reached the highest cell viability which is higher than a positive control and it is significantly different form control group (P < 0.05). These cells are developed and had fibroblast elongate shape which is longer than the cells in control group and positive control group. This report implies that pFF of medium follicle size at 200 µg proteins and large follicle size at 200 and 500 µg proteins could be optimized concentration for using as a supplement in culture medium to promote cell growth and development instead of growth hormone from fetal calf serum. It could be applied in cell biotechnology researches. Acknowledgements: The project was funded by a grant from Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute (SURDI) and Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand.

Keywords: In vitro, MTT, porcine follicular fluid protein (pFF), porcine oviductal epithelial cells (pOEC)

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6 In vitro Establishment and Characterization of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Derived Cancer Stem-Like Cells

Authors: Varsha Salian, Shama Rao, N. Narendra, B. Mohana Kumar


Evolving evidence proposes the existence of a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of undifferentiated, self-renewing cancer stem cells, responsible for exhibiting resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapy, recurrence, metastasis and heterogeneous tumor formation. Importantly, the mechanisms exploited by cancer stem cells to resist chemotherapy are very less understood. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most regularly diagnosed cancer types in India and is associated commonly with alcohol and tobacco use. Therefore, the isolation and in vitro characterization of cancer stem-like cells from patients with OSCC is a critical step to advance the understanding of the chemoresistance processes and for designing therapeutic strategies. With this, the present study aimed to establish and characterize cancer stem-like cells in vitro from OSCC. The primary cultures of cancer stem-like cell lines were established from the tissue biopsies of patients with clinical evidence of an ulceroproliferative lesion and histopathological confirmation of OSCC. The viability of cells assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay showed more than 95% at passage 1 (P1), P2 and P3. Replication rate was performed by plating cells in 12-well plate and counting them at various time points of culture. Cells had a more marked proliferative activity and the average doubling time was less than 20 hrs. After being cultured for 10 to 14 days, cancer stem-like cells gradually aggregated and formed sphere-like bodies. More spheroid bodies were observed when cultured in DMEM/F-12 under low serum conditions. Interestingly, cells with higher proliferative activity had a tendency to form more sphere-like bodies. Expression of specific markers, including membrane proteins or cell enzymes, such as CD24, CD29, CD44, CD133, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is being explored for further characterization of cancer stem-like cells. To summarize the findings, the establishment of OSCC derived cancer stem-like cells may provide scope for better understanding the cause for recurrence and metastasis in oral epithelial malignancies. Particularly, identification and characterization studies on cancer stem-like cells in Indian population seem to be lacking thus provoking the need for such studies in a population where alcohol consumption and tobacco chewing are major risk habits.

Keywords: Characterization, In vitro, oral squamous cell carcinoma, cancer stem-like cells

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5 Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Authors: Anderson Chidi Amadioha, Promise Chidi Kenkwo, A. A. Markson


Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.

Keywords: Pathogens, in vivo, Biopesticides, In vitro, cassava, Plant Extracts

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4 Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on in vitro Adventitious Shoot Regeneration of Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. Wettst.)

Authors: Muhammad Aasim, Mehmet Karataş, Fatih Erci, Şeyma Bakırcı, Ecenur Korkmaz, Burak Kahveci


Water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. Wettst.) is an important medicinal aquatic/semi aquatic plant native to India where it is used in traditional medicinal system. The plant contains bioactive compounds mainly Bacosides which are the main ingridient of commercial drug available as memory enhancer tonic. The local name of water hyssop is Brahmi and brahmi based drugs are available against for curing chronic diseases and disorders Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety, asthma, cancer, mental illness, respiratory ailments, and stomach ulcers. The plant is not a cultivated plant and collection of plant from nature make palnt threatened to endangered. On the other hand, low seed viability and availability make it difficult to propagate plant through traditional techniques. In recent years, plant tissue culture techniques have been employed to propagate plant for its conservation and production for continuous availability of secondary metabolites. On the other hand, application of nanoparticles has been reported for increasing biomass, in vitro regeneration and secondary metabolites production. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were applied at the rate of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm to Murashihe and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 3.0% sucrose and 0.7% agar. Leaf explants of water hyssop were cultured on AgNPs containing medium. Shoot induction from leaf explants were relatively slow compared to medium without AgNPs. Multiple shoot induction was recorded after 3-4 weeks of culture comapred to control that occured within 10 days. Regenerated shoots were rooted successfully on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA and acclimatized in the aquariums for further studies.

Keywords: Secondary Metabolites, Regeneration, In vitro, Silver Nanoparticles, Water hyssop

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3 Effect of Different Media and Mannitol Concentrations on Growth and Development of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. under Slow Growth Conditions

Authors: P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd, J. Linjikao


In vitro conservation of orchid germplasm provides an effective technique for ex situ conservation of orchid diversity. In this study, an efficient protocol for in vitro conservation of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. plantlet under slow growth conditions was investigated. Plantlets were cultured on different strength of Vacin and Went medium (½VW and ¼VW) supplemented with different concentrations of mannitol (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%), sucrose (0 and 3%) and 50 g/L potato extract, 150 mL/L coconut water. The cultures were incubated at 25±2 °C and maintained under 20 µmol/m2s light intensity for 24 weeks without subculture. At the end of preservation period, the plantlets were subcultured to fresh medium for growth recovery. The results found that the highest leaf number per plantlet could be observed on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol while the highest root number per plantlet was found on ½VW added with 3% sucrose without adding mannitol after 24 weeks of in vitro storage. The results showed that the maximum number of leaves (5.8 leaves) and roots (5.0 roots) of preserved plantlets were produced on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol. Therefore, ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol was the best minimum growth conditions for medium-term storage of V. lissochiloides plantlets.

Keywords: Germplasm, Preservation, In vitro, vandopsis

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2 Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold

Authors: Adil Elrayah, Jie Weng, Esra Suliman


The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.

Keywords: In vitro, hydroxyapatite, copper ions, mechanical property, fiber scaffold

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1 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Kashif Hussain


In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: In vitro, Eimeria, Vitis venifera, oocysts

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