Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

impulsivity Related Abstracts

7 Fuzzy Logic in Detecting Children with Behavioral Disorders

Authors: David G. Maxínez, Andrés Ferreyra Ramírez, Liliana Castillo Sánchez, Nancy Adán Mendoza, Carlos Aviles Cruz

Abstract:

This research describes the use of fuzzy logic in detection, assessment, analysis and evaluation of children with behavioral disorders. It shows how to acquire and analyze ambiguous, vague and full of uncertainty data coming from the input variables to get an accurate assessment result for each of the typologies presented by children with behavior problems. Behavior disorders analyzed in this paper are: hyperactivity (H), attention deficit with hyperactivity (DAH), conduct disorder (TD) and attention deficit (AD).

Keywords: Economic, Behavior, Social, Disorders, Fuzzy Logic, Detection, hyperactivity, alteration, centroid, impulsivity

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6 Impulsivity and Nutritional Restrictions in BED

Authors: Jaworski Mariusz, Owczarek Krzysztof, Adamus Mirosława

Abstract:

Binge eating disorder (BED) is one of the three main eating disorders, beside anorexia and bulimia nervosa. BED is characterized by a loss of control over the quantity of food consumed and the lack of the compensatory behaviors, such as induced vomiting or purging. Studies highlight that certain personality traits may contribute to the severity of symptoms in the ED. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between psychological variables (Impulsivity and Urgency) and Nutritional restrictions in BED. The study included two groups. The first group consisted of 35 women with BED aged 18 to 28. The control group - 35 women without ED aged 18 to 28. ED-1 questionnaire was used in a study to assess the severity of impulsivity, urgency and nutritional restrictions. The obtained data were standardized. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS 21 software. The severity of impulsivity was higher in patients with BED than the control group. The relation between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions in BED was observed, only taking into consideration the relationship of these variables with the level of urgency. However, if the severity of urgency in this relationship is skipped, the relationship between impulsivity and nutritional restrictions will not occur. Impulsivity has a negative relationship with the level of urgency. This study suggests the need to analyze the interaction between impulsivity and urgency, and their relationship with dietary behavior in BED, especially nutritional restrictions. Analysis of single isolated features may give erroneous results.

Keywords: Binge Eating Disorder, impulsivity, nutritional restrictions, urgency

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5 An Educational Application of Online Games for Learning Difficulties

Authors: Maria Margoudi, Zacharoula Smyraniou

Abstract:

The current paper presents the results of a conducted case study, which was part of the author’s master thesis. During the past few years the number of children diagnosed with Learning Difficulties has drastically augmented and especially the cases of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a deficit in working memory functions. The review of the literature indicates a plethora of educational software that aim at training and enhancing the working memory. Nevertheless, in the current paper, the possibility of using for the same purpose free, online games will be explored. Another issue of interest is the potential effect of the working memory training to the core symptoms of ADHD. In order to explore the abovementioned research questions, three digital tests are employed, all of which are developed on the E-slate platform by the author, in order to check the level of ADHD’s symptoms and to be used as diagnostic tools, both in the beginning and in the end of the case study. The tools used during the main intervention of the research are free online games for the training of working memory. The research and the data analysis focus on the following axes: a) the presence and the possible change in two of the core symptoms of ADHD, attention and impulsivity and b) a possible change in the general cognitive abilities of the individual. The case study was conducted with the participation of a thirteen year-old, female student, diagnosed with ADHD, during after-school hours. The results of the study indicate positive changes both in the levels of attention and impulsivity. Therefore we conclude that the training of working memory through the use of free, online games has a positive impact on the characteristics of ADHD. Finally, concerning the second research question, the change in general cognitive abilities, no significant changes were noted.

Keywords: Attention, Online Games, ADHD, impulsivity

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4 Pathological Gambling and Impulsivity: Comparison of the Eight Laboratory Measures of Inhibition Capacities

Authors: Pinhas Dannon, Semion Kertzman

Abstract:

Impulsive behaviour and the underlying brain processes are hypothesized to be central in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. Inhibition ability can be differentially impaired in pathological gamblers (PGs). Aims: This study aimed to compare the ability of eight widely used inhibition measures to discriminate between PGs and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: PGs (N=51) and demographically matched HCs (N=51) performed cognitive inhibition (the Stroop), motor inhibition (the Go/NoGo) and reflective inhibition (the Matching Familiar Figures (MFFT)) tasks. Results: An augmented total interference response time in the Stroop task (η² =0.054), a large number of commission errors (η² =0.053) in the Go/NoGo task, and the total number of errors in the MFFT (η² =0.05) can discriminate PGs from HCs. Other measures are unable to differentiate between PGs and HCs. No significant correlations were observed between inhibition measures. Conclusion: Inhibition measures varied in the ability to discriminate PGs from HCs. Most inhibition measures were not relevant to gambling behaviour. PGs do not express rash, impulsive behaviour, such as quickly choosing an answer without thinking. In contrast, in PGs, inhibition impairment was related to slow-inaccurate performance.

Keywords: Addiction, impulsivity, neurocognition, pathological gambling

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3 Effects of Classroom-Based Intervention on Academic Performance of Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Inclusive Classrooms in Buea

Authors: John Njikem

Abstract:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorders in children, associated with this disorder are core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. This study was purposely to enlighten and inform teachers, policy makers and other professionals concern in the education of this group of learners in inclusive schools in Buea, Cameroon. The major purpose of this study was to identify children with ADHD in elementary schools practicing inclusive education and to investigate the effect of classroom based intervention on their academic performance. The research problem stems from the fact that majority of children with ADHD in our school mostly have problems with classroom tasks like paying attention, easily distracted, and difficulties in organization and very little has been done to manage this numerous conditions, therefore it was necessary for the researcher to identify them and implement some inclusive strategies that teachers can better use in managing the behavior of this group of learners. There were four research questions and the study; the sample population used for the study was 27 pupils (3-7years old) formally identified with key symptoms of ADHD from primary 3-6 from four primary inclusive schools in Buea. Two sub-types of ADHD children were identified by using the recent DSM-IV behavioral checklist in recording their behavior after teacher and peer nomination they were later subjected to three groups for classroom intervention. Data collection was done by using interviews and other supportive methods such as document consultation, field notes and informal talks as additional sources was also used to gather information. Classroom Intervention techniques were carried out by the teachers themselves for 8 weeks under the supervision of the researcher, results were recorded for the 27 children's academic performance in the areas of math’s, writing and reading. Descriptive Statistics was applied in analyzing the data in percentages while tables and diagrams were used to represent the results. Findings obtained indicated that there was significant increase in the level of attention and organization on classroom tasks in the areas of reading, writing and mathematics. Finding also show that there was a more significant improvement made on their academic performance using the combined intervention approach which was proven to be the most effective intervention technique for pupils with ADHD in the study. Therefore it is necessary that teachers in inclusive primary schools in Buea understand the needs of these children and learn how to identify them and also use this intervention approaches to accommodate them in classroom task in order to encourage inclusive educational classroom practices in the country. Recommendations were based on each research objective and suggestions for further studies centered on other methods of classroom intervention for ADHD children in inclusive settings.

Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Academic Performance, impulsivity, inclusive classrooms

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2 Impulsivity Leads to Compromise Effect

Authors: Ankita Sharma, Sana Maidullah

Abstract:

The present study takes naturalistic decision-making approach to examine the role of personality in information processing in consumer decision making. In the technological era, most of the information comes in form of HTML or similar language via the internet; processing of this situation could be ambiguous, laborious and painful. The present study explores the role of impulsivity in creating an extreme effect on consumer decision making. Specifically, the study explores the role of impulsivity in extreme effect, i.e., extremeness avoidance (compromise effect) and extremeness seeking; the role of demographic variables, i.e. age and gender, in the relation between impulsivity and extreme effect. The study was conducted with the help of a questionnaire and two experiments. The experiment was designed in the form of two shopping websites with two product types: Hotel choice and Mobile choice. Both experimental interfaces were created with the Xampp software, the frontend of interfaces was HTML CSS JAVASCRIPT and backend was PHP MySQL. The mobile experiment was designed to measure the extreme effect and hotel experiment was designed to measure extreme effect with alignability of attributes. To observe the possibilities of the combined effect of individual difference and context effects, the manipulation of price, a number of alignable attributes and number of the non-alignable attributes is done. The study was conducted on 100 undergraduate and post-graduate engineering students within the age range of 18-35. The familiarity and level of use of internet and shopping website were assessed and controlled in the analysis. The analysis was done by using a t-test, ANOVA and regression analysis. The results indicated that the impulsivity leads to compromise effect and at the same time it also increases the relationship between alignability of attribute among choices and the compromise effect. The demographic variables were found to play a significant role in the relationship. The subcomponents of impulsivity were significantly influencing compromise effect, but the cognitive impulsivity was significant for women, and motor impulsivity was significant for males only. The impulsivity was significantly positively predicted by age, though there were no significant gender differences in impulsivity. The results clearly indicate the importance of individual factors in decision making. The present study, with precise and direct results, provides a significant suggestion for market analyst and business providers.

Keywords: Personality, Consumer Decision Making, impulsivity, extreme effect, alignability

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1 The Effects of Early Maternal Separation on Risky Choice in Rats

Authors: Osvaldo Collazo, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos

Abstract:

Early maternal separation has been shown to bring about many negative effects on behavior in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early maternal separation on risky choice in rats. One group of male and female Wistar rats was exposed to an early maternal separation protocol while a control group was left undisturbed. Then both groups were exposed to a series of behavioral tests, including a test of risky choice, where one alternative offered a constant reward while the other offered a variable reward. There was a difference between groups when they chose between a variable and a constant reward delay, but no other difference was significant. These results suggest that early maternal separation may be related to a greater preference for shorter delays, which is characteristic of more impulsive choices.

Keywords: variability, impulsivity, early maternal separation, risky choice

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