Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Implementation Related Abstracts

38 The Implementation of the Multi-Agent Classification System (MACS) in Compliance with FIPA Specifications

Authors: Mohamed R. Mhereeg

Abstract:

The paper discusses the implementation of the MultiAgent classification System (MACS) and utilizing it to provide an automated and accurate classification of end users developing applications in the spreadsheet domain. However, different technologies have been brought together to build MACS. The strength of the system is the integration of the agent technology with the FIPA specifications together with other technologies, which are the .NET widows service based agents, the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services, the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), and Oracle Data Mining (ODM). Microsoft's .NET windows service based agents were utilized to develop the monitoring agents of MACS, the .NET WCF services together with SOA approach allowed the distribution and communication between agents over the WWW. The Monitoring Agents (MAs) were configured to execute automatically to monitor excel spreadsheets development activities by content. Data gathered by the Monitoring Agents from various resources over a period of time was collected and filtered by a Database Updater Agent (DUA) residing in the .NET client application of the system. This agent then transfers and stores the data in Oracle server database via Oracle stored procedures for further processing that leads to the classification of the end user developers.

Keywords: Multi-Agent, Autonomous, Implementation, SOA, MACS, WCF

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37 Design and Implementation of 2D Mesh Network on Chip Using VHDL

Authors: Boudjedra Abderrahim, Toumi Salah, Boutalbi Mostefa, Frihi Mohammed

Abstract:

Nowadays, using the advancement of technology in semiconductor device fabrication, many transistors can be integrated to a single chip (VLSI). Although the growth chip density potentially eases systems-on-chip (SoCs) integrating thousands of processing element (PE) such as memory, processor, interfaces cores, system complexity, high-performance interconnect and scalable on-chip communication architecture become most challenges for many digital and embedded system designers. Networks-on-chip (NoCs) becomes a new paradigm that makes possible integrating heterogeneous devices and allows many communication constraints and performances. In this paper, we are interested for good performance and low area for implementation and a behavioral modeling of network on chip mesh topology design using VHDL hardware description language with performance evaluation and FPGA implementation results.

Keywords: Design, Implementation, Communication System, network on chip, VHDL

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36 Implementation of ISO 26262: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Won Jung, Azianti Ismail

Abstract:

Functional safety is about electrical, electronics, and programmable electronic safety-related system focuses on the potential risk of malfunction which may have a significant impact on the safety of humans and/or the environment based on IEC 61508. In November 2011, the automotive industry has been introduced to automotive functional safety ISO 26262 which addresses the complete safety installation from sensor to actuator with its technical as well as management issues. Nowadays, most of the modern automobiles are equipped with embedded electronic systems which include many Electronic Controller Units (ECUs), electronic sensors, signals, bus systems and coding. Due to upcoming more sophisticated systems installed in automobiles, the need to carry out detailed safety is very crucial. Assimilation of existing practices with this new standard is a major challenge for the automotive industry in reducing redundancy, time and resources. Therefore, this paper will analyze the research trends on pre and post introduction of ISO 26262 through publications as well as to take a glimpse in the activities for implementing this standard by the automotive manufacturers around the world. It is going to highlight issues and challenges which have been discussed among the experts in this field. Even though it will take some time for this standard to be fully implemented, the benefits from this implementation will raise the competitiveness in the global automotive market.

Keywords: Automotive, Challenges, Implementation, ISO 26262, functional safety, standard

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35 Implementation of Computer-Based Technologies into Foreign Language Teaching Process

Authors: Golovchun Aleftina, Dabyltayeva Raikhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, in the world of widely developing cross-cultural interactions and rapidly changing demands of the global labor market, foreign language teaching and learning has taken a special role not only in school education but also in everyday life. Cognitive Lingua-Cultural Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching originated in Kazakhstan brings a communicative approach to the forefront in foreign language teaching that gives raise a variety of techniques to make the language learning a real communication. One of these techniques is Computer Assisted Language Learning. In our article, we aim to: demonstrate what learning benefits students are likely to get by teachers having implemented computer-based technologies into foreign language teaching process; prove that technology-based classroom serves as the best tool for interactive and efficient language learning; give examples of classroom sufficient organization with computer-based activities.

Keywords: Implementation, Communicative Approach, Computer assisted Language Learning, learning benefits, foreign language teaching process

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34 Resource Efficiency within Current Production

Authors: Sarah Majid Ansari, Serjosha Wulf, Matthias Goerke

Abstract:

In times of global warming and the increasing shortage of resources, sustainable production is becoming more and more inevitable. Companies cannot only heighten their competitiveness but also contribute positively to environmental protection through efficient energy and resource consumption. Regarding this, technical solutions are often preferred during production, although organizational and process-related approaches also offer great potential. This project focuses on reducing resource usage, with a special emphasis on the human factor. It is the aspiration to develop a methodology that systematically implements and embeds suitable and individual measures and methods regarding resource efficiency throughout the entire production. The measures and methods established help employees handle resources and energy more sensitively. With this in mind, this paper also deals with the difficulties that can occur during the sensitization of employees and the implementation of these measures and methods. In addition, recommendations are given on how to avoid such difficulties.

Keywords: Human Factors, Implementation, Resource Efficiency, production plants

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33 Research Repository System (RRS) for Academics

Authors: Ajayi Olusola Olajide, O. Ojeyinka Taiwo, Adeolara Oluwawemimo Janet, Isheyemi Olufemi Gabriel, Lawal Muideen Adekunle

Abstract:

In an academic world where research work is the tool for promotion and elevation to higher cadres, the quest for a system that secure researchers’ work, monitor as well as alert researchers of pending academic research work, cannot be over-emphasized. This study describes how a research repository system for academics is designed. The invention further relates to a system for archiving any paperwork and journal that comprises of a database for storing all researches. It relates to a method for users to communicate through messages which will also allow reviewing all the messages. To create this research repository system, PHP and MySQL were married together for the system implementation.

Keywords: System, Research, Academic, Implementation, archiving, secure, repository

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32 Drawbacks of Second Generation Urban Re-Development in Addis Ababa

Authors: Ezana Haddis Weldeghebrael

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Addis Ababa City Administration is engaged in a massive facelift of the inner-city. The paper, therefore, aims to analyze the challenges of the current urban regeneration effort by paying special attention to Lideta and Basha Wolde Chilot projects. To this end, the paper has adopted a documentary research strategy to collect the data and Institutionalist perspective as well as the concept of urban regeneration to analyze the data. The sources were selected based on relevance and recency. Academic research outputs were used primarily. However, where much scholastic publications are not available institutional reports, newspaper articles, and expert presentations were used. The major findings of the research revealed that although the second generation of urban redevelopment projects have attempted to involve affected groups and succeeded in designing better neighborhoods, they are riddled with three major drawbacks. The first one is institutional constraints, i.e. absence of urban redevelopment strategy as well as housing policy, broad definition of ‘public purpose’, little regard for informal businesses, limitation on rights groups, negotiation power not devolved at sub-city level and no plan for groups that cannot afford to pay the down payment for low-cost apartments. The second one is planning limitation, i.e. absence of genuine affected group participation as well as consultative level of public engagement. The third one is implementation failure, i.e. no regard to maintaining social bond, non-participatory and ill-informed resettlement, interference from senior government officials, failure to protect the poor from speculators, corruption and disregard to heritage buildings. Based on the findings, the paper concluded that the current inner-city redevelopment has failed to be socially sustainable and calls for enactment of housing policy as well as redevelopment strategy, affected group participation, on-site resettlement, empowering the Sub-city to manage the project and allowing housing rights groups to advocate for the poor slum dwellers.

Keywords: Planning, Implementation, Participation, Redevelopment, Consultation

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31 Challenges of e-Service Adoption and Implementation in Nigeria: Lessons from Asia

Authors: Kazeem Oluwakemi Oseni, Kate Dingley

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E-Service has moved from the usual manual and traditional way of rendering services to electronic service provision for the public and there are several reasons for implementing these services, Airline ticketing have gone from its manual traditional way to an intelligent web-driven service of purchasing. Many companies have seen their profits doubled through the use of online services in their operation and a typical example is Hewlett Packard (HP) which is rapidly transforming their after sales business into a profit generating e-service business unit. This paper will examine the various challenges confronting e-Service adoption and implementation in Nigeria and also analyse lessons learnt from e-Service adoption and implementation in Asia to see how it could be useful in Nigeria which is a lower middle income country. Based on the analysis of the online survey data. It has been identified that the public in Nigeria are much aware of e-Services but successful adoption and implementation have been the problems faced.

Keywords: Implementation, Asia, Adoption, Nigeria, e-government service

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30 Health Information Technology in Developing Countries: A Structured Literature Review with Reference to the Case of Libya

Authors: Jim S. Briggs, Haythem A. Nakkas, Philip J. Scott

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This paper reports a structured literature review of the application of Health Information Technology in developing countries, defined as the World Bank categories Low-income countries, Lower-middle-income, and Upper-middle-income countries. The aim was to identify and classify the various applications of health information technology to assess its current state in developing countries and explore potential areas of research. We offer specific analysis and application of HIT in Libya as one of the developing countries. Method: A structured literature review was conducted using the following online databases: IEEE, Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Publication dates were set for 2000-2013. For the PubMed search, publications in English, French, and Arabic were specified. Using a content analysis approach, 159 papers were analyzed and a total number of 26 factors were identified that affect the adoption of health information technology. Results: Of the 2681 retrieved articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria which were carefully analyzed and classified. Conclusion: The implementation of health information technology across developing countries is varied. Whilst it was initially expected financial constraints would have severely limited health information technology implementation, some developing countries like India have nevertheless dominated the literature and taken the lead in conducting scientific research. Comparing the number of studies to the number of countries in each category, we found that Low-income countries and Lower-middle-income had more studies carried out than Upper-middle-income countries. However, whilst IT has been used in various sectors of the economy, the healthcare sector in developing countries is still failing to benefit fully from the potential advantages that IT can offer.

Keywords: Implementation, developing countries, Health Information Technology, Developed Countries, Failure, Libya, factors, success

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29 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

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The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: Perception, Implementation, Machine Translation, translation technology

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28 Effectiveness of European Active Labor Market Policies

Authors: Chokri Abdennadher, Marwa Sahnoun

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This article comes, very timely, to look at the effectiveness of active labor market policies (ALMP) in improving labor market outcomes. Using panel data estimates for 19 European countries during the period 2000-2012, this article showed the role of institutional factors, especially the role of employment policies implementation based on three variables: the allocation of resources for the implementation of policies, continuity and timing in the implementation of policies to capture their effectiveness on the labor market. Empirical results shows favor effect of training, employment incentives, sheltered employment and rehabilitation and direct job creation on the entire population employment growth. Results shows also that start-up incentives seems to be more effective in increasing employment than other types of policies. Importantly, two aspects are important in terms of implementation: public expenditure on program administration, e.g. (PES) watches the most favorable aspect and the continuity of policies implemented.

Keywords: training, Implementation, active labor market policies, public expenditure on program administration, start-up incentives

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27 Barriers of the Development and Implementation of Health Information Systems in Iran

Authors: Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Nasim Hashemi

Abstract:

Health information systems have great benefits for clinical and managerial processes of health care organizations. However, identifying and removing constraints and barriers of implementing and using health information systems before any implementation is essential. Physicians are one of the main users of health information systems, therefore, identifying the causes of their resistance and concerns about the barriers of the implementation of these systems is very important. So the purpose of this study was to determine the barriers of the development and implementation of health information systems in terms of the Iranian physicians’ perspectives. In this study conducted in 8 selected hospitals affiliated to Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2014, physicians (GPs, residents, interns, specialists) in these hospitals were surveyed. In order to collect data, a research made questionnaire was used (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). The instrument included 25 about organizational (9), personal (4), moral and legal (3) and technical barriers (9). Participants were asked to answer the questions using 5 point scale Likert (completely disagree=1 to completely agree=5). By using a simple random sampling method, 200 physicians (from 600) were invited to study that eventually 163 questionnaires were returned. We used mean score and t-test and ANOVA to analyze the data using SPSS software version 17. 52.1% of respondents were female. The mean age was 30.18 ± 7.29. The work experience years for most of them were between 1 to 5 years (80.4 percent). The most important barriers were organizational ones (3.4 ± 0.89), followed by ethical (3.18 ± 0.98), technical (3.06 ± 0.8) and personal (3.04 ± 1.2). Lack of easy access to a fast Internet (3.67±1.91) and the lack of exchanging information (3.61±1.2) were the most important technical barriers. Among organizational barriers, the lack of efficient planning for the development and implementation systems (3.56±1.32) and was the most important ones. Lack of awareness and knowledge of health care providers about the health information systems features (3.33±1.28) and the lack of physician participation in planning phase (3.27±1.2) as well as concerns regarding the security and confidentiality of health information (3.15 ± 1.31) were the most important personal and ethical barriers, respectively. Women (P = 0.02) and those with less experience (P = 0.002) were more concerned about personal barriers. GPs also were more concerned about technical barriers (P = 0.02). According to the study, technical and ethics barriers were considered as the most important barriers however, lack of awareness in target population is also considered as one of the main barriers. Ignoring issues such as personal and ethical barriers, even if the necessary infrastructure and technical requirements were provided, may result in failure. Therefore, along with the creating infrastructure and resolving organizational barriers, special attention to education and awareness of physicians and providing solution for ethics concerns are necessary.

Keywords: Implementation, barriers, physicians, development health information systems

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26 Local Community Participation and the Adoption of Agricultural Technology in Kayunga District, Uganda

Authors: Barbara Kyampeire, Gerald Karyeijja

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of local community participation on the adoption of new agricultural technology in Uganda, using the case study of Smooth Cayenne Pineapples in Kayunga District, Uganda. The mechanism of adoption of new technologies is often not fully understood and this prompted the study. The study adopted a descriptive, co relational, survey design. The researcher used questionnaire survey, focus group discussion as methods of data collection. A total of 152 respondents including adopters and non-adopters of new technology for producing pineapples were selected from 8 farmer groups in Kayunga District. The results indicated that the participation of the community in the planning, implementation and the monitoring and evaluation of the adoption of the new technology for producing pineapples was low thus reducing the adoption of the new technology in the District. The researcher concluded that community participation significantly influences the adoption of new agricultural technology by members of a particular community. The study thus recommended that: first, there is need for maximum involvement of members of the community in the planning, implementation and monitoring of any new agricultural technology; secondly, there is need for continued sharing of information about new agricultural technologies being introduced; and finally, community members must be equipped with Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) skills in order to make them monitor the progress made by the new agricultural technologies.

Keywords: Community, Technology, Implementation, Adoption

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25 Implementation of a Predictive DTC-SVM of an Induction Motor

Authors: Chebaani Mohamed, Gplea Amar, Benchouia Mohamed Toufik

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Direct torque control is characterized by the merits of fast response, simple structure and strong robustness to the motor parameters variations. This paper proposes the implementation of DTC-SVM of an induction motor drive using Predictive controller. The principle of the method is explained and the system mathematical description is provided. The derived control algorithm is implemented both in the simulation software MatLab/Simulink and on the real induction motor drive with dSPACE control system. Simulated and measured results in steady states and transients are presented.

Keywords: Implementation, MATLAB, Induction Motor, simulink, DTC-SVM, predictive controller, dSPACE

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24 Lean Healthcare: Barriers and Enablers in the Colombian Context

Authors: Erika Ruiz, Nestor Ortiz

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Lean philosophy has evolved over time and has been implemented both in manufacturing and services, more recently lean has been integrated in the companies of the health sector. Currently it is important to understand the successful way to implement this philosophy and try to identify barriers and enablers to the sustainability of lean healthcare. The main purpose of this research is to identify the barriers and enablers in the implementation of Lean Healthcare based on case studies of Colombian healthcare centers. In order to do so, we conducted semi-structured interviews based on a maturity model. The main results indicate that the success of Lean implementation depends on its adaptation to contextual factors. In addition, in the Colombian context were identified new factors such as organizational culture, management models, integration of the care and administrative departments and triple helix relationship.

Keywords: Sustainability, Implementation, barriers, enablers, lean healthcare

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23 Creating Systems Change: Implementing Cross-Sector Initiatives within the Justice System to Support Ontarians with Mental Health and Addictions Needs

Authors: Tania Breton, Dorina Simeonov, Shauna MacEachern

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Ontario’s 10 Year Mental Health and Addictions Strategy has included the establishment of 18 Service Collaborative across the province; cross-sector tables in a specific region coming together to explore mental health and addiction system needs and adopting an intervention to address that need. The process is community led and supported by implementation teams from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), using the framework of implementation science (IS) to enable evidence-based and sustained change. These justice initiatives are focused on the intersection of the justice system and the mental health and addiction systems. In this presentation, we will share the learnings, achievements and challenges of implementing innovative practices to the mental health and addictions needs of Ontarians within the justice system. Specifically, we will focus on the key points across the justice system - from early intervention and trauma-informed, culturally appropriate services to post-sentence support and community reintegration. Our approach to this work involves external implementation support from the CAMH team including coaching, knowledge exchange, evaluation, Aboriginal engagement and health equity expertise. Agencies supported the implementation of tools and processes which changed practice at the local level. These practices are being scaled up across Ontario and community agencies have come together in an unprecedented collaboration and there is a shared vision of the issues overlapping between the mental health, addictions and justice systems. Working with ministry partners has allowed space for innovation and created an environment where better approaches can be nurtured and spread.

Keywords: Innovation, Systems, Prevention, Implementation, early identification, mental health and addictions

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22 Information and Communication Technologies-Based Urban Spaces: From Planning and Design to Implementation

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon, Kwang Woo Nam, Yountaik Leem

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As to the development of the capitalist economy, local governments put their focuses on economic growth and quality of life including the management of declined urban area. Together with the rapid advances in ICTs (information and communication technologies) Korean government tried to adapt ICTs to urban spaces to catch these two goals. Ubiquitous city, concept introduced by Mark Weiser in 1988, is a kind of ICTs based urban space which can provide IT services anytime and anywhere. This paper introduces the experience of developing ICTs-based urban planning and it’s implementation process and discusses the effect of the R&D based U-City test-bed project. For a community center of a residential zone in a newly developing city, spatial problems and citizen’s needs were identified to plan IT-based urban services. The paper also describes the structure and functions of Community O/S (COS) as an IT platform which controls data and urban devices such as media facades and U-poles. Not only one-way information but also Interactive services were included. Public creating activities using this platform also added –CO2 emission management and citizen making safety map, etc. The effects of the comprehensive U-City planning in S/W, H/W and human-ware were discussed on the case study of similar individual projects.

Keywords: Implementation, ICTs-based urban planning, public IT service, U-City

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21 Implementation and Challenges of Assessment Methods in the Case of Physical Education Class in Some Selected Preparatory Schools of Kirkos Sub-City

Authors: Kibreab Alene Fenite

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation and challenges of different assessment methods for physical education class in some selected preparatory schools of kirkos sub city. The participants in this study are teachers, students, department heads and school principals from 4 selected schools. Of the total 8 schools offering in kirkos sub city 4 schools (Dandi Boru, Abiyot Kirse, Assay, and Adey Ababa) are selected by using simple random sampling techniques and from these schools all (100%) of teachers, 100% of department heads and school principals are taken as a sample as their number is manageable. From the total 2520 students, 252 (10%) of students are selected using simple random sampling. Accordingly, 13 teachers, 252 students, 4 department heads and 4 school principals are taken as a sample from the 4 selected schools purposefully. As a method of data gathering tools; questionnaire and interview are employed. To analyze the collected data, both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. The result of the study revealed that assessment in physical education does not implement properly: lack of sufficient materials, inadequate time allotment, large class size, and lack of collaboration and working together of teachers towards assessing the performance of students, absence of guidelines to assess the physical education subject, no different assessment method that is implementing on students with disabilities in line with their special need are found as major challenges in implementing the current assessment method of physical education. To overcome these problems the following recommendations have been forwarded. These are: the necessary facilities and equipment should be available; In order to make reliable, accurate, objective and relevant assessment, teachers of physical education should be familiarized with different assessment techniques; Physical education assessment guidelines should be prepared, and guidelines should include different types of assessment methods; qualified teachers should be employed, and different teaching room must be build.

Keywords: Challenges, Equipment, Performance, Assessment, Implementation, guidelines

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20 Team Teaching, Students Perception, Challenges, and Remedies for Effective Implementation: A Case Study of the Department of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Ihemtuge Akim, Micheal O. Ikeanumba

Abstract:

This research focused on team teaching; students perception, challenges, and remedies for effective implementation, a case study of the department of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria. It seeks to address the misconception by students on the use of team teaching as a methodology for learning. Five purposes and five research questions guided this study. Descriptive survey design was used in the study. The students of biology department enrolled in both Bachelor degree and National Certificate in Education in Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, formed the population size. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sampled students and 20% of whole lecturers were selected out of the whole given sample size of three hundred and forty (340). The instrument used for data collection was structured 4 point Likert scale questionnaire and analysis was made using mean method. The result revealed that poor time management by lectures, lack of lecture venues, manpower are some of the challenges hindering the effective implementation of team teaching. It was also observed that students perform better in academic when team teaching approach is used than single teaching approach. Finally, recommendations made suggested that teachers involved in team teaching should work together with their teaching strategies and within the time frame to achieve the stated objectives.

Keywords: Challenges, Perception, Implementation, team teaching

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19 Studying the Implementation of 5S System in Egyptian Garment Enterprises

Authors: K. M. Seddik

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This paper explores the implementation of 5S elements in the Egyptian garment enterprises. The paper depended on a survey questionnaire (established from Summit Business Solutions, New York) and observations to collect data from the respondents. The observations are based on the on-site visits and interviews with the managers, supervisors and labors. The enterprises divided into three groups according to the nature activity. The first group of enterprises encompassed 49.52% of the total samples, the second and third group of enterprises represented 50.48% The results of this research indicated to the influence of the nature activity in implementing 5S systems and conclude that sustain is a difficult element which involve encourage workers for developing and practicing a highly discipline. In addition the results demonstrate that although the enterprises may achieve a higher executing of 5S elements but it may realize a low coherence in implementation.

Keywords: Implementation, Lean manufacturing, garment enterprises

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18 Managing Core Competencies in Innovative Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice

Authors: Olga Shvetsova

Abstract:

The research paper contains the different issues of competence management in innovation companies. The theoretical bases of human resources management and practical issues of innovative enterprises’ competitiveness are considered. The research is focused on the modern innovative enterprise management problems; it focuses on the effective management of the personnel of innovative enterprises on the basis of competence approach. The concept of core competence approach is discussed. The point of view, that the key competences of the company create the competitive advantages, support strategy development and protect business from external negative factors is considered. The used methodology is background research.

Keywords: Innovation Management, Implementation, Competitiveness, competence model

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17 The Implementation of the European Landscape Convention in Turkey: Opportunities and Constraints

Authors: Tutku Ak, Abdullah Kelkit, Cihad Öztürk

Abstract:

An increase has been witnessed with the number of multinational environmental agreements in the past decade, particularly in Europe. Success with implementation, however, shows variation. While many countries are willing to join these agreements, they do not always fully honor their obligations to put their commitments into practice. One reason for this is that countries have different legal and administrative systems. One example of an international multilateral environmental agreement is the European Landscape Convention (ELC). ELC expresses a concern to achieve sustainable development based on a balanced and harmonious relationship between social needs, economic activity, and the environment. Member states are required to implement the convention in accordance with their own administrative structure, respecting subsidiarity. In particular, the importance of cooperation in the protection, management, and planning of the resources is expressed through the convention. In this paper, it is intended to give a broad view of ELC’s implementation process in Turkey and what factors have influenced by the process. Under this context, the paper will focus on the objectives of the convention for addressing the issue of the loss of European landscapes, and the justification and tools used to accomplish these objectives. The degree to which these objectives have been implemented in Turkey and the opportunities and constraints that have been faced during this process have been discussed.

Keywords: Implementation, European landscape convention, multinational environmental agreements, policy tools

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16 The Trend and Implementation of Bargaining Agreements at University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape, South Africa 2012 to 2016

Authors: Olusola Olasupo, E. O. C. Ijeoma

Abstract:

The University of Fort Hare and the National Education Health and Allied Workers Union (NEHAWU), the registered labor union at the University recognizes the significance of collective bargaining. This prompted both parties to enter into agreement with the notion to strengthening the relationship between them. The agreement was therefore entered into between NEHAWU representing the employees and the University. The agreement was signed on August 31st, 2005. The study adopting historical research method reveals the trend and implementation of bargaining agreements at University of Fort Hare from 2012 to 2016. This study examines how the implementation of bargaining agreement is utilized to solve labor related challenges and also improve on employee’s wages and conditions of service thereby strengthening the relationship between the management and employees at University of Fort Hare. The study contributes to knowledge on the effects of the implementation of bargaining agreement on wages and other conditions of service leading to harmonious relationship between the Staff and the management towards the effective administration of the University of Fort Hare. Findings reveal that ever since 2005 when the agreement was reached, University of Fort Hare and NEHAWU have been committed to improving the employees’ wages through substantive agreement. The study concludes by recommending a more effective implementation of bargaining agreement at University of Fort Hare.

Keywords: Implementation, agreement, trend, bargaining

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15 Efficacy of Task Based Language Teaching in a Second Language Classroom Context

Authors: Wajiha Fatima

Abstract:

Various approaches and methods for second language classroom teaching have been proposed since the nineteenth century. Task Based Language Teaching has been prevailing approach in a second language classroom context. It is an approach which immerses students in a naturalistic setting. Tasks are the core unit of planning and instruction. This paper aims at expounding the concept of Task Based Language Teaching and how it has been evolved. In this study, researcher will highlight the usefulness of TBLT and the role it played as a powerful tool for learning and teaching in a second language setting. The article will reflect the implementation of various tasks based activities as well as the roles played by learners and teachers and the problems faced by them. In the end, researcher will discuss how TBLT can be implemented in second language classroom pedagogy.

Keywords: Implementation, second language classroom, tasks, task based language teaching

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14 Implementation of 'Bay Al-Salam' in Agricultural Banking of Bangladesh: An Islamic Banking Perspective

Authors: M. Obydul Haque Kamaly

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide a brief discussion on bay al-salam as a method of implementing Islamic Banking in the agricultural arena of Bangladesh. For this purpose, the nature and conditions of bay al-salam contracts will be first discussed. Next, the paper will focus on the comparison between conventional banks and Islamic banks and should answer how bay al-salam can be used as a popular method in agricultural transactions in the country. The paper is based on secondary data which is to describe bay al-salam as future proceedings for Islamic banking. Evidence suggests Islamic banking is very much practiced like modern conventional banking with certain restrictions imposed by Sharia and addresses a large number of business requirements successfully. Thus, it’s time for us to implement Islamic banking (bay al-salam) on our agricultural arena and to get most benefits from them.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Implementation, bay al-salam, agricultural banking

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13 Lessons Learned in Implementing Programs to Delay Diabetic Nephropathy Management in Primary Health Care: Case Study in Sakon Nakhon Province

Authors: Sumattana Glangkarn, Sasiwan Tassana-iem

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication in diabetic patients whom as the glomerular filtration rate falls. The affects their quality of life and results in loss of money for kidney replacement therapy costs. There is an existing intervention, but the prevalence remains high, thus this research aims to study lessons learned in implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care. Method: The target settings are, 24 sub-district health promoting hospital in Sakon Nakhon province. Participants included the health care professionals, head of the sub-district health promoting hospital and the person responsible for managing diabetic nephropathy in each hospital (n= 50). There are 400 patients with diabetes mellitus in an area. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient records data, interviews and focus groups and analyzed by statistics and content analysis. Result: Reflection of participants that the interventions to delay diabetic nephropathy management in each area, the Ministry of Public Health has a policy to screen and manage this disease. The implementing programs aimed to provide health education, innovative teaching media used in communication to educate. Patients and caregivers had misunderstanding about the actual causes and prevention of this disease and how to apply knowledge suitable for daily life. Conclusion: The obstacles to the success of the implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care were most importantly, the patient needs self-care and should be evaluated for health literacy. This is crucial to promote health literacy; to access and understand health information as well to decide their health-related choices based on health information which will promote and maintain a good health. This preliminary research confirms that situation of diabetic nephropathy still exists. The results of this study will lead to the development of delay in diabetic nephropathy implementation among patients in the province studied.

Keywords: Implementation, Chronic kidney disease, Diabetic Nephropathy, primary health care

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12 The Whale Optimization Algorithm and Its Implementation in MATLAB

Authors: Paramjit Singh, R. P. Mahapatra, S. Adhirai

Abstract:

Optimization is an important tool in making decisions and in analysing physical systems. In mathematical terms, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from among the set of all feasible solutions. The paper discusses the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), and its applications in different fields. The algorithm is tested using MATLAB because of its unique and powerful features. The benchmark functions used in WOA algorithm are grouped as: unimodal (F1-F7), multimodal (F8-F13), and fixed-dimension multimodal (F14-F23). Out of these benchmark functions, we show the experimental results for F7, F11, and F19 for different number of iterations. The search space and objective space for the selected function are drawn, and finally, the best solution as well as the best optimal value of the objective function found by WOA is presented. The algorithmic results demonstrate that the WOA performs better than the state-of-the-art meta-heuristic and conventional algorithms.

Keywords: Optimization, Implementation, MATLAB, Optimization Problems, objective function, optimal value, meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, Whale Optimization Algorithm

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11 On the Road towards Effective Administrative Justice in Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo: Common Challenges and Problems

Authors: Arlinda Memetaj

Abstract:

A sound system of administrative justice represents a vital element of democratic governance. The proper control of public administration consists not only of a sound civil service framework and legislative oversight, but empowerment of the public and courts to hold public officials accountable for their decision-making through the application of fair administrative procedural rules and the use of appropriate administrative appeals processes and judicial review. The establishment of both effective public administration and administrative justice system has been for a long period of time among the most ‘important and urgent’ final strategic objectives of almost any country in the Balkans region, including Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo. Closely related to this is their common strategic goal to enter the membership in the European Union, which requires fulfilling of many criteria and standards as incorporated in EU acquis communautaire. The latter is presently done with the framework of the Stabilization and Association Agreement which each of these countries has concluded with the EU accordingly. To above aims, each of the three countries has so far adopted a huge series of legislative and strategic documents related to any aspects of their individual administrative justice system. ‘Changes and reforms’ in this field have been thus the most frequent terms being used in any of these countries. The three countries have already established their own national administrative judiciary, while permanently amending their laws on the general administrative procedure introducing thereby considerable innovations concerned. National administrative courts are expected to have crucial important role within the broader judiciary systems-related reforms of these countries; they are designed to check the legality of decisions of the state administration with the aim to guarantee an effective protection of human rights and legitimate interests of private persons through a regular, conform, fast and reasonable judicial administrative process. Further improvements in this field are presently an integral crucial part of all the relevant national strategic documents including the ones on judiciary reform and public administration reform, as adopted by each of the three countries; those strategic documents are designed among others to provide effective protection of their citizens` rights` of administrative justice. On the basis of the later, the paper finally is aimed at highlighting selective common challenges and problems of the three countries on their European road, while claiming (among others) that the current status quo situation in each of them may be overcome only if there is a proper implementation of the administrative courts decisions and a far stricter international monitoring process thereof. A new approach and strong political commitment from the highest political leadership is thus absolutely needed to ensure the principles of transparency, accountability and merit in public administration. The main methods used in this paper include the analytical and comparative ones due to the very character of the paper itself.

Keywords: Human Rights, Reform, monitoring, Implementation, Administrative Procedure, benefit, administrative justice, administrative courts, effective administrative justice

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10 Design and Implementation of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter

Authors: B. H. Lee

Abstract:

Nowadays, a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter is adopted in various places like as home, factory, because grid-connected PV inverter can reduce total power consumption by supplying electricity from PV array. In this paper, design and implementation of a 300 W grid-connected PV inverter are described. It is implemented with TI Piccolo DSP core and operated at 100 kHz switching frequency in order to reduce harmonic contents. The maximum operating input voltage is up to 45 V. The characteristics of the designed system that include maximum power point tracking (MPPT), single operation and battery charging are verified by simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: Design, Implementation, Photovoltaic, grid-connected

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9 Family and Community Care for the Elderly: An Implementation Research in Local Community, Thailand

Authors: Vorapoj Promasatayaprot, Sumattana Glangkarn

Abstract:

Background: Proportion of population ageing in Thailand has been increased rapidly in the past decades according to living longer and the fertility rates have decreased. The most important challenge related to this situation is to consider how to improve quality and years of healthy of life. This study aimed to implement the older persons’ long term care (LTC) system for elderly care by family and community. Method: The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was employed for guiding and evaluating an implementation process in ageing care. The CFIR composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Results: most elderly participants were couples, educating primary school and living with children and grandchildren. More than half of them had chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Factor analysis revealed factors related to health care of older participants which consisted of exercise, diet, accidental prevention, relaxation, self-care capacity, joyfulness, family relationship, and personal hygiene. A pre-implementation phase showed intervention characteristics included facilities and services of the LTC policy from the Ministry of Public Health. The complexities of the LTC and relative advantages were explained. Community leaders, public health volunteers, care givers and health professionals had participated in the LTC activities. Outer and inner settings consisted of context of community, culture, and readiness. Characteristics of the individuals related to knowledge, self-efficacy, perceptions, and believes. The process consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The implementation outcomes and service outcomes had been evaluated during-implementation phase. Conclusion: the participation of caregivers, community leaders, public health volunteers, and health professionals had supported the LTC services. Thus, family and community care could improve quality of life of the ageing.

Keywords: Ageing, Implementation, long term care, CFIR

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