Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

immunohistochemistry Related Abstracts

17 Expression of Slit Diaphragm Genes of Chicken Embryo Mesonephros

Authors: Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf, F. Yusuf, B Brand-Saberi

Abstract:

Purpose: Applications of nanotechnology nowadays extended to include a wide range of scientific areas such electron micrscopy and gene expression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the developmental expression pattern of genes involved in human glomerulo-nephropathies associated with massive proteinuria and podocyte differentiation using the chicken mesonephros as a model system. Method: We performed in situ hybridization using chicken specific mRNA probes for genes expressed in the early nephron and slit diaphragm genes. The probes used were cNeph1, cNeph2, cSim1, cLmx1b, and cAtoh8. Chicken embryos from Hamburger Hamilton developmental stage HH19 (E3) to HH 34 (E9) were used for the in situ hybridization (ISH). ISH was performed on whole mount embryos which were sectioned by vibratome. Results: Our result show that Neph1, Neph2, Sim1. Lmx1b and Atoh8 genes are dynamically expressed during nephron morphogenesis and Neph1 and Atoh8 are also specifically expressed in the podocytes during late stages of differentiation. Conclusion: We conclude from our results that the genes implicated in congenital and acquired glomerulo-nephropathies like Neph1 and Neph2 are dynamically expressed during mesonephros development pointing towards a role in the formation of the filtration barrier and the differentiation of the mesonephric podocytes. Thus the avian mesonephros could serve as a model to study human kidney diseases.

Keywords: Gene expression, mesonephros, chicken embryo, immunohistochemistry

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16 Detection of JC Virus DNA and T-Ag Expression in a Subpopulation of Tunisian Colorectal Carcinomas

Authors: Wafa Toumi, Alessandro Ripalti, Luigi Ricciardiello, Dalila Gargouri, Jamel Kharrat, Abderraouf Cherif, Ahmed Bouhafa, Slim Jarboui, Mohamed Zili, Ridha Khelifa

Abstract:

Background & aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies throughout the world. Several risk factors, both genetic and environmental, including viral infections, have been linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. A few studies report the detection of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) DNA and transformation antigen (T-Ag) in a fraction of the colorectal tumors studied and suggest an association of this virus with CRC. In order to investigate whether such an association of JCV with CRC will hold in a different epidemiological setting, we looked for the presence of JCV DNA and T-Ag expression in a group of Tunisian CRC patients. Methods: Fresh colorectal mucosa biopsies were obtained from 17 healthy volunteers and from both colorectal tumors and adjacent normal tissues of 47 CRC patients. DNA was extracted from fresh biopsies or from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using the Invitrogen Purelink Genomic DNA mini Kit. A simple PCR and a nested PCR were used to amplify a region of the T-Ag gene. The obtained PCR products revealed a 154 bp and a 98 bp bands, respectively. Specificity was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. T-Ag expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining using a mouse monoclonal antibody (clone PAb416) directed against SV40 T-Ag that cross reacts with JCV T-Ag. Results: JCV DNA was found in 12 (25%) and 22 (46%) of the CRC tumors by simple PCR and by nested PCR, respectively. All paired adjacent normal mucosa biopsies were negative for viral DNA. Sequencing of the DNA amplicons obtained confirmed the authenticity of T-Ag sequences. Immunohistochemical staining showed nuclear T-Ag expression in all 22 JCV DNA- positive samples and in 3 additional tumor samples which appeared DNA-negative by PCR. Conclusions: These results suggest an association of JCV with a subpopulation of Tunisian colorectal tumors.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, PCR, immunohistochemistry, Polyomavirus JC

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15 Comparison of Several Diagnostic Methods for Detecting Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Cattle

Authors: Azizollah Khodakaram- Tafti, Ali Mohammadi, Ghasem Farjanikish

Abstract:

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of cattle worldwide caused by Pestivirus genus, Flaviviridae family.The aim of the present study was to comparison several diagnostic methods and determine the prevalence of BVDV infection for the first time in dairy herds of Fars province, Iran. For initial screening, a total of 400 blood samples were randomly collected from 12 industrial dairy herds and analyzed using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on the buffy coat. In the second step, blood samples and also ear notch biopsies were collected from 100 cattle of infected farms and tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE), RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results of nested RT-PCR (outer primers 0I100/1400R and inner primers BD1/BD2) was successful in 16 out of 400 buffy coat samples (4%) as acute infection in initial screening. Also, 8 out of 100 samples (2%) were positive as persistent infection (PI) by all of the diagnostic tests similarly including RT-PCR, ACE and IHC on buffy coat, serum and skin samples, respectively. Immunoreactivity for bovine BVDV antigen as brown, coarsely to finely granular was observed within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of epidermis and hair follicles and also subcutaneous stromal cells. These findings confirm the importance of monitoring BVDV infection in cattle of this region and suggest detection and elimination of PI calves for controlling and eradication of this disease.

Keywords: Cattle, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, antigen capture ELISA, bovine viral diarrhea virus

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14 Comparision of Neospora caninum Experimental Infection in Pigeons and Chickens Embryonated Eggs

Authors: S. Bahrami, A. Rezaie, Z. Boroumand, S. Ghavami

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Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite which can cause a serious disease in dogs and cattle. It has been shown that birds may be a permissive intermediate host for N. caninum since parasite DNA has been detected in tissues from birds. It is showed that embryonated chicken egg can be used as an animal model for experimental infection. The aim of present study was to compare experimental infection of Neospora in chicken and pigeons embryonated eggs. An infection with N. caninum Nc1 isolate was conducted in chicken and pigeons embryonated eggs to evaluate LD50. After calculation of LD50, 2LD50 of tachyzoites were injected to eggs. Macroscopic changes of each embryo were noticed and to investigate the parasite distribution in tissues immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular methods were used. In the present study, histopathological changes were considered and sections to those used for histopathological examination including heart, liver, brain and chorioallantoic (CA) membrane were subjected to IHC, too. For PCR procedure, primer pair Np21/Np6 was used for amplification of the Nc5 gene. Pigeon's embryo showed more macroscopic changes than chicken embryo. A hemorrhage of the CA was the main grass lesion. All the infected tissues had histopathological changes. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed acute neosporosis due to hemorrhage, necrosis and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Based on IHC and molecular results, the parasite aggregation in the heart was more predominant than in the other tissues. These results reinforce that there is genetic susceptibility to N. caninum in pigeons embryonated eggs like chickens embryonated eggs and provide new insights to research an inexpensive and available animal model for N. caninum.

Keywords: PCR, immunohistochemistry, Neospora caninum, pigeon embryonated egg

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13 Changes in Expression of Galanin in the CSMG Neurons Supplying the Prepyloric Area of the Porcine Stomach Induced by Intragastric Infusion of Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Jarosław Całka, Katarzyna Palus

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Gastrointestinal disorders, especially acid-related diseases, including peptic and duodenal ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, upper GI bleeding or stress-related mucosal disease, are currently serious health issues encountered very frequently in patients worldwide. However, to date, the response of sympathetic neurons to gastric mucosal injury and local inflammation following hyperacidity is unknown. Thus, the present study was designed to determine possible changes in expression of galanin (GAL) in the CSMG neurons supplying the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in a physiological state and following experimentally-induced hyperacidity by using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. The choice of the domestic pig as an experimental model in the present study is not accidental and is justified by the high degree of physiological and anatomical similarity to human digestive system functions. In this experiment ten juvenile female pigs of the Large White Polish breed were used. The animals were divided into two groups: control and animals with hydrochloric acid infusion (HCl). The neuronal retrograde marker Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the anterior prepyloric wall of the stomach of all animals. After 23 days, animals of the HCl-group were reintroduced into a state of general anesthesia and intragastrically given 5 ml/kg of body weight of 0.25 M aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid. On the 28th day, all animals were euthanized. The CSMG complexes were then collected and the CSMG cryostat sections were stained immunocytochemically for GAL and TH (tyrosine hydroxylase). Immunohistochemistry revealed that in the control group 8.40 ± 0.53 % out of 200 FB-positive CSMG neurons contained GAL. In HCl group upregulation of the GAL-IR neurons to 22.52 ± 1.18 % were observed. All GAL-IR neurons in both groups showed the simultaneously TH immunoreactivity. Increase in the expression of GAL in FB-positive neurons of the HCL group may suggest its participation in the protective mechanisms of neurons in different pathological processes, such as gastric hyperacidity.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry, coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex, gastric innervation, hyperacidity

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12 Esophageal Premalignant and Malignant Epithelial Lesions: Pathological Characteristics and Value of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression.

Authors: Hanan Mohamed Abd Elmoneim, Rawan Saleh AlJawi, Razan Saleh AlJawi, Aseel Abdullah AlMasoudi, Zyad Adnan Turkistani, Anas Abdulkarim Alkhoutani, Ohood Musaed AlJuhani, Hanan Attiyah AlZahrani

Abstract:

Background Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide. More than 90% of esophageal cancers are either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. Squamous dysplasia is a precancerous lesion for squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's esophagus is the precancerous lesion for adenocarcinoma. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the initiation factor for Barrett's esophagus. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme in arachidonic metabolism. It appears to play an important role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. COX-2 activity may be a potential target for the prevention of cancer progression by selective COX-2 inhibitors, which decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis. Objectives To assess COX-2 expression in premalignant and malignant esophageal epitheliums changes and detect its roles in progression of these lesions. Materials and Methods We analyzed the expression of COX-2 immunohistochemically in 40 esophageal biopsies utilizing the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method on archival formalin fixed-paraffin embedded blocks. Histopathologically, 17 (42.5%) of cases were non-malignant cases which included GERD, Barrett's esophagus and squamous dysplasia. The malignant cases were 23 (57.5%) squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Results In non-malignant cases 7 (41.2%) out of 17 cases had high COX-2 expression. In squamous cell carcinoma 10 (83.3%) out of 12 cases had high COX-2 expression. The expression of COX-2 was high in all 9 (100%) cases of adenocarcinoma. COX-2 expression is significantly increased (P=0.005 and P=0.0001) in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma respectively. There was a significant difference in COX-2 immunoreactivity between malignant and non-malignant lesions (P=0.0003). Conclusion COX-2 is responsible for the progression of esophageal diseases from benign to malignant. We recommend that COX-2 immunohistochemistry should be done routinely for premalignant and malignant esophageal lesions as selective COX-2 inhibitors will be helpful in the treatment. Further studies on molecular and genetic basis of COX-2 expression are needed to unmask its role and relation to progression of esophageal lesions.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry, COX-2, Esophageal adinocarcinoma, Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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11 Rumen Epithelium Development of Bovine Fetuses and Newborn Calves

Authors: Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão, Letícia Palmeira Pinto, Francisco Palma Rennó, Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

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The ruminant stomach is a complex and multi-chambered organ. Although the true stomach (abomasum) is fully differentiated and functional at birth, the same does not occur with the rumen chamber. At this moment, rumen papillae are small or nonexistent. The papillae only fully develop after weaning and during calf growth. Papillae development and ruminal epithelium specialization during the fetus growth and at birth must be two interdependent processes that will prepare the rumen to adapt to ruminant adult feeding. The microscopic study of rumen epithelium at these early phases of life is important to understand how this structure prepares the rumen to deal with the following weaning processes and its functional activation. Samples of ruminal mucosa of bovine fetuses (110- and 150 day-old) and newborn calves were collected (dorsal and ventral portions) and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The basal cell layer of the stratified pavimentous epithelium present in different ruminal portions of the fetuses was thicker than the same portions of newborn calves. The superficial and intermediate epithelial layers of 150 day-old fetuses were thicker than those found in the other 2 studied ages. At this age (150 days), dermal papillae begin to invade the intermediate epithelial layer which gradually disappears in newborn calves. At birth, the ruminal papillae project from the epithelial surface, probably by regression of the epithelial cells (transitory cells) surrounding the dermal papillae. The PCNA cell proliferation index (%) was calculated for all epithelial samples. Fetuses 150 day-old showed increased cell proliferation in basal cell layer (Dorsal Portion: 84.2%; Ventral Portion: 89.8%) compared to other ages studied. Newborn calves showed an intermediate index (Dorsal Portion: 65.1%; Ventral Portion: 48.9%), whereas 110 day-old fetuses had the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.2%; Ventral Portion: 20.6%). Regarding the transitory epithelium, 110 day-old fetuses showed the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 44.6%; Ventral Portion: 20.1%), 150 day-old fetuses showed an intermediate proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.5%; Ventral Portion: 71.1%) and newborn calves presented a higher proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 75.1%; Ventral Portion: 19.6%). Under TEM, the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses presented thicker and poorly organized basal cell layer, with large nuclei and dense cytoplasm. In newborn calves, the basal cell layer was more organized and with fewer layers, but typically similar in both regions of the rumen. For the transitory epithelium, fetuses displayed larger cells than those found in newborn calves with less electrondense cytoplasm than that found in the basal cells. The ruminal dorsal portion has an overall higher cell proliferation rate than the ventral portion. Thus we can infer that the dorsal portion may have a higher cell activity than the ventral portion during ruminal development. Moreover, the basal cell layer is thicker in the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses than in the newborn calves. The transitory epithelium, which is much reduced, at birth may have a structural support function of the developing dermal papillae. When it regresses or is sheared off, the papillae are “carved out” from the surrounding epithelial layer.

Keywords: Bovine, Calf, TEM, fetus, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin, epithelium, Rumen

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10 The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Mediated Cardiotoxicity

Authors: Alparslan Kadir Devrim, Mahmut Sozmen, Yonca Betil Kabak, Tuba Devrim

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Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of deaths in the worldwide. Mature cardiomyocytes do not have the ability to regenerate instead fibrous tissue proliferate and granulation tissue to fill out. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration for the cardiomyocyte regeneration in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The experiment was performed on 84 male rats (6 months old) in 4 group each contains 21 rats. Saline applied subcutaneously (1 ml/kg) two times with 24 hours intervals to the rats in control group (Group 1). Recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally in group 2 on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. days on same dates in group 4. Isoproterenol dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally (85mg/kg/day) two times with 24 hours intervals to the groups 3 and 4. Rats in group 4 further received recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline intraperitoneally starting one day after the final isoproterenol administration on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. Following the final application of periostin rats continued to feed routinely with pelleted chow and water ad libitum for further seven days. At the end of 7th day rats sacrificed, blood and heart tissue samples collected for the immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis. Angiogenesis in response to tissue damage, is a highly dynamic process regulated by signals from the surrounding extracellular matrix and blood serum. In this project, VEGF, ANGPT, bFGF, TGFβ are the key factors that contribute to cardiomyocyte regeneration were investigated. Additionally, the relationship between mitosis and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, PCNA, Ki-67, Phopho-Histone H3), cell cycle activators and inhibitors (Cyclin D1, D2, A2, Cdc2), the origin of regenerating cells (cKit and CD45) were examined. Present results revealed that periostin stimulated cardiomyocye cell-cycle re-entry in both normal and MCA damaged cardiomyocytes and increased angiogenesis. Thus, periostin contributes to cardiomyocyte regeneration during the healing period following myocardial infarction which provides a better understanding of its role of this mechanism, improving recovery rates and it is expected to contribute the lack of literature on this subject. Acknowledgement: This project was financially supported by Turkish Scientific Research Council- Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Research Support Group (TUBİTAK-TOVAG; Project No: 114O734), Ankara, TURKEY.

Keywords: isoproterenol, immunohistochemistry, cardiotoxicity, periostin

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9 Expert Supporting System for Diagnosing Lymphoid Neoplasms Using Probabilistic Decision Tree Algorithm and Immunohistochemistry Profile Database

Authors: Yosep Chong, Yejin Kim, Jingyun Choi, Hwanjo Yu, Eun Jung Lee, Chang Suk Kang

Abstract:

For the past decades, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been playing an important role in the diagnosis of human neoplasms, by helping pathologists to make a clearer decision on differential diagnosis, subtyping, personalized treatment plan, and finally prognosis prediction. However, the IHC performed in various tumors of daily practice often shows conflicting and very challenging results to interpret. Even comprehensive diagnosis synthesizing clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical findings can be helpless in some twisted cases. Another important issue is that the IHC data is increasing exponentially and more and more information have to be taken into account. For this reason, we reached an idea to develop an expert supporting system to help pathologists to make a better decision in diagnosing human neoplasms with IHC results. We gave probabilistic decision tree algorithm and tested the algorithm with real case data of lymphoid neoplasms, in which the IHC profile is more important to make a proper diagnosis than other human neoplasms. We designed probabilistic decision tree based on Bayesian theorem, program computational process using MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., USA) and prepared IHC profile database (about 104 disease category and 88 IHC antibodies) based on WHO classification by reviewing the literature. The initial probability of each neoplasm was set with the epidemiologic data of lymphoid neoplasm in Korea. With the IHC results of 131 patients sequentially selected, top three presumptive diagnoses for each case were made and compared with the original diagnoses. After the review of the data, 124 out of 131 were used for final analysis. As a result, the presumptive diagnoses were concordant with the original diagnoses in 118 cases (93.7%). The major reason of discordant cases was that the similarity of the IHC profile between two or three different neoplasms. The expert supporting system algorithm presented in this study is in its elementary stage and need more optimization using more advanced technology such as deep-learning with data of real cases, especially in differentiating T-cell lymphomas. Although it needs more refinement, it may be used to aid pathological decision making in future. A further application to determine IHC antibodies for a certain subset of differential diagnoses might be possible in near future.

Keywords: Database, immunohistochemistry, expert supporting system, probabilistic decision tree

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8 Comparison of β-Cell Regenerative Potentials of Selected Sri Lankan Medicinal Plant Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: A. P. Attanayake, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa, C. Pathirana

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Triggering of β-cell regeneration is a recognized therapeutic strategy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. One such approach to foster restoration and regeneration of β-cells is from exogenous natural extracts. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the β-cell regenerative potentials of the extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt and Gmelina arborea Roxb. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided in to six groups (n=6); healthy untreated rats, alloxan induced diabetic untreated rats (150 mg/kg, ip), diabetic rats receiving the extracts of S. pinnata (1.0 g/kg), C. grandis (0.75 g/kg), G. arobrea (1.00 g/kg) and diabetic rats receiving glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) for 30 days. The assessment of selected biochemical parameters, histopathology and immunohistochemistry in the pancreatic tissue were done on the 30th day. The reduction in the percentage of HbA1C was in the decreasing order of C. grandis (35%), G. arborea (31%) and S. pinnata (29%) in alloxan induced diabetic rats (p< 0.05). The concentration of serum fructosamine, insulin and C-peptide were decreased significantly in a decreasing order of C. grandis (30%, 72%, 51%), G. arborea (25%, 44%, 44%) and S. pinnata (27%, 34%, 24%) in alloxan induced diabetic rats (p < 0.05). The extent of β-cell regeneration was in the decreasing order of C. grandis, G. arborea, S. pinnata reflected through the increased percentage of insulin secreting β-cells in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract of C. grandis produced the highest degree of β-cell regeneration demonstrated through an increase in the number of islets and percentage of the insulin secreting β-cells (75%) in the pancreas of diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Further the C. grandis extract produced a significant increase in mean profile diameter in small (118%), average (10%), and large (13%) islets as compared with diabetic control rats respectively. However, statistically significant increase in the islet profile diameter was shown only in average (2%) and large (5%) islets in the G. arborea extract treated rats and large islets (5%) in S. pinnata extract treated diabetic rats (p < 0.05). The β-cell regeneration potency was in the decreasing order of C. grandis (0.75 g/kg), G. arborea (1.00 g/kg) and S. pinnata (1.00 g/kg) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The three plant extracts may be useful as natural agents of triggering the β-cell regeneration in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, alloxan-induced diabetic rats, β-cell regeneration

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7 Development of NO-Ergic Synaptic Transmission in Sympathetic Neurons of Mammals: Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Konstantin Yu. Moiseev, Antonina F. Budnik, Andrey I. Emanuilov, Petr M. Masliukov

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The vast majority of sympathetic ganglionic neurons are catecholaminergic. Some sympathetic neurons lack catecholamines and mostly use acetylcholine as their main neurotransmitter. Some cholinergic postganglionic neurons also express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Preganglionic sympathetic neurons are cholinergic and most of them are also nNOS-immunoreactive (IR). The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the neuroplasticity of sympathetic neurons during postnatal ontogenesis by comparing the development of pre- and postganglionic neurons expressing nNOS in different mammals. nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG), stellate ganglion (SG), celiac ganglion (CG) and spinal cord from rats, mice and cats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old and 2-year-old). In rats and mice, nNOS-positive neurons were not found in sympathetic ganglia from birth onwards. In cats, non-catecholaminergic nNOS-IR sympathetic ganglionic neurons are present from the moment of birth. In all studied age groups, substantial populations of nNOS-IR cells (up to 8.3%) was found in the SG, with a much smaller population found in the SCG (<1%) and only few cells observed in the CG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons in the CG and SCG did not significantly change during development. The proportion of nNOS-IR neuron profiles in the SG increased in first 20 days of life from 2.3±0.15% to 8.3±0.56%. In the SG, percentages of nNOS-IR sympathetic neurons colocalizing vasoactive intestinal peptide increased in the first 20 days of life. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IR and calcitonin gene-related peptide-IR neurons were not observed in the sympathetic ganglia of newborn animals and did not appear until 10 days after birth. In the SG of newborn and 10-day-old kittens, the majority of NOS-IR neurons were calbindin (CB)-IR, whereas in the SCG and CG of cats of all age groups and in the SG of 30-day-old and older kittens, the vast majority of NOS-IR neurons lacked CB. In newborn mammals, the most of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the nucleus intermediolateralis thoracolumbalis pars principalis (nucl.ILp) were nNOS-IR. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons decreased and the same parameter of ChAT-IR neurons increased during the development. We conclude that the development of nNOS-IR preganglionic and ganglionic sympathetic neurons in different mammals has time and species differences.

Keywords: Development, immunohistochemistry, sympathetic neuron, nitric oxide synthase

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6 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: Oral Cancer, immunohistochemistry, BcL-2, oral precancer

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5 Epidemiological-Anatomopathological-Immunohistochemical Profile of Gastric Cancer throughout Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi, R. L. Bouchouka

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The stomach cancer or gastric cancer is an aggressive cancer with a significant geographic disparity. The decrease in frequency is attributed to refrigeration, which has several beneficial consequences, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of salt, which was widely used as a food preservative, and less contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds. The infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa usually evolving into stomach cancer in 80% of cases. Methodology: This epidemiological and analytical study concerns 65 patients (46 men and 19 women) with gastric adenocarcinomas with an average age of 56.5 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.4. Results and Discussion: In this series, the clinical symptoms are dominated by epigastralgia (72.31%), vomiting (27,69%), and slimming (24,62%). The FOGD (Oeso-Gastro Duodenal Fibroscopy) performed in the 65 patients revealed a predominance of the antro-pyloric localization in 19 cases (i.e., 29.23%) and anulcerative budding appearance in 33 subjects (50,77%). Histologically, the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is found in 30.77% of patients, followed by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with 26.15% of patients. The immunohistochemical study revealed a positive labeling of half of the T cells by anti-CD3 AC, and a positive labeling of anti-CD20 AC in a diffuse and intense manner, with the presence of CD20-positive lymphoepithelial lesions compatible with CD20 a low grade MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: This framework of analysis revealed some risk factors for gastric cancer, such as food, hygiene, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and family history.

Keywords: Cancer, Stomach, Helicobacter pylori, immunohistochemistry

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4 Report of Glucagonoma in a Dog: Ultrasonographic Morphologic Imaging and Histopathologic Diagnosis

Authors: Javad Khoshnegah, Hossein Nourani, Ali Mirshahi

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A 12-year-old female Terrier presented with lethargy, decreased appetite, melena, polyuria and polydipsia. On physical examination skin lesions including crusting, erythema and pupolopustular lesions, were observed mainly on the abdomen. Based on blood examinations, ultrasonography, necropsy and histopathological findings, the condition was diagnosed as superficial necrolytic dermatitis. Gross necropsy revealed hepatomegaly (severe vacuolar change of the hepatocytes) and a 5×5 mass adjusent to mesenteric lymph nodes which is finally diagnosed as tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the neoplastic cells revealed that the tumor was a glucagonoma.

Keywords: Tumor, Dog, immunohistochemistry, glucagonoma

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3 Downregulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Advanced Stage Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Sarocha Vivatvakin, Thanaporn Ratchataswan, Thiratest Leesutipornchai, Komkrit Ruangritchankul, Somboon Keelawat, Virachai Kerekhanjanarong, Patnarin Mahattanasakul, Saknan Bongsebandhu-Phubhakdi

Abstract:

In this globalization era, much attention has been drawn to various molecular biomarkers, which may have the potential to predict the progression of cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the classic member of the ErbB family of membrane-associated intrinsic tyrosine kinase receptors. EGFR expression was found in several organs throughout the body as its roles involve in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in normal physiologic conditions. However, anomalous expression, whether over- or under-expression is believed to be the underlying mechanism of pathologic conditions, including carcinogenesis. Even though numerous discussions regarding the EGFR as a prognostic tool in head and neck cancer have been established, the consensus has not yet been met. The aims of the present study are to assess the correlation between the level of EGFR expression and demographic data as well as clinicopathological features and to evaluate the ability of EGFR as a reliable prognostic marker. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate the probable pathophysiology that explains the finding results. This retrospective study included 30 squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma patients treated at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. EGFR expression level was observed to be significantly downregulated with the progression of the laryngeal cancer stage. (one way ANOVA, p = 0.001) A statistically significant lower EGFR expression in the late stage of the disease compared to the early stage was recorded. (unpaired t-test, p = 0.041) EGFR overexpression also showed the tendency to increase recurrence of cancer (unpaired t-test, p = 0.128). A significant downregulation of EGFR expression was documented in advanced stage laryngeal cancer. The results indicated that EGFR level correlates to prognosis in term of stage progression. Thus, EGFR expression might be used as a prevailing biomarker for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma prognostic prediction.

Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, immunohistochemistry, downregulation, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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2 Automatic Detection of Proliferative Cells in Immunohistochemically Images of Meningioma Using Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and HSV Color Space

Authors: Vahid Anari, Mina Bakhshi

Abstract:

Visual search and identification of immunohistochemically stained tissue of meningioma was performed manually in pathologic laboratories to detect and diagnose the cancers type of meningioma. This task is very tedious and time-consuming. Moreover, because of cell's complex nature, it still remains a challenging task to segment cells from its background and analyze them automatically. In this paper, we develop and test a computerized scheme that can automatically identify cells in microscopic images of meningioma and classify them into positive (proliferative) and negative (normal) cells. Dataset including 150 images are used to test the scheme. The scheme uses Fuzzy C-means algorithm as a color clustering method based on perceptually uniform hue, saturation, value (HSV) color space. Since the cells are distinguishable by the human eye, the accuracy and stability of the algorithm are quantitatively compared through application to a wide variety of real images.

Keywords: color segmentation, fuzzy c-means, thresholding, immunohistochemistry, meningioma, positive cell, HSV color space

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1 Prevalence of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes at a Tertiary Cancer Institute

Authors: Nahush Modak, Meena Pangarkar, Anand Pathak, Ankita Tamhane

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the prominent cause of cancer and mortality among women. This study was done to show the statistical analysis of a cohort of over 250 patients detected with breast cancer diagnosed by oncologists using Immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was performed by using ER; PR; HER2; Ki-67 antibodies. Materials and methods: Formalin fixed Paraffin embedded tissue samples were obtained by surgical manner and standard protocol was followed for fixation, grossing, tissue processing, embedding, cutting and IHC. The Ventana Benchmark XT machine was used for automated IHC of the samples. Antibodies used were supplied by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS for windows. Statistical tests performed were chi-squared test and Correlation tests with p<.01. The raw data was collected and provided by National Cancer Insitute, Jamtha, India. Result: Luminal B was the most prevailing molecular subtype of Breast cancer at our institute. Chi squared test of homogeneity was performed to find equality in distribution and Luminal B was the most prevalent molecular subtype. The worse prognostic indicator for breast cancer depends upon expression of Ki-67 and her2 protein in cancerous cells. Our study was done at p <.01 and significant dependence was observed. There exists no dependence of age on molecular subtype of breast cancer. Similarly, age is an independent variable while considering Ki-67 expression. Chi square test performed on Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses of patients and strong dependence was observed in percentage of Ki-67 expression and Her2 (+/-) character which shows that, value of Ki depends upon Her2 expression in cancerous cells (p<.01). Surprisingly, dependence was observed in case of Ki-67 and Pr, at p <.01. This shows that Progesterone receptor proteins (PR) are over-expressed when there is an elevation in expression of Ki-67 protein. Conclusion: We conclude from that Luminal B is the most prevalent molecular subtype at National Cancer Institute, Jamtha, India. There was found no significant correlation between age and Ki-67 expression in any molecular subtype. And no dependence or correlation exists between patients’ age and molecular subtype. We also found that, when the diagnosis is Luminal A, out of the cohort of 257 patients, no patient shows >14% Ki-67 value. Statistically, extremely significant values were observed for dependence of PR+Her2- and PR-Her2+ scores on Ki-67 expression. (p<.01). Her2 is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer. Chi squared test for Her2 and Ki-67 shows that the expression of Ki depends upon Her2 statuses. Moreover, Ki-67 cannot be used as a standalone prognostic factor for determining breast cancer.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, correlation, immunohistochemistry, breast cancer molecular subtypes, Ki-67 and HR

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