Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Immune response Related Abstracts

9 A Galectin from Rock Bream Oplegnathus fasciatus: Molecular Characterization and Immunological Properties

Authors: N. Umasuthan, W. S. Thulasitha, Jehee Lee, G. I. Godahewa

Abstract:

In fish, innate immune defense is the first immune response against microbial pathogens which consists of several antimicrobial components. Galectins are one of the carbohydrate binding lectins that have the ability to identify pathogen by recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns. Galectins play a vital role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus is one of the most important cultured species in Korea and Japan. Considering the losses due to microbial pathogens, present study was carried out to understand the molecular and functional characteristics of a galectin in normal and pathogenic conditions, which could help to establish an understanding about immunological components of rock bream. Complete cDNA of rock bream galectin like protein B (rbGal like B) was identified from the cDNA library, and the in silico analysis was carried out using bioinformatic tools. Genomic structure was derived from the BAC library by sequencing a specific clone and using Spidey. Full length of rbGal like B (contig14775) cDNA containing 517 nucleotides was identified from the cDNA library which comprised of 435 bp in the open reading frame encoding a deduced protein composed of 145 amino acids. The molecular mass of putative protein was predicted as 16.14 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.55. A characteristic conserved galactose binding domain was located from 12 to 145 amino acids. Genomic structure of rbGal like B consisted of 4 exons and 3 introns. Moreover, pairwise alignment showed that rock bream rbGal like B shares highest similarity (95.9 %) and identity (91 %) with Takifugu rubripes galectin related protein B like and lowest similarity (55.5 %) and identity (32.4 %) with Homo sapiens. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that the galectin related protein B was conserved among vertebrates. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that rbGal like B protein clustered together with other fish homologs in fish clade. It showed closer evolutionary link with Takifugu rubripes. Tissue distribution and expression patterns of rbGal like B upon immune challenges were performed using qRT-PCR assays. Among all tested tissues, level of rbGal like B expression was significantly high in gill tissue followed by kidney, intestine, heart and spleen. Upon immune challenges, it showed an up-regulated pattern of expression with Edwardsiella tarda, rock bream irido virus and poly I:C up to 6 h post injection and up to 24 h with LPS. However, In the presence of Streptococcus iniae rbGal like B showed an up and down pattern of expression with the peak at 6 - 12 h. Results from the present study revealed the phylogenetic position and role of rbGal like B in response to microbial infection in rock bream.

Keywords: Immune response, Molecular Characterization, galectin like protein B, Oplegnathus fasciatus

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8 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, Jehee Lee, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan

Abstract:

Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Immune response, rock bream, Kunitz-type, serine protease inhibitor

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7 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian

Abstract:

Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: Wound Healing, Common carp, Immune response, falcaria vulgaris

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6 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: mice, Immune response, Hepatitis B vaccine, anti-HBs, methylprednisolone

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5 Allergenic Potential of Airborne Algae Isolated from Malaysia

Authors: Chu Wan-Loy, Kok Yih-Yih, Choong Siew-Ling

Abstract:

The human health risks due to poor air quality caused by a wide array of microorganisms have attracted much interest. Airborne algae have been reported as early as 19th century and they can be found in the air of tropic and warm atmospheres. Airborne algae normally originate from water surfaces, soil, trees, buildings and rock surfaces. It is estimated that at least 2880 algal cells are inhaled per day by human. However, there are relatively little data published on airborne algae and its related adverse health effects except sporadic reports of algae associated clinical allergenicity. A collection of airborne algae cultures has been established following a recent survey on the occurrence of airborne algae in indoor and outdoor environments in Kuala Lumpur. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenic potential of the isolated airborne green and blue-green algae, namely Scenedesmus sp., Cylindrospermum sp. and Hapalosiphon sp.. The suspensions of freeze-dried airborne algae were adminstered into balb-c mice model through intra-nasal route to determine their allergenic potential. Results showed that Scenedesmus sp. (1 mg/mL) increased the systemic Ig E levels in mice by 3-8 fold compared to pre-treatment. On the other hand, Cylindrospermum sp. and Hapalosiphon sp. at similar concentration caused the Ig E to increase by 2-4 fold. The potential of airborne algae causing Ig E mediated type 1 hypersensitivity was elucidated using other immunological markers such as cytokine interleukin (IL)- 4, 5, 6 and interferon-ɣ. When we compared the amount of interleukins in mouse serum between day 0 and day 53 (day of sacrifice), Hapalosiphon sp. (1mg/mL) increased the expression of IL4 and 6 by 8 fold while the Cylindrospermum sp. (1mg/mL) increased the expression of IL4 and IFɣ by 8 and 2 fold respectively. In conclusion, repeated exposure to the three selected airborne algae may stimulate the immune response and generate Ig E in a mouse model.

Keywords: Respiratory, Immune response, Malaysia, airborne algae, allergenic

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4 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary

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The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: Chromium, Immune response, haematological, camel calves

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3 Evaluation of Two DNA Vaccine Constructs in Labeo rohita against Edwardsiella tarda

Authors: Ranjeeta Kumari, Makesh M, Gayatri Tripathi, K V Rajendran, Megha Bedekar

Abstract:

A comparative study on DNA immunization with recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) construct of Edwardsiella tarda (pGPD group) and a bicistronic construct expressing GAPDH plus IFN-γ of Labeo rohita as adjuvant (pGPD+IFN group) was undertaken in Labeo rohita along with the control animals. Successful co-expression of two genes that is GAPDH and IFN-γ was confirmed in SSN-1 cells line by RT-qPCR and western blot. The protective immune response of host to DNA vaccine construct was determined by RPS and specific antibody production. Fishes immunized with plasmids via intramuscular injection (I/M) exhibited a considerable relative percentage survivability of 66.66% in pGPD+IFN immunized group and 53.34% in pGPD immunized group after challenge with E. tarda. Antibody response was also significantly high in pGPD+IFN group at all time points under study. This was analysed by competitive ELISA, using anti GAPDH monoclonal antibodies. The experiment revealed that the GAPDH gene of E. tarda is one of the ideal candidates for generating protective immune response in L. rohita. Further addition of Interferon gamma to DNA vaccine construct can enhance the immune response in host.

Keywords: Zoonosis, Immune response, Labeo rohita, DNA vaccine, Edwardsiella tarda

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2 Effect of Metarhizium robertsii in Rhipicephalus microplus hemocytes

Authors: Jessica P. Fiorotti, Maria C. Freitas, Caio J. B. Coutinho-Rodrigues, Mariana G. Camargo, Emily S. Mesquita, Amanda R. C. Corval, Ricardo O. B. Bitencourt, Allan F. Marciano, Diva D. Spadacci-Morena, Patricia S. Golo, Isabele C. Angelo, Vania R. E. P. Bittencourt

Abstract:

The bovine tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an arthropod of great importance in veterinary medicine leading to anemia, weight loss, animals' leather depreciation and also acting as a vector of many pathogens. In this way, the parasitism causes a loss of 3.24 billion dollars per year in Brazil. Knowingly, entomopathogenic fungi act as natural controller of some arthropods, acting mainly by active penetration through the cuticle. However, it can also act on the hemolymph and through the production of mycotoxins. Hemocytes are responsible for the cellular immune response and participate in the processes of phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation and may undergo changes when challenged by pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in R. microplus hemocytes after inoculation of Metarhizium robertsii using transmission electron microscopy. The isolate ARSEF 2575 and 200 engorged R. microplus females were used. The groups were divided into control, in which the females were inoculated with 5 μL of sterile distilled water solution and 0.1% Tween 80, and a group inoculated with 5 μL of fungal suspension at the concentration of 10⁷ conidia mL⁻¹. The experiment was performed in duplicate and each group contained 50 females. Twenty-four hours after fungal inoculation, hemolymph was collected through the cuticle dorsal surface perforation of the tick females. After collection, the hemolymph samples were centrifuged at 500 x g for 3 minutes at 4 °C, the plasma was discarded and the hemocyte pellet was resuspended in 50 μl PBS. The suspension material was fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in Millonig buffer for three hours. After fixation, the material was centrifuged at 500 x g for 3 minutes, the supernatant was discarded and the cells were resuspended in a wash solution. Subsequently, the cells were post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide in phosphate buffer for one hour at room temperature and dehydrated in increasing concentrations of ethanol, and then embedded in Epon resin. The ultrathin sections were examined under the LEO EM 906E transmission electron microscopy at 80kV. The ultrastructural results revealed that.in control group, the cells were considered intact, in which the granulocytes were observed with granules of different electrodensities, intact mitochondria and cytoplasm without vacuolization. In addition, granulocytes showed plasma membrane projections similar to pseudopodia. Plasmatocytes presented as irregularly shaped cells, with the eccentric nucleus, agranular cytoplasm and some cells presented pseudopodia. Nevertheless, in the group exposed to the fungus, most of the cells presented in degeneration. The granulocytes found had fewer granules in the cytoplasm and more vacuoles. Plasmatocytes, after treatment, presented many vacuoles also in the cytoplasm and the lysosomes presented great amount of electrodense material in their interior. Thus, the results suggest that the fungus has a depressant action in the immune system of the tick, not only by the cell degranulation, but also suggesting that this leads to morphological changes in the hemocytes and may even trigger processes such as phagocytosis.

Keywords: Immune response, entomopathogenic fungi, bovine tick, cellular defense

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1 Immune Response and Histological Alteration in the Crab Carcinus aestuarii, Due to Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Ines Kovacic, Dijana Pavicic-Hamer, Petra Buric, Maja Levak Zorinc, Daniel M. Lyons

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, have become one of the most widely used nanoparticles in consumer products. Despite the increased use of AgNPs in science and industry over the past twenty years, only relatively recently has concern been raised over their entering brackish and marine environments. However, data on their potential impact on marine organisms, especially invertebrates are very limited. This study aimed to examine the effects of 60 nm AgNPs (10, 100, 500 and 1000 µg/l) and silver ions (100, 1000 µg/l) on the Mediterranean green crab Carcinus aestuarii Nardo, 1847. The crab mortality was assessed during seven days of exposure. After the exposure, total haemocytes (THC) and differential haemocytes number (DHC) were counted (immune response), in addition to histological examination of gills stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The effect of AgNPs and silver ions resulted in a dose dependent mortality and destruction of gills epithelium with haemocytes infiltration in the gills lacuna. Total haemocyte count was greater with increasing concentration of AgNPs, at concentrations from 10 to 500 µg/l. Hyalinocytes were the most common immunological cells noted in the crab hemolymph, while granulocytes and semigranulocytes were suppressed with increasing concentration of AgNPs (500 and 1000 µg/l). Thus, as crabs are filter feeders, they are susceptible to uptake of AgNPs by direct accumulation in gills mucus or indirectly via circulation of haemocytes in their open vascular system. Results of this study on crabs add to knowledge of the effects of AgNPs in the marine environment.

Keywords: Immune response, Silver Nanoparticles, crab, histological alteration

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