Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

imbibition Related Abstracts

2 Comparative Studies on Spontaneous Imbibition of Surfactant/Alkaline Solution in Carbonate Rocks

Authors: M. Asgari, N. Heydari, N. Shojai Kaveh, S. N. Ashrafizadeh

Abstract:

Chemical flooding methods are having importance in enhanced oil recovery to recover the trapped oil after conventional recovery, as conventional oil resources become scarce. The surfactant/alkaline process consists of injecting alkali and synthetic surfactant. The addition of surfactant to injected water reduces oil/water IFT and/or alters wettability. The alkali generates soap in situ by reaction between the alkali and naphthenic acids in the crude oil. Oil recovery in fractured reservoirs mostly depends on spontaneous imbibition (SI) of brine into matrix blocks. Thus far, few efforts have been made toward understanding the relative influence of capillary and gravity forces on the fluid flow. This paper studies the controlling mechanisms of spontaneous imbibition process in chalk formations by consideration of type and concentration of surfactants, CMC, pH and alkaline reagent concentration. Wetting properties of carbonate rock have been investigated by means of contact-angle measurements. Interfacial-tension measurements were conducted using spinning drop method. Ten imbibition experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure and various temperatures from 30°C to 50°C. All experiments were conducted above the CMC of each surfactant. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of ultimate oil recovery and reveal that wettability alteration achieved by nonionic surfactant, which led to imbibition of brine sample containing the nonionic surfactant, while IFT value was not in range of ultra low. The displacement of oil was initially dominated by capillary forces. However, for cationic surfactant, gravity forces was the dominant force for oil production by surfactant solution to overcome the negative capillary pressure.

Keywords: Capillary, Gravity, Wettability, surfactant, alkaline, imbibition

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1 The Application of Image Analyzer to Study the Effects of Pericarp in the Imbibition Process of Melia dubia Seeds

Authors: Satya Srii, Nethra

Abstract:

An image analyzer system is described to study the process of imbibition in Melia dubia seeds. The experimental system consisted of control C (seeds with intact pericarp) with two treatments, namely T1 (seeds with pericarp punctured) and T2 (naked seeds without pericarp). The measurement software in the image analyzer can determine the area and perimeter as descriptors of changes in seed size during swelling resulting from imbibition. Using the area and perimeter parameter, the imbibition process in C, T1, and T2 was described by a series of curves similar to the triphasic pattern of water uptake, with the extent and rate depending upon the treatment. Naked seeds without pericarp (T2) took lesser time to reach phase III during imbition followed by seeds with pericarp punctured (T1) while the seeds with intact pericarp (C) were the slowest to attain phase III. This shows the effect of pericarp in acting as a potential inhibitor to imbibition inducing a large delay in germination. The sensitivity and feasibility of the method to investigate individual seeds within a population imply that the image analyzer has high potential in seed biology studies.

Keywords: Germination, imbibition, image analyzer, Melia dubia, pericarp

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