Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

hysteresis Related Abstracts

14 Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
13 Characteristics Influencing Response of a Base Isolated Building

Authors: Ounis Hadj Mohamed, Ounis Abdelhafid

Abstract:

In order to illustrate the effect of damping on the response of a base-isolated building, a parametric study is led, taking into account the progressive variation of the damping ratio (10% to 30%) under different types of seismic excitations (near and far field). A time history analysis is used to determine the response of the structure in terms of relative displacement and understory drift at various levels of the building. Thus, the results show that the efficiency of the isolator increases with the assumed damping ratio, provided that this latter is less or equal to 20%. Beyond this value, the isolator becomes less convenient. Furthermore, a strong deviation of energy capacity by the LRB (Lead Rubber Bearing) system is recorded.

Keywords: Damping, base isolation, hysteresis, LRB, seismic excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
12 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
11 Preparation and Study of Pluronic F127 Monolayers at Air-Water Interface

Authors: Neha Kanodia, M. Kamil

Abstract:

Properties of mono layers of Pluronic F127 at air/water interface have been investigated by using Langmuir trough method. Pluronic F127 is a triblock copolymer of poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO groups)– poly (propylene oxide) (PO groups)–poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO groups). Surface pressure versus mean molecular area isotherms is studied. The isotherm of the mono layer showed the characteristics of a pancake-to-brush transition upon compression of the mono layer. The effect of adding surfactant (SDS) to polymer and the effect of increasing loading on polymer was also studied. The effect of repeated compression and expansion cycle (or hysteresis curve) is investigated to know about stability of the film formed. Static elasticity of mono layer gives information about molecular arrangement, phase structure and phase transition.

Keywords: hysteresis, surface-pressure, mean molecular area isotherms, static elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
10 Influence of Stress Relaxation and Hysteresis Effect for Pressure Garment Design

Authors: Chia-Wen Yeh, Ting-Sheng Lin, Chih-Han Chang

Abstract:

Pressure garment has been used to prevent and treat the hypertrophic scars following serious burns since 1970s. The use of pressure garment is believed to hasten the maturation process and decrease the highness of scars. Pressure garment is custom made by reducing circumferential measurement of the patient by 10%~20%, called Reduction Factor. However the exact reducing value used depends on the subjective judgment of the therapist and the feeling of patients throughout the try and error process. The Laplace Law can be applied to calculate the pressure from the dimension of the pressure garment by the circumferential measurements of the patients and the tension profile of the fabrics. The tension profile currently obtained neglects the stress relaxation and hysteresis effect within most elastic fabrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the tension attenuation, from stress relaxation and hysteresis effect of the fabrics. Samples of pressure garment were obtained from Sunshine Foundation Organization, a nonprofit organization for burn patients in Taiwan. The wall tension profile of pressure garments were measured on a material testing system. Specimens were extended to 10% of the original length, held for 1 hour for the influence of the stress relaxation effect to take place. Then, specimens were extended to 15% of the original length for 10 seconds, then reduced to 10% to simulate donning movement for the influence of the hysteresis effect to take place. The load history was recorded. The stress relaxation effect is obvious from the load curves. The wall tension is decreased by 8.5%~10% after 60mins of holding. The hysteresis effect is obvious from the load curves. The wall tension is increased slightly, then decreased by 1.5%~2.5% and lower than stress relaxation results after 60mins of holding. The wall tension attenuation of the fabric exists due to stress relaxation and hysteresis effect. The influence of hysteresis is more than stress relaxation. These effect should be considered in order to design and evaluate the pressure of pressure garment more accurately.

Keywords: hysteresis, hypertrophic scars, pressure garment, stress relaxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
9 Adaptive Control of Magnetorheological Damper Using Duffing-Like Model

Authors: Hung-Jiun Chi, Cheng-En Tsai, Jia-Ying Tu

Abstract:

Semi-active control of Magnetorheological (MR) dampers for vibration reduction of structural systems has received considerable attention in civil and earthquake engineering, because the effective stiffness and damping properties of MR fluid can change in a very short time in reaction to external loading, requiring only a low level of power. However, the inherent nonlinear dynamics of hysteresis raise challenges in the modeling and control processes. In order to control the MR damper, an innovative Duffing-like equation is proposed to approximate the hysteresis dynamics in a deterministic and systematic manner than previously has been possible. Then, the model-reference adaptive control technique based on the Duffing-like model and the Lyapunov method is discussed. Parameter identification work with experimental data is presented to show the effectiveness of the Duffing-like model. In addition, simulation results show that the resulting adaptive gains enable the MR damper force to track the desired response of the reference model satisfactorily, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control techniques.

Keywords: lyapunov function, magnetorheological damper, hysteresis, duffing equation, model-reference adaptive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
8 Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Input Backlash

Authors: Ali Anwar, Hu Qinglei, Li Bo, Muhammad Taha Ali

Abstract:

In this paper a generic model of perturbed nonlinear systems is considered which is affected by hard backlash nonlinearity at the input. The nonlinearity is modelled by a dynamic differential equation which presents a more precise shape as compared to the existing linear models and is compatible with nonlinear design technique such as backstepping. Moreover, a novel backstepping based nonlinear control law is designed which explicitly incorporates a continuous-time adaptive backlash inverse model. It provides a significant flexibility to control engineers, whereby they can use the estimated backlash spacing value specified on actuators such as gears etc. in the adaptive Backlash Inverse model during the control design. It ensures not only global stability but also stringent transient performance with desired precision. It is also robust to external disturbances upon which the bounds are taken as unknown and traverses the backlash spacing efficiently with underestimated information about the actual value. The continuous-time backlash inverse model is distinguished in the sense that other models are either discrete-time or involve complex computations. Furthermore, numerical simulations are presented which not only illustrate the effectiveness of proposed control law but also its comparison with PID and other backstepping controllers.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, Robust Control, Nonlinear System, backstepping, hysteresis, backlash inverse

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
7 Multidrug Therapies For HIV: Hybrid On-Off, Hysteresis On-Off Control and Simple STI

Authors: Magno Enrique Mendoza Meza

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of three control techniques: the hysteresis on-off control (HyOOC), the hybrid on-off control (HOOC) and the simple Structured Treatment Interruptions (sSTI). These techniques are applied to the mathematical model developed by Kirschner and Webb. To compare these techniques we use a cost functional that minimize the wild-type virus population and the mutant virus population, but the main objective is to minimize the systemic cost of treatment and maximize levels of healthy CD4+ T cells. HyOOC, HOOC, and sSTI are applied to the drug therapies using a reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors; simulations show that these controls maintain the uninfected cells in a small, bounded neighborhood of a pre-specified level. The controller HyOOC and HOOC are designed by appropriate choice of virtual equilibrium points.

Keywords: hysteresis, virus dynamics, on-off control, multi-drug therapies

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
6 Low Field Microwave Absorption and Magnetic Anisotropy in TM Co-Doped ZnO System

Authors: J. Das, T. S. Mahule, V. V. Srinivasu

Abstract:

Electron spin resonance (ESR) study at 9.45 GHz and a field modulation frequency of 100Hz was performed on bulk polycrystalline samples of Mn:TM (Fe/Ni) and Mn:RE (Gd/Sm) co doped ZnO samples with composition Zn1-xMn:TM/RE)xO synthesised by solid state reaction route and sintered at 500 0C temperature. The room temperature microwave absorption data collected by sweeping the DC magnetic field from -500 to 9500 G for the Mn:Fe and Mn:Ni co doped ZnO samples exhibit a rarely reported non resonant low field absorption (NRLFA) in addition to a strong absorption at around 3350G, usually associated with ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) satisfying Larmor’s relation due to absorption in the full saturation state. Observed low field absorption is distinct to ferromagnetic resonance even at low temperature and shows hysteresis. Interestingly, it shows a phase opposite with respect to the main ESR signal of the samples, which indicates that the low field absorption has a minimum value at zero magnetic field whereas the ESR signal has a maximum value. The major resonance peak as well as the peak corresponding to low field absorption exhibit asymmetric nature indicating magnetic anisotropy in the sample normally associated with intrinsic ferromagnetism. Anisotropy parameter for Mn:Ni codoped ZnO sample is noticed to be quite higher. The g values also support the presence of oxygen vacancies and clusters in the samples. These samples have shown room temperature ferromagnetism in the SQUID measurement. However, in rare earth (RE) co doped samples (Zn1-x (Mn: Gd/Sm)xO), which show paramagnetic behavior at room temperature, the low field microwave signals are not observed. As microwave currents due to itinerary electrons can lead to ohmic losses inside the sample, we speculate that more delocalized 3d electrons contributed from the TM dopants facilitate such microwave currents leading to the loss and hence absorption at the low field which is also supported by the increase in current with increased micro wave power. Besides, since Fe and Ni has intrinsic spin polarization with polarisability of around 45%, doping of Fe and Ni is expected to enhance the spin polarization related effect in ZnO. We emphasize that in this case Fe and Ni doping contribute to polarized current which interacts with the magnetization (spin) vector and get scattered giving rise to the absorption loss.

Keywords: Electron Spin Resonance, hysteresis, co-doping, non-resonant microwave absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
5 Study of the Hysteretic I-V Characteristics in a Polystyrene/ZnO-Nanorods Stack Layer

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Yi-Hsing Sung, Shih-Hung Lin, Jing-Jenn Lin

Abstract:

Performance improvement in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and photodetectors has been reported when a polymer/ZnO nanorods stack is used. Resistance switching of polymer/ZnO nanocrystals (or nanorods) hybrid has also gained a lot of research interests recently. It has been reported that high- and low-resistance states of a metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure diode with a polystyrene (PS) and ZnO hybrid as the insulator layer can be switched by applied bias after a high-voltage forming process, while the same device structure merely with a PS layer does not show any forming behavior. In this work, we investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an MIM device with a PS/ZnO nanorods stack deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method using a mixture of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine, and DI water. Following that, a PS layer was deposited by spin coating. Finally, the device with a structure of Ti/ PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO was completed by e-gun evaporated Ti layer on top of the PS layer. Semiconductor parameters analyzer Agilent 4156C was then used to measure the I-V characteristics of the device by applying linear ramp sweep voltage with sweep sequence of 0V → 4V → 0V → 3V → 0V → 2V → 0V → 1V → 0V in both positive and negative directions. It is interesting to find that the I-V characteristics are bias dependent and hysteretic, indicating that the device Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure has ferroelectricity. Our results also show that the maximum hysteresis loop height of the I-V characteristics as well as the voltage at which the maximum hysteresis loop height of each scan occurs increase with increasing maximum sweep voltage. It should be noticed that, although ferroelectricity has been found in ZnO at its melting temperature (1975℃) and in Li- or Co-doped ZnO, neither PS nor ZnO has ferroelectricity at room temperature. Using the same structure but with a PS or ZnO layer only as the insulator does not give and hysteretic I-V characteristics. It is believed that a charge polarization layer is induced near the PS/ZnO nanorods stack interface and thus causes the ferroelectricity in the device with Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure. Our results show that the PS/ZnO stack can find a potential application in a resistive switching memory device with MIM structure.

Keywords: Ferroelectricity, polystyrene, hysteresis, ZnO nanorods, resistance switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
4 Behavior of an Elevated Liquid Storage Tank under Near-Fault Earthquakes

Authors: Koushik Roy, Sourav Gur, Sudib K. Mishra

Abstract:

Evidence of pulse type features in near-fault ground motions has raised serious concern to the structural engineering community, in view of their possible implications on the behavior of structures located on the fault regions. Studies in the recent past explore the effects of pulse type ground motion on the special structures, such as transmission towers in view of their high flexibility. Identically, long period sloshing of liquid in the storage tanks under dynamic loading might increase their failure vulnerability under near-fault pulses. Therefore, the behavior of the elevated liquid storage tank is taken up in this study. Simple lumped mass model is considered, with the bilinear force-deformation hysteresis behavior. Set of near-fault seismic ground acceleration time histories are adopted for this purpose, along with the far-field records for comparison. It has been demonstrated that pulse type motions lead to significant increase of the responses; in particular, sloshing of the fluid mass could be as high as 5 times, then the far field counterpart. For identical storage capacity, slender tanks are found to be more vulnerable than the broad ones.

Keywords: Sloshing, hysteresis, far-field motion, liquid storage tank, near fault earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3 Modelling of Rate-Dependent Hysteresis of Polypyrrole Dual Sensing-Actuators for Precise Position Control

Authors: Johanna Schumacher, Toribio F. Otero, Victor H. Pascual

Abstract:

Bending dual sensing-actuators based on electroactive polymers are faradaic motors meaning the consumed charge determines the actuator’s tip position. During actuation, consumed charges during oxidation and reduction result in different tip positions showing dynamic hysteresis effects with errors up to 25%. For a precise position control of these actuators, the characterization of the hysteresis effect due to irreversible reactions is crucial. Here, the investigation and modelling of dynamic hysteresis effects of polypyrrole-dodezylbenzenesulfonate (PPyDBS) actuators under ambient working conditions are presented. The hysteresis effect is studied for charge consumption at different frequencies and a rate-dependent hysteresis model is derived. The hysteresis model is implemented as closed loop system and is verified experimentally.

Keywords: Electroactive Polymers, Position Control, hysteresis, dual sensing-actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2 Experimental Studies of the Reverse Load-Unloading Effect on the Mechanical, Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Properties of n-AMg6/C60 Nanocomposite

Authors: Aleksandr I. Korobov, Natalia V. Shirgina, Aleksey I. Kokshaiskiy, Vyacheslav M. Prokhorov

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effect of reverse mechanical load-unloading on the mechanical, linear, and nonlinear elastic properties of n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite. Samples for experimental studies of n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite were obtained by grinding AMg6 polycrystalline alloy in a planetary mill with 0.3 wt % of C60 fullerite in an argon atmosphere. The resulting product consisted of 200-500-micron agglomerates of nanoparticles. X-ray coherent scattering (CSL) method has shown that the average nanoparticle size is 40-60 nm. The resulting preform was extruded at high temperature. Modifications of C60 fullerite interferes the process of recrystallization at grain boundaries. In the samples of n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite, the load curve is measured: the dependence of the mechanical stress σ on the strain of the sample ε under its multi-cycle load-unloading process till its destruction. The hysteresis dependence σ = σ(ε) was observed, and insignificant residual strain ε < 0.005 were recorded. At σ≈500 MPa and ε≈0.025, the sample was destroyed. The destruction of the sample was fragile. Microhardness was measured before and after destruction of the sample. It was found that the loading-unloading process led to an increase in its microhardness. The effect of the reversible mechanical stress on the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite was studied experimentally by ultrasonic method on the automated complex Ritec RAM-5000 SNAP SYSTEM. In the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite, the velocities of the longitudinal and shear bulk waves were measured with the pulse method, and all the second-order elasticity coefficients and their dependence on the magnitude of the reversible mechanical stress applied to the sample were calculated. Studies of nonlinear elastic properties of the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite at reversible load-unloading of the sample were carried out with the spectral method. At arbitrary values of the strain of the sample (up to its breakage), the dependence of the amplitude of the second longitudinal acoustic harmonic at a frequency of 2f = 10MHz on the amplitude of the first harmonic at a frequency f = 5MHz of the acoustic wave is measured. Based on the results of these measurements, the values of the nonlinear acoustic parameter in the n-AMg6/C60 nanocomposite sample at different mechanical stress were determined. The obtained results can be used in solid-state physics, materials science, for development of new techniques for nondestructive testing of structural materials using methods of nonlinear acoustic diagnostics. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project №14-22-00042).

Keywords: nanocomposite, hysteresis, generation of acoustic harmonics, nonlinear acoustic parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1 Hysteresis Effect in Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoscopic NiO as a Hole Transport Layer

Authors: D. C. Asebiah, D. Saranin, S. Karazhanov, A. R. Tameev, M. Kah

Abstract:

In this paper, the mesoscopic NiO was used as a hole transport layer in the inverted planar organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell to study the effect of hysteresis. The devices we fabricated have the structures Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO)/mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C₆₁-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₆₁BM) photovoltaic device. The perovskite solar cell was done by toluene air (TLA) method and horn sonication for the dispersion of the NiO nanoparticles in deionized water. The power conversion efficiency was 12.07% under 1.5 AM illumination. We report hysteresis in the in current-voltage dependence of the solar cells with mesoscopic NiO as a hole transport layer.

Keywords: perovskite, hysteresis, mesoscopic, toluene air

Procedia PDF Downloads 27