Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

hypoxia Related Abstracts

8 Microdosimetry in Biological Cells: A Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Hamidreza Jabal Ameli, Anahita Movahedi


Purpose: In radionuclide therapy, radioactive atoms are coupled to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for treating cancer tumor while limiting radiation to healthy tissues. We know that tumoral and normal tissues are not equally sensitive to radiation. In fact, biological effects such as cellular repair processes or the presence of less radiosensitive cells such as hypoxic cells should be taken account. For this reason, in this paper, we want to calculate biological effect dose (BED) inside tumoral area and healthy cells around tumors. Methods: In this study, deposited doses of a radionuclide, gold-198, inside cells lattice and surrounding healthy tissues were calculated with Monte Carlo method. The elemental compositions and density of malignant and healthy tissues were obtained from ICRU Report 44. For reaching to real condition of oxygen effects, the necrosis and hypoxia area inside tumors has been assessed. Results: With regard to linear-quadratic expression which was defined in Monte Carlo, results showed that a large amount of BED is deposited in the well-oxygenated part of the hypoxia area compared to necrosis area. Moreover, there is a significant difference between the curves of absorbed dose with BED and without BED.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, biological dose, hypoxia, radionuclide therapy

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7 The Influence of Aerobic Physical Exercise with Different Frequency to Concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Brain Tissue of Wistar Rat

Authors: Rostika Flora, Muhammad Zulkarnain, Syokumawena


Background: Aerobic physical exercises are recommended to keep body fit and healthy although physical exercises themselves can increase body metabolism and oxygen and can lead into tissue hypoxia. Oxygen pressure can serve as Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) regulator. Hypoxia increases gene expression of VEGF through ascendant regulation of HIF-1. VEGF is involved in regulating angiogenesis process. Aerobic physical exercises can increase the concentration of VEGF in brain and enables angiogenesis process. We have investigated the influence of aerobic physical exercise to the VGEF concentration of wistar rat’s brain. Methods: This was experimental study using post test only control group design. Independent t-test was used as statistical test. The samples were twenty four wistar rat (Rattus Norvegicus) which were divided into four groups: group P1 (control group), group P2 (treatment group with once-a-week exercise), group P3 (treatment group with three time-a-week exercise), and group P4 (treatment group with seven time-a-week exercise). Group P2, P3, and P4 were treated with treadmil with speed of 20 m/minute for 30 minutes. The concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. Results: There was a significant increase of VEGF in treatment group compared with control one (<0.05). The maximum increase was found in group P2 (129.02±64.49) and the minimum increase was in group P4 (96.98±11.20). Conclusion: The frequency of aerobic physical exercises influenced the concentration of Vascular Endhothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) of brain tissue of Rattus Norvegicus.

Keywords: physical exercises, hypoxia, brain tissue, vascular endhothelial growth factor

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6 Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani and Arabian Sea and Their Effect on Marine Environment

Authors: Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani


Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs) is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September), recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March). HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts. The effects of HABs on desalination plan were increased in last three years, by blooms of Cochlodinium, noctiluca species, and blooms of jellyfish. Most of these blooms were affected Al Batinah and Muscat coast. These effects include millions of Omani Rials and several shutdowns of desalination plans during these years.

Keywords: Environment, red tide, hypoxia, noctiluca

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5 Automated Classification of Hypoxia from Fetal Heart Rate Using Advanced Data Models of Intrapartum Cardiotocography

Authors: Andy Shaw, Malarvizhi Selvaraj, Paul Fergus


Uterine contractions produced during labour have the potential to damage the foetus by diminishing the maternal blood flow to the placenta. In order to observe this phenomenon labour and delivery are routinely monitored using cardiotocography monitors. An obstetrician usually makes the diagnosis of foetus hypoxia by interpreting cardiotocography recordings. However, cardiotocography capture and interpretation is time-consuming and subjective, often lead to misclassification that causes damage to the foetus and unnecessary caesarean section. Both of these have a high impact on the foetus and the cost to the national healthcare services. Automatic detection of foetal heart rate may be an objective solution to help to reduce unnecessary medical interventions, as reported in several studies. This paper aim is to provide a system for better identification and interpretation of abnormalities of the fetal heart rate using RStudio. An open dataset of 552 Intrapartum recordings has been filtered with 0.034 Hz filters in an attempt to remove noise while keeping as much of the discriminative data as possible. Features were chosen following an extensive literature review, which concluded with FIGO features such as acceleration, deceleration, mean, variance and standard derivation. The five features were extracted from 552 recordings. Using these features, recordings will be classified either normal or abnormal. If the recording is abnormal, it has got more chances of hypoxia.

Keywords: hypoxia, foetus, intrapartum, cardiotocography

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4 Effect of Hypoxia on AOX2 Expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Authors: Maria Ostroukhova, Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Elena Ermilova


The alternative oxidase (AOX) mediates cyanide-resistant respiration, which bypasses proton-pumping complexes III and IV of the cytochrome pathway to directly transfer electrons from reduced ubiquinone to molecular oxygen. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, AOX is a monomeric protein that is encoded by two genes of discrete subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2. Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in stress tolerance of organisms, the role of subfamily AOX2 is largely unknown. In C. reinhardtii, AOX2 was initially identified as one of constitutively low expressed genes. Like other photosynthetic organisms C. reinhardtii cells frequently experience periods of hypoxia. To examine AOX2 transcriptional regulation and role of AOX2 in hypoxia adaptation, real-time PCR analysis and artificial microRNA method were employed. Two experimental approaches have been used to induce the anoxic conditions: dark-anaerobic and light-anaerobic conditions. C. reinhardtii cells exposed to the oxygen deprivation have shown increased AOX2 mRNA levels. By contrast, AOX1 was not an anoxia-responsive gene. In C. reinhardtii, a subset of genes is regulated by transcription factor CRR1 in anaerobic conditions. Notable, the AOX2 promoter region contains the potential motif for CRR1 binding. Therefore, the role of CRR1 in the control of AOX2 transcription was tested. The CRR1-underexpressing strains, that were generated and characterized in this work, exhibited low levels of AOX2 transcripts under anoxic conditions. However, the transformants still slightly induced AOX2 gene expression in the darkness. These confirmed our suggestions that darkness is a regulatory stimulus for AOX genes in C. reinhardtii. Thus, other factors must contribute to AOX2 promoter activity under dark-anoxic conditions. Moreover, knock-down of CRR1 caused a complete reduction of AOX2 expression under light-anoxic conditions. These results indicate that (1) CRR1 is required for AOX2 expression during hypoxia, and (2) AOX2 gene is regulated by CRR1 together with yet-unknown regulatory factor(s). In addition, the AOX2-underexpressing strains were generated. The analysis of amiRNA-AOX2 strains suggested a role of this alternative oxidase in hypoxia adaptation of the alga. In conclusion, the results reported here show that C. reinhardtii AOX2 gene is stress inducible. CRR1 transcriptional factor is involved in the regulation of the AOX2 gene expression in the absence of oxygen. Moreover, AOX2 but not AOX1 functions under oxygen deprivation. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation (research grant № 16-14-10004).

Keywords: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, hypoxia, alternative oxidase 2, artificial microRNA approach

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3 Shielding Engineered Islets with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Survival under Hypoxia by Inhibiting p38 MAPK

Authors: Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Bhonde


In the present study, we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia. The Islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) were cultured with and without WJ-MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin, Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitate the highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cytokine analysis of the co-cultured ICAs revealed amplification of anti-inflammatory cytokine-like TGFβ and TNFα accompanied by depletion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increment in VEGF and PDGFa was also seen showing their ability to vascularize upon transplantation. This was further accompanied by reduction in total reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and super oxide ions and down-regulation of Caspase3, Caspase8, p53 and up regulation of Bcl2 confirming prevention of apoptosis in ICAs. There was a significant reduction in the expression of p38 protein in the presence of MSCs making the ICAs responsive to glucose. Taken together our data demonstrate for the first time that the WJ-MSC expressed pancreatic markers and their supplementation protected engineered islets against hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting p38 MAPK protein.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, hypoxia, inflammatory cytokines, islet-like cell aggregates

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2 Association of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

Authors: Kriti Upadhyay, Ashraf Ali, Puja Sohal, Randeep Guleria


Background: In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary diseases (COPD) pathogenesis oxidative stress plays an important role. Hypoxia-Inducible factor (HIF-1α) is a dimeric protein complex which Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxiaand is a risk factor that increases when oxidative stress triggers. The role ofHIF-1αin COPD due to smoking is lacking. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the role of HIF-1α in smoker COPD patients comparing its association with diseases severity. Method: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 87 subjects, 57 were smokers with COPD,15 were smokers without COPD and other 15 were non-smoker healthy controls. The mean age was 54.6± 9.32 (cases 57.08±8.15; controls 50.0± 9.8). There were 62%smokers, 25% non-smokers,7% tobacco chewers and 6% ex-smokers. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analyzing serum samples wherein HIF-1α was analyzed by Sandwich-ELISA. Results: In smoker COPD patients, a significantly higher HIF-1α level showed positive association with hypoxia, smoking status and severity of disease (p=0.03). The mean value of HIF-1α was not significantly different in smokers without COPD and healthy controls. Conclusion: It is found that HIF-1α level was increased in smoker COPD, but not in smokers without COPD. This suggests that development of COPD drive the HIF-1α pathway and it correlates with the severity of diseases.

Keywords: COPD, smokers, hypoxia, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, nonsmokers

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1 Cellular Targeting to Dual Gaseous Microenvironments by Polydimethylsiloxane Microchip

Authors: Samineh Barmaki, Ville Jokinen, Esko Kankuri


We report a microfluidic chip that can be used to modify the gaseous microenvironment of a cell-culture in ambient atmospheric conditions. The aim of the study is to show the cellular response to nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic (oxygen < 5%) condition. Simultaneously targeting to hypoxic and nitric oxide will provide an opportunity for NO‑based therapeutics. Studies on cellular responses to lowered oxygen concentration or to gaseous mediators are usually carried out under a specific macro environment, such as hypoxia chambers, or with specific NO donor molecules that may have additional toxic effects. In our study, the chip consists of a microfluidic layer and a cell culture well, separated by a thin gas permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The main design goal is to separate the gas oxygen scavenger and NO donor solutions, which are often toxic, from the cell media. Two different types of gas exchangers, titled 'pool' and 'meander' were tested. We find that the pool design allows us to reach a higher level of oxygen depletion than meander (24.32 ± 19.82 %vs -3.21 ± 8.81). Our microchip design can make the cells culture more simple and makes it easy to adapt existing cell culture protocols. Our first application is utilizing the chip to create hypoxic conditions on targeted areas of cell culture. In this study, oxygen scavenger sodium sulfite generates hypoxia and its effect on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The PDMS membrane was coated with fibronectin before initiating cell cultures, and the cells were grown for 48h on the chips before initiating the gas control experiments. The hypoxia experiments were performed by pumping of O₂-depleted H₂O into the microfluidic channel with a flow-rate of 0.5 ml/h. Image-iT® reagent as an oxygen level responser was mixed with HEK-293 cells. The fluorescent signal appears on cells stained with Image-iT® hypoxia reagent (after 6h of pumping oxygen-depleted H₂O through the microfluidic channel in pool area). The exposure to different levels of O₂ can be controlled by varying the thickness of the PDMS membrane. Recently, we improved the design of the microfluidic chip, which can control the microenvironment of two different gases at the same time. The hypoxic response was also improved from the new design of microchip. The cells were grown on the thin PDMS membrane for 30 hours, and with a flowrate of 0.1 ml/h; the oxygen scavenger was pumped into the microfluidic channel. We also show that by pumping sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a nitric oxide donor activated under light and can generate nitric oxide on top of PDMS membrane. We are aiming to show cellular microenvironment response of HEK-293 cells to both nitric oxide (by pumping SNP) and hypoxia (by pumping oxygen scavenger solution) in separated channels in one microfluidic chip.

Keywords: Microenvironment, snp, Nitric Oxide, hypoxia, microfluidic chip, sodium nitroprusside

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