Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Hyperspectral Related Abstracts

10 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast

Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar


It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.79 to 24.85 degree in latitude and 66.91 to 66.97 degree in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image preprocessing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end-member extraction. Well-distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (white mangroves) and Avicennia Germinans (black mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, mangrove, hyperion, SAM, SFF, SID

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9 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri


A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, hyperion, Kolkata, water depth

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8 Potential of Hyperion (EO-1) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping Mine-Iron Oxide Pollution

Authors: Abderrazak Bannari


Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from mine wastes and contaminations of soils and water with metals are considered as a major environmental problem in mining areas. It is produced by interactions of water, air, and sulphidic mine wastes. This environment problem results from a series of chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide minerals e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite. These reactions lead to acidity as well as the dissolution of toxic and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, etc.) from tailings waste rock piles, and open pits. Soil and aquatic ecosystems could be contaminated and, consequently, human health and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, secondary minerals, typically formed during weathering of mine waste storage areas when the concentration of soluble constituents exceeds the corresponding solubility product, are also important. The most common secondary mineral compositions are hydrous iron oxide (goethite, etc.) and hydrated iron sulfate (jarosite, etc.). The objectives of this study focus on the detection and mapping of MIOP in the soil using Hyperion EO-1 (Earth Observing - 1) hyperspectral data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) algorithm. The abandoned Kettara mine, located approximately 35 km northwest of Marrakech city (Morocco) was chosen as study area. During 44 years (from 1938 to 1981) this mine was exploited for iron oxide and iron sulphide minerals. Previous studies have shown that Kettara surrounding soils are contaminated by heavy metals (Fe, Cu, etc.) as well as by secondary minerals. To achieve our objectives, several soil samples representing different MIOP classes have been resampled and located using accurate GPS ( ≤ ± 30 cm). Then, endmembers spectra were acquired over each sample using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) covering the spectral domain from 350 to 2500 nm. Considering each soil sample separately, the average of forty spectra was resampled and convolved using Gaussian response profiles to match the bandwidths and the band centers of the Hyperion sensor. Moreover, the MIOP content in each sample was estimated by geochemical analyses in the laboratory, and a ground truth map was generated using simple Kriging in GIS environment for validation purposes. The acquired and used Hyperion data were corrected for a spatial shift between the VNIR and SWIR detectors, striping, dead column, noise, and gain and offset errors. Then, atmospherically corrected using the MODTRAN 4.2 radiative transfer code, and transformed to surface reflectance, corrected for sensor smile (1-3 nm shift in VNIR and SWIR), and post-processed to remove residual errors. Finally, geometric distortions and relief displacement effects were corrected using a digital elevation model. The MIOP fraction map was extracted using CLSMA considering the entire spectral range (427-2355 nm), and validated by reference to the ground truth map generated by Kriging. The obtained results show the promising potential of the proposed methodology for the detection and mapping of mine iron oxide pollution in the soil.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Hyperspectral, hyperion eo-1, mine iron oxide pollution, unmixing

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7 Estimation of Foliar Nitrogen in Selected Vegetation Communities of Uttrakhand Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Satellite Remote Sensing

Authors: Yogita Mishra, Arijit Roy, Dhruval Bhavsar


The study estimates the nitrogen concentration in selected vegetation community’s i.e. chir pine (pinusroxburghii) by using hyperspectral satellite data and also identified the appropriate spectral bands and nitrogen indices. The Short Wave InfraRed reflectance spectrum at 1790 nm and 1680 nm shows the maximum possible absorption by nitrogen in selected species. Among the nitrogen indices, log normalized nitrogen index performed positively and negatively too. The strong positive correlation is taken out from 1510 nm and 760 nm for the pinusroxburghii for leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf nitrogen mass while using NDNI. The regression value of R² developed by using linear equation achieved maximum at 0.7525 for the analysis of satellite image data and R² is maximum at 0.547 for ground truth data for pinusroxburghii respectively.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, NDNI, nitrogen concentration, regression value

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6 Assessing the Utility of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Hyperspectral Image and Photogrammetry Derived 3D Data for Wetland Species Distribution Quick Mapping

Authors: Qiaosi Li, Frankie Kwan Kit Wong, Tung Fung


Lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) loading with novel sensors offers a low cost approach for data acquisition in complex environment. This study established a framework for applying UAV system in complex environment quick mapping and assessed the performance of UAV-based hyperspectral image and digital surface model (DSM) derived from photogrammetric point clouds for 13 species classification in wetland area Mai Po Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site, Hong Kong. The study area was part of shallow bay with flat terrain and the major species including reedbed and four mangroves: Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Acrostichum auerum and Acanthus ilicifolius. Other species involved in various graminaceous plants, tarbor, shrub and invasive species Mikania micrantha. In particular, invasive species climbed up to the mangrove canopy caused damage and morphology change which might increase species distinguishing difficulty. Hyperspectral images were acquired by Headwall Nano sensor with spectral range from 400nm to 1000nm and 0.06m spatial resolution image. A sequence of multi-view RGB images was captured with 0.02m spatial resolution and 75% overlap. Hyperspectral image was corrected for radiative and geometric distortion while high resolution RGB images were matched to generate maximum dense point clouds. Furtherly, a 5 cm grid digital surface model (DSM) was derived from dense point clouds. Multiple feature reduction methods were compared to identify the efficient method and to explore the significant spectral bands in distinguishing different species. Examined methods including stepwise discriminant analysis (DA), support vector machine (SVM) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation. Subsequently, spectral subsets composed of the first 20 most importance bands extracted by SVM, DA and MNF, and multi-source subsets adding extra DSM to 20 spectrum bands were served as input in maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and SVM classifier to compare the classification result. Classification results showed that feature reduction methods from best to worst are MNF transformation, DA and SVM. MNF transformation accuracy was even higher than all bands input result. Selected bands frequently laid along the green peak, red edge and near infrared. Additionally, DA found that chlorophyll absorption red band and yellow band were also important for species classification. In terms of 3D data, DSM enhanced the discriminant capacity among low plants, arbor and mangrove. Meanwhile, DSM largely reduced misclassification due to the shadow effect and morphological variation of inter-species. In respect to classifier, nonparametric SVM outperformed than MLC for high dimension and multi-source data in this study. SVM classifier tended to produce higher overall accuracy and reduce scattered patches although it costs more time than MLC. The best result was obtained by combining MNF components and DSM in SVM classifier. This study offered a precision species distribution survey solution for inaccessible wetland area with low cost of time and labour. In addition, findings relevant to the positive effect of DSM as well as spectral feature identification indicated that the utility of UAV-borne hyperspectral and photogrammetry deriving 3D data is promising in further research on wetland species such as bio-parameters modelling and biological invasion monitoring.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), digital surface model (DSM), feature reduction, photogrammetric point cloud, species mapping

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5 Hyperspectral Data Classification Algorithm Based on the Deep Belief and Self-Organizing Neural Network

Authors: Li Qingjian, Li Ke, He Chun, Huang Yong


In this paper, the method of combining the Pohl Seidman's deep belief network with the self-organizing neural network is proposed to classify the target. This method is mainly aimed at the high nonlinearity of the hyperspectral image, the high sample dimension and the difficulty in designing the classifier. The main feature of original data is extracted by deep belief network. In the process of extracting features, adding known labels samples to fine tune the network, enriching the main characteristics. Then, the extracted feature vectors are classified into the self-organizing neural network. This method can effectively reduce the dimensions of data in the spectrum dimension in the preservation of large amounts of raw data information, to solve the traditional clustering and the long training time when labeled samples less deep learning algorithm for training problems, improve the classification accuracy and robustness. Through the data simulation, the results show that the proposed network structure can get a higher classification precision in the case of a small number of known label samples.

Keywords: Data Compression, Hyperspectral, pattern classification, DBN, SOM

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4 Tree Species Classification Using Effective Features of Polarimetric SAR and Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Milad Vahidi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Reza Mohammadi


Forest management organizations need information to perform their work effectively. Remote sensing is an effective method to acquire information from the Earth. Two datasets of remote sensing images were used to classify forested regions. Firstly, all of extractable features from hyperspectral and PolSAR images were extracted. The optical features were spectral indexes related to the chemical, water contents, structural indexes, effective bands and absorption features. Also, PolSAR features were the original data, target decomposition components, and SAR discriminators features. Secondly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithms (GA) were applied to select optimization features. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify the image. The results showed that the combination of PSO and SVM had higher overall accuracy than the other cases. This combination provided overall accuracy about 90.56%. The effective features were the spectral index, the bands in shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the visible ranges and certain PolSAR features.

Keywords: Feature selection, Hyperspectral, SVM, PolSAR

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3 Characterization of Forest Fire Fuel in Shivalik Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Authors: Neha Devi, P. K. Joshi


Fire fuel map is one of the most critical factors for planning and managing the fire hazard and risk. One of the most significant forms of global disturbance, impacting community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and local and regional climate across a wide range of ecosystems ranging from boreal forests to tropical rainforest is wildfire Assessment of fire danger is a function of forest type, fuelwood stock volume, moisture content, degree of senescence and fire management strategy adopted in the ground. Remote sensing has potential of reduction the uncertainty in mapping fuels. Hyperspectral remote sensing is emerging to be a very promising technology for wildfire fuels characterization. Fine spectral information also facilitates mapping of biophysical and chemical information that is directly related to the quality of forest fire fuels including above ground live biomass, canopy moisture, etc. We used Hyperion imagery acquired in February, 2016 and analysed four fuel characteristics using Hyperion sensor data on-board EO-1 satellite, acquired over the Shiwalik Himalayas covering the area of Champawat, Uttarakhand state. The main objective of this study was to present an overview of methodologies for mapping fuel properties using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Fuel characteristics analysed include fuel biomass, fuel moisture, and fuel condition and fuel type. Fuel moisture and fuel biomass were assessed through the expression of the liquid water bands. Fuel condition and type was assessed using green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil as Endmember for spectral mixture analysis. Linear Spectral Unmixing, a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, hyperion, Linear Spectral Unmixing, forest fire fuel, spectral mixture analysis

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2 Band Characterization and Development of Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieving Chlorophyll Content

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur M. Malhi, Prashant K. Srivastava, G.Sandhya Kiran


Quantitative estimates of foliar biochemicals, namely chlorophyll content (CC), serve as key information for the assessment of plant productivity, stress, and the availability of nutrients. This also plays a critical role in predicting the dynamic response of any vegetation to altering climate conditions. The advent of hyperspectral data with an enhanced number of available wavelengths has increased the possibility of acquiring improved information on CC. Retrieval of CC is extensively carried through well known spectral indices derived from hyperspectral data. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop hyperspectral indices by identifying optimum bands for CC estimation in Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub growing in forests of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Narmada district, Gujarat State, India. 196 narrow bands of EO-1 Hyperion images were screened, and the best optimum wavelength from blue, green, red, and near infrared (NIR) regions were identified based on the coefficient of determination (R²) between band reflectance and laboratory estimated CC. The identified optimum wavelengths were then employed for developing 12 hyperspectral indices. These spectral index values and CC values were then correlated to investigate the relation between laboratory measured CC and spectral indices. Band 15 of blue range and Band 22 of green range, Band 40 of the red region, and Band 79 of NIR region were found to be optimum bands for estimating CC. The optimum band based combinations on hyperspectral data proved to be the most effective indices for quantifying Butea CC with NDVI and TVI identified as the best (R² > 0.7, p < 0.01). The study demonstrated the significance of band characterization in the development of the best hyperspectral indices for the chlorophyll estimation, which can aid in monitoring the vitality of forests.

Keywords: Characterization, Hyperspectral, chlorophyll, indices, band

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1 Application of Advanced Remote Sensing Data in Mineral Exploration in the Vicinity of Heavy Dense Forest Cover Area of Jharkhand and Odisha State Mining Area

Authors: Hemant Kumar, R. N. K. Sharma, A. P. Krishna


The study has been carried out on the Saranda in Jharkhand and a part of Odisha state. Geospatial data of Hyperion, a remote sensing satellite, have been used. This study has used a wide variety of patterns related to image processing to enhance and extract the mining class of Fe and Mn ores.Landsat-8, OLI sensor data have also been used to correctly explore related minerals. In this way, various processes have been applied to increase the mineralogy class and comparative evaluation with related frequency done. The Hyperion dataset for hyperspectral remote sensing has been specifically verified as an effective tool for mineral or rock information extraction within the band range of shortwave infrared used. The abundant spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images enables the differentiation of different objects of any object into targeted applications for exploration such as exploration detection, mining.

Keywords: Sensor, Hyperspectral, hyperion, Landsat-8

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