Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Hypersonic Related Abstracts

6 Aerodynamic Prediction and Performance Analysis for Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

Authors: Tang Wei, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia


Complex lifting entry was selected for precise landing performance during the Mars Science Laboratory entry. This study aims to develop the three-dimensional numerical method for precise computation and the surface panel method for rapid engineering prediction. Detailed flow field analysis for Mars exploration mission was performed by carrying on a series of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The static aerodynamic performance was then discussed, including the surface pressure, lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio with the numerical and engineering method. Computation results shown that the shock layer is thin because of lower effective specific heat ratio, and that calculated results from both methods agree well with each other, and is consistent with the reference data. Aerodynamic performance analysis shows that CG location determines trim characteristics and pitch stability, and certain radially and axially shift of the CG location can alter the capsule lifting entry performance, which is of vital significance for the aerodynamic configuration des0ign and inner instrument layout of the Mars entry capsule.

Keywords: Hypersonic, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Mars entry capsule, static aerodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
5 Three-Dimensional Spillage Effects on the Pressure Distribution of a Double Ramp

Authors: Pengcheng Quan, Shan Zhong


Double ramp geometry is widely used in supersonic and hypersonic environments as it presents unique flow patterns for shock wave-boundary layer interaction studies as well as for two-dimensional inlets and deflected control surfaces for re-entry vehicles. Hence, the surface pressure distribution is critical for optimum design. Though when the model is wide enough on spanwise direction the flow can be regarded as a two-dimensional flow, in actual applications a finite width would normally cause some three-dimensional spillage effects. No research has been found addressed this problem, hence the primary interest of this study is to set up a liable surface pressure distribution on a double ramp with three-dimensional effects. Both numerical and experimental (pressure sensitive paints) are applied to obtain the pressure distribution; the results agree well except that the numerical computation doesn’t capture the Gortler vortices. The pressure variations on the spanwise planes are used to analyse the development of the Gortler vortices and the effects of three-dimensional spillage on the vortices. Results indicate that the three-dimensionl spillage effects not only enhance the developing of the Gortler vortice, but also increase the periodic distance between vortice pairs.

Keywords: Hypersonic, spillage effects, pressure sensitive paints, double ramp

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
4 Experimental Analysis for the Inlet of the Brazilian Aerospace Vehicle 14-X B

Authors: João F. A. Martos, Felipe J. Costa, Sergio N. P. Laiton, Bruno C. Lima, Israel S. Rêgo, Paulo P. G. Toro


Nowadays, the scramjet is a topic that has attracted the attention of several scientific communities (USA, Australia, Germany, France, Japan, India, China, Russia), that are investing in this in this type of propulsion system due its interest to facilitate access to space and reach hypersonic speed, who have invested in this type of propulsion due to the interest in facilitating access to space. The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet) intended to be tested in flight into the Earth's atmosphere at 30 km altitude and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) in Brazil. The IEAv Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, named T3, is a ground-test facility able to reproduce the flight conditions as the Mach number as well as pressure and temperature in the test section close to those encountered during the test flight of the vehicle 14-X B into design conditions. A 1-m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach number 7. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B model, along with high-speed schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data that were compared to the analytical-theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show a good qualitative agreement, and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: Hypersonic, CFD, scramjet, hypersonic shock tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3 Aerothermal Analysis of the Brazilian 14-X Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicle at Mach Number 7

Authors: Paulo G. P. Toro, Antonio C. Oliveira, João F. A. Martos, Felipe J. Costa, Israel S. Rêgo, Ronaldo L. Cardoso, Marco A. S. Minucci


The Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, at the Institute for Advanced Studies designed the Brazilian 14-X Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicle, which is a technological demonstrator endowed with two innovative technologies: waverider technology, to obtain lift from conical shockwave during the hypersonic flight; and uses hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system called scramjet that is based on supersonic combustion, to perform flights on Earth's atmosphere at 30 km altitude at Mach numbers 7 and 10. The scramjet is an aeronautical engine without moving parts that promote compression and deceleration of freestream atmospheric air at the inlet through the conical/oblique shockwaves generated during the hypersonic flight. During high speed flight, the shock waves and the viscous forces yield the phenomenon called aerodynamic heating, where this physical meaning is the friction between the fluid filaments and the body or compression at the stagnation regions of the leading edge that converts the kinetic energy into heat within a thin layer of air which blankets the body. The temperature of this layer increases with the square of the speed. This high temperature is concentrated in the boundary-layer, where heat will flow readily from the boundary-layer to the hypersonic aerospace vehicle structure. Fay and Riddell and Eckert methods are applied to the stagnation point and to the flat plate segments in order to calculate the aerodynamic heating. On the understanding of the aerodynamic heating it is important to analyze the heat conduction transfer to the 14-X waverider internal structure. ANSYS Workbench software provides the Thermal Numerical Analysis, using Finite Element Method of the 14-X waverider unpowered scramjet at 30 km altitude at Mach number 7 and 10 in terms of temperature and heat flux. Finally, it is possible to verify if the internal temperature complies with the requirements for embedded systems, and, if is necessary to do modifications on the structure in terms of wall thickness and materials.

Keywords: Hypersonic, Thermal analysis, Aerodynamic Heating, scramjet

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2 Preliminary Design of an Aerodynamic Protection for the Scramjet Engine Inlet of the Brazilian Technological Demonstrator Scramjet 14-X S

Authors: Paulo G. P. Toro, Felipe J. Costa, Israel S. Rêgo, Ronaldo L. Cardoso, Marco A. S. Minucci, Gustavo J. Costa, Bruno L. Coelho, Rafael O. Santos, Antonio C. Oliveira


The Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Aerothermodynamics and Hipersonics Laboratory, of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) conducts research and development (R&D) of the Technological Demonstrator scramjet 14-X S, aiming atmospheric flight at 30 km altitude with the speed correspondent to Mach number 7, using scramjet technology providing hypersonic propulsion system based on supersonic combustion. Hypersonic aerospace vehicles with air-breathing supersonic propulsion system face extremal environments for super/hypersonic flights in terms of thermal and aerodynamic loads. Thus, it is necessary to use aerodynamic protection at the scramjet engine inlet to face the thermal and aerodynamic loads without compromising the efficiency of scramjet engine, taking into account: i) inlet design (boundary layer, oblique shockwave and reflected oblique shockwave); ii) wall temperature of the cowl and of the compression ramp; iii) supersonic flow into the combustion chamber. The aerodynamic protection of the scramjet engine inlet will act to prevent the engine unstart and match the predictions made by theoretical-analytical, numerical analysis and experimental research, during the atmospheric flight of the Technological Demonstrator scramjet 14-X S.

Keywords: Hypersonic, Supersonic combustion, scramjet

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1 Hypersonic Propulsion Requirements for Sustained Hypersonic Flight for Air Transportation

Authors: James Rate, Apostolos Pesiridis


In this paper, the propulsion requirements required to achieve sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation are evaluated. In addition, a design methodology is developed and used to determine the propulsive capabilities of both ramjet and scramjet engines. Twelve configurations are proposed for hypersonic flight using varying combinations of turbojet, turbofan, ramjet and scramjet engines. The optimal configuration was determined based on how well each of the configurations met the projected requirements for hypersonic commercial transport. The configurations were separated into four sub-configurations each comprising of three unique derivations. The first sub-configuration comprised four afterburning turbojets and either one or two ramjets idealised for Mach 5 cruise. The number of ramjets required was dependent on the thrust required to accelerate the vehicle from a speed where the turbojets cut out to Mach 5 cruise. The second comprised four afterburning turbojets and either one or two scramjets, similar to the first configuration. The third used four turbojets, one scramjet and one ramjet to aid acceleration from Mach 3 to Mach 5. The fourth configuration was the same as the third, but instead of turbojets, it implemented turbofan engines for the preliminary acceleration of the vehicle. From calculations which determined the fuel consumption at incremental Mach numbers this paper found that the ideal solution would require four turbojet engines and two Scramjet engines. The ideal mission profile was determined as being an 8000km sortie based on an averaging of popular long haul flights with strong business ties, which included Los Angeles to Tokyo, London to New York and Dubai to Beijing. This paper deemed that these routes would benefit from hypersonic transport links based on the previously mentioned factors. This paper has found that this configuration would be sufficient for the 8000km flight to be completed in approximately two and a half hours and would consume less fuel than Concord in doing so. However, this propulsion configuration still result in a greater fuel cost than a conventional passenger. In this regard, this investigation contributes towards the specification of the engine requirements throughout a mission profile for a hypersonic passenger vehicle. A number of assumptions have had to be made for this theoretical approach but the authors believe that this investigation lays the groundwork for appropriate framing of the propulsion requirements for sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation. Despite this, it does serve as a crucial step in the development of the propulsion systems required for hypersonic commercial air transportation. This paper provides a methodology and a focus for the development of the propulsion systems that would be required for sustained hypersonic flight for commercial air transportation.

Keywords: Hypersonic, Propulsion, turbofan, scramjet, ramjet, Turbojet

Procedia PDF Downloads 174